1. Pre-historic culture (1.4 millions year ago-2500 BC)
  2. Indus Valley civilization ( 2500-1500 BC)
  3. Vedic/Aryan Civilization (1500-600 BC)
  4. Pre-Maryann Age (600-300 BC)
  5. Maryann Age (300-200 BC)
  6. Post-Maryann Age (200-300 AD)
  7. Guitar Age (300-550 AD)
  8. Post-Guitar Period (550-750 AD)


Pre-Historic Culture

Culture – Living pattern/way of life/ what you are

Civilization – What you have

Advancement in materialistic development and technology

Features of civilization:-

  • ) Urban life
  • ) Script
  • ) Sophisticated technology
  • Materialistic development
  • ) Increasing use of metals (Alloys)
  • First civilization in India – Indus Valley civilization (2500 BC)
  • The classification of ancient period on the basis of script is 2 types
  1. Pre-Historic period
  2. Historic period

Pre-Historic:- The period where no scripts and records not studied by any historians.

Historic: – The age studied by historians

Archaeologists name the culture based on metals used to prepare weapons, coins, tools etc.

Earliest culture is named as Stone Age

  • Old stone age
  • Middle stone age
  • New stone age


First metal used by human beings is Copper simultaneous use of stone and copper leads to fault culture called copper-stone age.

Bronze Age culture:-

  • Bronze is an alloy (copper + tin)

Iron Age Culture:-

  • In historians perspective Iron Age is called as Aryan civilization the first fair culture are come under pre-historic cultures.

Palaeolithic culture (Old Stone Age):-

BORI CAVE: First evidence of Human beings in India. (1.4 million years ago)

Pallavaram: (first Palaeolithic culture site (1863)

Robert Bruce Foote, British Archaeologist identified the pallavaram site

Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) – 1861 first director general – Alexander Cunningham

Tools: Quartzite is used to make all types of tools like blades hand axes flakes, breeds, scrap ads.

Race: – Homosapiens (human being with thinking capability)

  • Food hunting and food gathering are sources of economy
  • village communities were not formed people were living as a Bands (small group of people)
  • Pleistocene conditions (extreme add conditions)
  • Culture conditions by Geography
  • Thousands of settlements were found at coastal except Kerala

Mesolithic Culture (middle stone age)

  • Man was so happy in this period because of comfortable conditions of living.
  • Holocene conditions (warming conditions)
  • Domestication of animals.
  • First domestication of animals found at two sites.
  1. Adam nagger (Madhya Pradesh)
  2. Barger (Rajasthan)
  • Construction of houses

First houses in India Sortie near Ray (up)

  • Pottery

Mesolithic man started making pots.

First pots (handmade) in the world – Choparimando UP

  • Microliths

The stone tools made by Mesolithic man were too small in ranges so there are called Microlithis.

  • Bhimbetka – Mesolithic site mp (Narmada region) so many paintings were formed on the walls of rocks. This is one of the earliest art in would.


UNESCO recognised it as would Heritage Centre.

Jantre-Mantre – In Raipur, recognised as world Heritage centre recently by UNESCO which, was built Sway Jai Singh in 18th

Neolithic Culture (New Stone Age)

Agriculture – North India: What, Barley south India: Raj, Horse grime villages were formed.

Mehargarh (pack) First too late up agriculture in Indian subcontinent Mehargarh people invented cotton, potters wheat first time in world

Braham: Large of pit (house under the earth) were found

Chiron: – Large no of Bone tools

Karnataka sites: – Mask, tekkelakota (some gold ornaments were found),

Malwa region – Kenosha, Navdatoli, Iran

Maharashtra – more than 20 sites Jorpore, Inaam Gaon, Chandoli, Diamabad


Population: 4000

Cemetery – Burial ground, here skeleton does not have fetes.

Infant mortality rate (imp) is very high (death of one of below children)

People of Daimabad have no diary technology.

Indus-Valley Civilization

  • Harappa civilization

Harappa civilization is the Type Site of civilization because it is first sitting discovered (1922) in entire civilization.

  • Bronze age civilization
  • Proto-Historic civilization

This civilization had script, but it is not studied by any archaeologist so, it is called proto-historic

There are another 3 important civilizations contemporary to the Indus-civilizations in the world.

  • Sumerian civilization(Mesopotamia) – Land between two rivers

Two rivers are Tigris, Euphrates

  • Egyptian civilization (Nile Valley)
  • Chinese civilization (Whango Ho valley)
  • Authors of Eve-

Archaeologists discovered different races of people were built this civilization.

  • Mongoloids
  • Proto-Austoloits
  • Albinoids
  • Medeterianced/Dravidians

North-Indian languages – Aryan group of languages

South Dravidian groups of languages.

Important titles of Eve:

Total: 1400 sites

India   : 900

Pakistan: 600

Mohenjo-Daro means Mound of dead (snide)

Lethal means   Mound of dead (Gujarati)

Important Characteristic of Eve:

  • Town Planning

Every city is divided into 2 parts: upper (citadel)

Citadel part is protected by the wall

Chanhudara – Only city doesn’t had citadel

Bholavira – The city was divided into 3 parts

Chandigarh only city on grid pattern in India every city in Eve is built on Grid pattern except Banavali

  • Underground drainage system along with maddens
  • Every city had this drainage system except Banavali

Social Structure of Eve:

Society is class divided based on wealth.

Class – mobility is allowed

Caste – mobility is not allowed         

John Marshal: – Director General of ASI at the time and Indus valley excavation.

  • According to him, Indus society is Maternity society is e.g. Mother is head of family.
  • Religion is the reflection of society Eve society was highly natured.

Political System

It is difficult to study

D.D. Kaushambi – The priest class people are rulers i.e. Theocracy

R.S. Sharma – Rejected this hypothesis, because there were no religious symbols in Eve. If priest were the rulers then they built temples which reflect their religious culture. According to him, merchants are rulers.

Economy of Eve:-

Agrarian economy– Economy to which agriculture is backbone

Imp. Food grains – barley a wheat

Commercial crops- cotton, mustard, rice was rarely cultivated

  • In Lothal, a rice grain was found
  • In Rangapur, rice was found they were based by Indus people instead of plough wave.
  • Plough was evidences were found in two places.

Kalibangam – Furrows (a field which has plough marks)

Banavali – Terracotta replica of plough

  • Evidence of Horse
  • Lothal (a doubtful terracotta horse was found)
  • Surkotada – Skeleton of horse was found


  • Textile Industry (cotton)
  • Brick Industry
  • Metallurgical Industry (copper and bronze)
  • Ship building industry (only at lothal
  • Jewellery Industry (breads and shell ornaments)

Located in 3 sites





Trade and Barter:


  • International
  • Internal

Sumerian is trading partner. The Indus Valley seals were fared in Mesopotamia

Seal – the small pieces of steatite (1 cm)

Seal consists of the pictographs, animals etc

4000 seals found, shape rectangle or square

  • Mesopotamian seals were always cylindrical shape
  • Mohenjo-Daro – 3 seals of Mesopotamia were found.

Indian cotton was found in UMMA

In 2300 BC, SINDON (means cotton) from Maura Mesopotamia scripts were in cone form

  • Barter system – Exchanging the good

Religious beliefs of Eve people:

  • Mother goddess
  • Pashupati Mahadeva

In Mohenjo-Daro, a seal was found consists of the pashupati mahadeva image (with 3 heads, two horns) surrounded by animals.

In the opinion of John Marshall, Pashupati Mahadeva was Pesto-Shiva and most of scholars accepted it.

  • Evidence of Lingo-Yoni
  • Bull, snake, tree……..worship
  • Clear evidence of rituals along with animal slattering
  • Large of amulets (palismans) were found in many sites.

Causes for the end of Eve:-

  • Opinions of diff. scholars:

Mortimum wheeler – Aryans invasion

Evidence: 13 skeletons were found at one place (including women, children), those are scattered has some knife marks.

Many scholars opposed this because the Aryans come to India in 1500 BC.

  • Some Scholars said “floods” were the cause of end of Eve.
  • Mohenjo-Daro, Chanhudaro cities were destroyed many time by floods and these cities were rebuilt.
  • But there was no evidence of foods.
  • Earth quakes
  • Drying of rivers or the direction of flow of rivers was changed
  • Today, Indus rivers is 40 km away from the Mohenjo-Daro but in ancient period, this city was built on the banks of Indus
  • Ecological degradation

Indiscriminate use of natural resource

Weights and Measure of Eve:

16 is base for weights and measures

Today 1 Rs= 16 anas

1 Sare – 16 chakas




Vedic/Aryan Civilization

Beginning of historical age because it has literature too sites were found. Painted gray wart was found in all those sites. So this is also known as PEW civilization.


Vedic literature- Not an isolated book

It is massive one, which has library full of books. Manuscripts were written from 4000 AD Vedic literature is second literature.

It is divided into 8 parts



Aran yaks




Ethihasas (epics)


4 Vedas

  1. Rig-Veda- 1028 shlokas

Gayatri Mantra address the goddess Savitri

10 chapters/mandalas

10th chapter is imp, purushasukta

  • Purushasukta- First reference of caste system
  • Every human being is created by Brahma from his home body but form diff organs.
  • People created from head of Brahma- Brahmas

Shoulder    – Khatriyas

Thies          – Vyshyas

Feet            – Shudras


  1. Yajureveda:-

Describes about rituals

The biggest problem of rituals is there is no direct connection between the god and devotees


  1. Sameveda:-

This Veda gives importance to music.

Shlokes in Veda were tuned

  1. Athrarvaveda:-

Describes prevention of diseases and evil spirits


Total 7

  1. Aitaraya Brahman

First reference of Andre

  1. Satopatha Brahman
  2. Kausikati Brahman


Contains the philosophy of germens and Rashes in the forest Aranyakas are appended to Brahman

Upanishads: – 108

  • Chandogya
  • Brihadranyaka
  • Svetesvatara – First reference of Bhakti
  • Monaco – Satyameva Jayte is present in this Upanishads


Contradictory to rituals

Two aspects of bhakti – personal self surrender to god (mysticism)

Islam- Surrender

Islamic mysticism – Sophism

Philosophical speculations:-

Describes about Atman, paramatama, Janma, Punarjanm, soul, karma, moksha, comes from bhakti.


The 6 Vedangas are organs of Vedas

  1. Shiksha – deals with phonetics

This is tongue for Vedas, helps to talk


  1. Niruktha – Deals with erotology
  2. Vyakarana – Grammar
  3. Jyotish – Astrology
  4. Chandas – metrics
  5. Kalpak – deals with rituals

There are 3 parts of Kalpak-

  • Erihasutra – Describes domestic rituals

Every individual shall perform 16 rituals to get mokshya

  • Srautasutra- Describe public rituals

King perform this rituals for the sake and his people

  • Suluvasutra – Construction of fire alters lot of inf. about Geometry

Domestic Rituals:-

16 rituals performed from warn to tomb important rituals is 11 upanyana

Males of first three communities are eligible to do the Upanaya; they are called Dvija twice born

Shudras and women of all communities are not eligible, called Akaka one born

16th rituals is Vivaha

Asvamedhayaga: – Kings are eligible to perform this ritual

Rajasuya yaga: – After successful completion of this yaga, the chief priest announces that the king is like a god

Parana’s:- Total is

  • Vishnu’s Parana
  • Matya perinea
  • Markandeya Paraná
  • Vayu Parana

Based on purana types of ages:-

Krutayuge, Tretayuga, Dwaparyuga, Kaliyuga

  • Puranas contains geneology – family tree of king


  • Ayurveda – Medicine
  • Gandarva Veda – Music
  • Shilpa Veda – Art and Architecture
  • Dhanurveda – War and Archery


  • Ramayana
  • Mahabharata

Who are the Aryans?

  • C. Das- Aryans are purely Indians Saptasindu is native place
  • Boundaries of saptasindu,

East   -Yamuna   

West – Afghanistan

North         – Kashi

South         – Aravali


Saraswati   – Satudri (sates)

Sindhu       – Vitas a (Jhelum)

Parushni (Ravi)   – Vipasa (Chenab)

Tilak – Wrote a book on the nativity of the Aryans called Archaic-The home of Aryans.

Dayananda Saraswati – Aryans from Tibet

  • Europeans historians – Aryans came from Germany
  • Hitler believed that Germany are original Aryans
  • Mostly accepted theory about Aryans was proposed by Max Muller, a German Ideologist, in Sanskitit.
  • Ideology – Studies about India
  • Ideology is a dept in all European Universities (Now also)
  • Two British ideologists called as Fathers of Ideology
  1. Wilkins – Translated Bhagwath Gaeta into English
  2. William Jones (1784) He started on org called Asiatic Society of Bengal; this is very helped to Indian Anthropology and history.

The translated Abhigyans Shakuntalam into English

A.L. Basham, British Ideologist settled in Australia

He wrote a book in 1951, “The Wonder that was India”

Max Muller translated Rig-Veda into English.

Central Asia hypothesis proposed by Muller

According to him Eurasia is native place of Aryans

  • This hypothesis was based on philological and Epigraphically studies
  • Bhoja koi – Some Inscriptions were found there inscriptions talks about some tribes moved towards the east.
  • There is no direction evidence

1500-600 BC:-

Phase I (1500-1000 BC)

Phase II (1000-600 BC)

Phase I – Early Vedic period Rig-Veda period source to study phase I is Rig-Veda

Phase II – Later Vedic period – The study of Aryans is in two phases because there are major changes especially geographical changes.

  • Early Vedic period developed in Saptasindu region
  • Later Vedic period developed Genetic region


Rig-Veda economy:

  • It is postural, means was and horses was domesticated
  • Limited cultivation
  • Food grains – barley and wheat
  • Less trade

Industries: Textile, pottery, carpentry,

  • Sovran Nashua – Ornament with fixed value

Later Vedic economy:-

  • Agriculture- Agrarian economy
  • Rice important food grain
  • Vrihi- Rice
  • First time Iron was used by later Aryans

Society of Aryans:

Rig-Veda society:

  • Tribal society
  • Aryans were semi-nomadic
  • Patriarchal system (joint family system) Head of family – Kulapa
  • Class divided society
  • Priestly class
  • Warrior class
  • Commoners class

Inter and Inter marriage were allowed freely

Anuloma – Hyper go mows marriage, high class mole, lower class family

Pratiloma –Hyper gummous marriage lower, class male higher class female

1st and 10th chapters in Rig-Veda were not taken as the basis early Vedic period because they were added Later in period Later interpolation.

  • Perfect Gender Equality


Polyandry ex. Drovpati

  • Child marriage were never allowed
  • Equal accessibility to women education
  • Gosh – woman, who did not marry and she is Brahmaved
  • Sati was mentioned but symbolic
  • Couvades system (pseudo pregnancy)
  • Vila gal (AP and Karnataka)
  • Nactukkul (Tamil Nadu)
  • No direct evidence of widow marriage but there was Neoga
  • Neoga – childless widow

The new husband is brother of died one.


Later Vedic Society:-

  • Caste society with no mobility
  • Anuloma was allowed but not Pratiloma
  • Chantal’s:- The children burned due to pratiloma marriage polygene was allowed
  • Social sub-ordination of women
  • Child marriage were performed
  • Widow marriage were banned
  • Sati come to reality

Types of marriages:- (8 types)

  • Brahma Vivah: Most ideal one
  • Daiva Vivah – Exclusively for priest class
  • Aras Vivah – Bride price of cow and bull
  • Prajaptaya – No dowry, no tried price
  • Gandarva – marriage at first site only kings are eligible
  • Asura Vivah – marriage by purchase
  • Rakshasa Vivah – marriage by elopement
  • Pisacha Vivah – marriage by objection

Political System:-

Rig-Veda Period:

  • Tribal polity – Very democratic system of governance

Tribe – Raja (head)

  • Every tribe has some assemblies
  • Protect Jana and pasu
  • No janapadas at that time territory is not important to the Raja wars fought for cattle’s
  • Gavisthi – term of war
  • Dasarjan – imp. war


Officers: Senapati, purohita, prajapati, spara (who collect the secret inf. from other tribes), Gramani (head of village)

Source of Income:-

No concept of tax system

Booty- Wealth get from war (Raja has share in Booty)

Bali: – Voluntary offerings to Raja by tribes people there Raja is Gopala.

Later Vedic political system:-

  • Monarchical polity
  • Kings is Bhupata – Territory is most imps.
  • Source of Income – Tax system called Bhoga

Bhoga – Earliest taxes collected in India

  • Bhagaduha- Tax Collector
  • Sangrabitri – A treasurer

Religion System:-

Rig Vedic Religion System:-

  • Worships natural forces 33 gods and goddess
  • Indra – Weather and war god
  • Agnideva – Personification of fire
  • Varuna – God of water
  • Ashvin – God of medicinal plants
  • Tvastri – God of Volcano
  • Maruts – God of thunder stormed
  • Adyta – Earth goddess
  • Us has – Goddess of clown

Methods of worship:-

Simple, that includes prayers, offerings and soma

Purpose and religion:-

Religion is highly materialistic (benefits)

Later Vedic Religion System:-

  • Trimurti (trinathi)
  • Prajapati (Brahma) – Prayers every things
  • Natural forces are in sub ordinates position
  • Methods of worship

Rituals, Dakshma to priest very expensive

  • Highly non materialistic, spiritual
  • Vedic religions system is orthodox system. Brahman’s policies

Soursena    – Mathura

Panchala    – Ahichtara

Kosala        – Shravasti

Matsya       – Virat nagar

Avanti        – Ujjain

Gandharva          – Tkshasila

Komboja              – Rajapura

Soth India – Asmaka

History of Magadha:-

3 Dynasties – Haryana




  • Bimbsara (1st king and Founder)
  • Annexation
  • Matrimonies
  • Diplomacy

Ex- The doctor of Bimbisara, Jivaka went to Avanti to save the king. (Friendship)


Cyrus grandson “Darius” completed conquering the total North India.

According to Herodotus,

Among 28 provinces, India was one which gives 1/3rd of income of persians.

Domination of Persians came to end because of Alexander.

Dorious-II was defeated by Alexander.

King of Taxila Ambhi invited Alexander.

Alexander was couple of years in India

Imp. battle is Hydaspas

  • In 323 BC at Batilonia Alexader was died.
  • King of Syria Selucus Nicater (Greek Emperor)

Economic development:-

  • Introduction of metal coins



Earliest coins Maked coins

  • Emergence of build system
  • Means – Associaion of merebants and trades
  • Kotia sreni – weapons manufacturing
  • Kulala sreni – pots manufacturing
  • Gondika sreni – Perfumes

Religious Developments:-

62 Beetroot movements were born, against the Brahmanism


Buddha lived in 5th -6th C

Born in Kapilvastu (Nepal)

Father – Suddodana

Wife – Yasodara

Mother- Mahamaya

Son – Rahul

Pancha Mahakalyana:-

5 great events in the life of Buddha

  1. Birth:- Lumbini

Symbol          – Lotus

Original name         – Siddhartha

  1. Mahabhinishkramana (age 29)

Symbol – Horse (Kantaka)

  1. Sambodhi 35 year

In Gaya (Bihar), Under Bodice tree (49 days)

He became Buddha (Tatagatha – who knows truth)

  1. Sermon

1st lecture of Buddha – Dharma chakra Parivartana at Sarnath attended by 5 people

Symbol: Chakra (When of 8 spokes, Indicates the Astangik Marga)

  • Middle Path

The extreme of everything should be avoided

  • Pratyutta Samuppoda (cause of effect relationship)


  • Anti changes is rejects the any change
  • Incorporated in religion
  • Language – Pali
  • Never worship Idols
  • Symbols worships (Stupa, tree, etc)


  • Pro-change
  • Language : Sanskrit
  • Idol worshipers

Bodhisattvas: – previous births of Buddha

Avalokitheswara (podmapani)

Manjusei (born in Amravati)

Padma sambhava


Naitreya – Future and Buddha


Vajrayana Buddhism:-

Moksha Margas – Magic, sexual Interlopes

  • Sang has started by Buddha, men as monks women as nuns
  • Amravati – Birth place of Vijrayana
  • Degradation of Sang has
  • Give up of Pail
  • Idol worship
  • Reform and Brahmanian


24 Tirthankars – ford makers

  1. Rishabh Natha/Adinatha

Symbol: Bull

22nd Neminatha/Aristae Neminatha

Symbol: Shell

23rd Parsvanatha

Symbol: Snake

Lived in 8th BC, Born in Royal Family of Kashi

  • New religion was founded by him : Nirgrantha
  • Nirgrantha – Free for the bonds of world.


4 Doctrines:-

  • Asatya – Non lying
  • Ahinsa – Non injury
  • Asateya – Non steeding
  • Aparigraha – Non accumulation of wealth

24th Vardamana Mahaveera:-

  • Symbol: Lion
  • Born in 54 BC, at Kundalgrama (near to Vaishali, in Bihar)
  • Kshatriya family – Jnatrika
  • Father – Siddhartha
  • Mother – Trishala Devi
  • Wife – Yashoda
  • Daughter – Priyadarshi
  • Son-in-law – Jamali

At the age of 42, he reached the last stage Tirthankara


Kavali – Kaivalyagana (ultimate state of knowledge)

Jina     – Conquer (Become the master over the senses)

Give max pain to year sense without taking water and food

He died in Pavapuri (72)

Historical founder of Jainism – Parshunatha

Doctrine of Jainism:-

  1. Panchasutra:-

Given by Parashnatha

5th by Mahaveera is Brahmacharya

  1. tri-latras



Sam yak Kriya (good actions)

Sam yak Gyana (light knowledge)

Sam yak visras (faith)

Approximately around 300 BC

Jain had been divided into 2 sects

  1. Swetambaras (white cloths) – Stulabhadra
  2. Digamberas (Discarded cloths) – Bhadra Bahu

Swetamberas followers of 23rd trithankaras

Digamberas followers of 24th trithankaras

Parisistapavan written by Hemachandra

Acc to this book, around 300 BC-12 year famine in Magadha

1200 monks left magmata, leaded was Bhadra bhahu and they lifted at Sravana Belgola and become digamberas Chandra gupta maurya died at Sravan Belgola

  • Huge stature of join monk in Sravan Belgola called as


This statue was built Minister of Mysore state, Chamundarya (10th AD)

  • Gometaswara, son of 1st Tirthankara
  • He was strong man and conquered many Rajas so people called him Bahubali
  • He was not a Tirthankara


  • For every 12 years in Sravan Belgola the people celebrating an Ustavram

Drodasha Angus:-

Scriptures of Jainism

12 Angus compiled in 6th AD a conference held at Vaishali


By makri Gosalaputta (friend of Mahavieera)

Very popular religion in Mouryan’s age disposed after 200 BC


Founder: Ajita Kasha Karbli

Very radical philosophy

Totally believed in Materialism and ethos – No life after death


Maryann Age (300-200 BC)

Mauryans were ruled entire Indian subcontinent except Tamil Nadu and Kerala

  • Asoka’s Inscriptions says, The southern India was ruled by some Kingdoms: Cholas, Pandas, Keralaputta (chelas)


Literary sources

Epigraphically sources


  • Megasthenes-Indica
  • Greek ambassador, in the court of Chandra Gupta Maura sanded by Selucus Nicotor controversies in Indica
  • There is no slavery in India
  • There are 7 castes in India
  • There are no famines in India
  • There is no usury system

Shatapata Brahman – first evidence to money laundering in India

Arthashastra: – Kautilya/chanakya/Vishnu gupta

  • Authors : Vishakha data
  • Scholar of Guptan age
  • Dethroning of Nandas – Tells about two for the mauryans got power
  • Harshacharita – Baan Bhatt (7th c)
  • Primary source:

Indica, all archaeological sources

  • Secondary sources:

Written by scholars who were not belongs to that period

Ex. Harshachrita (about decline of mouryan power

  • Last emperor – Brihadratha, who was assassinated by his senapati, Pushyamitra shunga.
  • Raja Tarangini – Kalhara (12th C)

Exclusively deals with Kashmir

Srinagar city was built by Asoka

Foreign texts:-

  • Divyavadana (Tibetan language)
  • Mahacamsha (pali language, srilankan Buddhist)
  • Deepavamsha
  • Natural history by pliny, Latin language about military strength of Maryann


  • 6 lakhs infantry (foot soldiers)
  • 30,000 cavalry (Ashrikadalam)
  • 9000 elephant (Gajadala)
  • 8000 Chariot (Radhadala)

Epigraphically sources:-

  • Asoka inscription-
  • Based on content inscription were two types
  • Eulogy/Prasatsti for public leading
  • Landchoeters/Dona shasana – not for public



Asoka inscription neither eulogy nor land cheaters

Edicts: Royal order instructions to people 181 edicts in 47 places

Prakrit: official language of mauryans

Kharosti – 2 places

Brahmin – 44 places                      – most popular script in ancient period

In Kurnool (AP) these inscription were found

One inscription at Kandahar (Afghanistan), which is unique written in two languages with their own scripts

  • Greek
  • Aramaic

Total languages: 3 (Prakrit, Greek, Arabic)

Scripts: 4 (Kharosti, Brahmin, Greek, Anomic)

  • 1837, James Princes successfully deciphered the Brahmin script

Ex. Devanagari priyadarshi raja Magadha

In, 1915 Karnataka – Musky udegolam, Nature

Madhya Pradesh – Gujarat

Inscription found at these 4 areas were only the name of Asoka.

Types of Edicts:-

  • Rock Edicts
  • Pillar Edicts
  • Cave Edicts
  • Asoka – First King who built Rock Cut caves

Rock Edicts: 2 types based on length

  • Major – at a place
  • Minor

Place: (major)

Yerraguddi (Kurnool, AP)

Sopara (Maharashtra)

Ginee (Gujarat)

Kalsi (Dehradun)




Shbhajgee (Kharosti Script)

Content is Dharma, Adman, Kalingawal, welfare measures minor

  1. Bhabeu (West Bengal)

Asoka expressed his faith in Buddhism

  • Buddha Sarnam Gachhami
  • Dharma Saran Gachhami
  • Sangam Saran Gachhami

Of them, 34 Adhyakshas headed by one person

Ankara          – Head of nines dept

Kappa            – Forest dept

Poltava          – Weights and Measures

Sitadhyaksha           – Agriculture dept

Vivata                        – Grassland, pastures

Tanya             -Trade dept

Provincial and Local adman:-

  • 4 Provinces
  • Uttarapode – Takshasila (capital)
  • Avantipoda – Ujjain
  • Dakshinapada – Suvarnagili
  • Preachy panda – Pochhali
  • Head of these provinces – Aryoputra
  • Provinces are divided into Aharas (districts)
  • Rajuka – In charge of Revenue adman
  • Pradeshika – Police adman
  • Grammas administrated by Grainy Acc to megarstranse Indica
  • Every city had urban adman i.e. Municipal council consisted of 30 members.
  • These members divided into 5 boards

Pillars             -All pillars were made by Red-sand





II is a huge monolithic column

Height            – 50 Fit

Weight          – 50 tans

Glass polis finish given to these pillars

Every pillar was crowned by an elephant capital column is same for each pillar but capital is different

  • Bull capital – Rampur (Bihar)
  • Single lion capital is seated pasture – Luria Nandangosh
  • Elephant capital – Sunkist (UP)
  • Horse capital – Rummadei
  • Saranath capital in Kashi – Best imp. capital
  • 4 roaring lions (standing pasture) faced to 4 direction four animal symbols around the chakra horse, bull, elephant, lion
  • At bottom- inverted lotus
  • After Independence, the Govt. of India taken his symbol as emblem with two ratifications.

Indo-Greek 🙁 Indo-Bacteria’s)

Demetrius, the Bactrian King who conquered North India and returned to home after appointing a power

Menander (2nd BC):-

After some period, he was declared independence

Capital – Sakala

In Indian literature, meander known as Melinda

  • Second Greek hero who conquered India – Demetrius
  • Menander Bikshu – A monk in this court
  • Malindapanho- Which contains the dialogue of philosophical discussions in the form of question and answer between monk and King
  • In Pali, Pando means questions
  • This is secrete book for Buddhists
  • Gold coins:- Indo Greeks were first people who introduced gold coins in India
  • Double die strict coins:-

The coins contains some information on both sides

Titles on coins: Deva Vratsa sudeva vita

Kings inf. one side Religious inf. (symbols) on another side

  • The value of coins depends on the value of metal in market.


  • Northern provinces of Iran- pathia

Gondaparnis (19-45 AD)

Acc to Syria text, Saint Thomas

In 13th C, Marco polo says at madras he saw the hydrogen Bomb of Saint Thomas in his book

They started praising the queen who was ruling Motupalthi

Parkas dust at that time Rudramma Devi (Kakatiya dynasty)

Scythians Shakes:-

Around 220 BC, Shih-Hung-II who built the Great wall to protest the china from the attacks of shakas and yuckiest. So shakas came to India

5 Independent Kingdoms (Afghanistan)

Taxila Kingdom

Mathura Kingdom

Ujjain (Gujarat and Malwa region)

Most powerful and Biggest Kingdom

Content: Sudarshana, historical lake, which was built by Mauryans and he repaired that lake.


  • Kingdom-Indo-Ganged region to central Asia
  • Two capitals: Purushpura (peshavat)
  • Mathura
  • Founder : Kujulatadaphysis
  • 2nd king – Wima
  • 3rd king Kanishka
  • Dinars: The gold coins of Kushans
  • Wima: Title Mahesware other side of coin has images of saivas Kanishka title sak you Buddha human form of Buddha




Couple and Buddhist scholars in Kanishka’s court

  • Vasumitra wrote a book: Mahan Vibhasha Sastra
  • Ashvaghosha: First dramas wrote by him in India Earliest dramas: Sundaranandana Sawaiputra Prakarana
  • Kavas: Buddha charita


Sung Dynasty (Brahmans):-10 Kings

Capital: Vidisha

Pushyamitra sung: In all literature he mentioned as senapati.

  • At least a couple of times he defeated yavanas
  • Performed two Ashwamedayaga at Ajodhya
  • The revival of Brahmanism was become of sung and Shatvhanas.
  • Patanjali, priest of pushyamitra sung
  • Book: Mahabhashya, this was a great common on a book called Astadhyayis written Panini
  • Panini proud graduate of textile university
  • Taxila University (500 BC-500 AD)

First university in India

Graduate from this university

  • Jivaka (6th C) Doctor
  • Panini (5th C) Grammarian
  • Kautilya (4th) – public Administration
  • Charka (1st AD) – Doctor

He wrote 24 books-

Madhgamika Karika

Shunya saptathi

Suhrulekha (good letters)

Prajna Paramita

Pulemavi III (last king):-

  • Abhors – Nasik (Maharashtra)
  • Ikshraku – Viyayapur (Nagarjuna Kona)
  • 1st Hindu Temples were built in India by Ikshavaku
  • Chuturnaga Dynasty – Banavali (Mysore, Karnataka

MahameghaVarma Dynasty:-

  • Hathigumpa the place where an inscription was founded.
  • Kharavedi – King
  • Capital – Kalinga Nagari
  • This inscription gives information about the victories
  • Defeated shatavahanas
  • Notice conquered Magadha
  • Defeated Tamiradesha sanghatam
  • He promoted Jainism in Odisha

Name                    Region                Capital        Emblems                                  Greatest king

Cholas                N .Tamil Nadu Kavelipatnam    tiger Karkalla Cholas

Panda              S. Tamil Nadu             Madurai         clap          Negurijeliya

Cheri                     Kerala                 Vanji     Bow and arrow                Senguttavan



Tamil Literature:-

Ancient most spoken language in India – Tamil

Aryan group – North India languages

Dravidian group – South Indian Languages

Tamil – BC

Kannada – 9th AD

Telugu – 11th AD

Malayama- 14th AD

Tamil was recognised as the classical language by the govt. of India in 2004-05

Rules for classical language:-

  • Language must be 150 year old
  • Independent literature

Sangam literature – Earliest literature in this period

Meeting of a Tamil Poets, acc to one tradition at Madurai city

1st Sangam: (Mythological):-

  • Agastya Mahamuni-

First Aryan came to south and introduced Aryan culture resulted in caste system, rituals Brahmin society etc.

2nd Sangam:-

Tamil text on grammar

Tolpapiyam- Earliest text of Tamil literature written by Tolkapiyan

3rd Sangam:-

Very important and massive literature was introduced three groups

  • 18 Major works
  • 18 Minor works
  • 4 epics

18 Major works:-

  • Tirumurugruppadai
  • A book on Tamil God – Mauryan written by Nackara, president of 3rd sangam

18 Minor works:-

  • Tiru kural (the bible of Tamil literature)
  • Written by Tiruvalluvare

3 Epics:-

  • Silappadikoram by Illango Adigal
  • Story of Kannaki
  • Manimegali by Santali Astana
  • Story of a dancer, Manimogalai
  • She became a Buddhist



Sivaga sindamani by Tiruttokadevar:- Story of hero called Jivaka


Most prosperous age of Indian History

Reason: Trade

Trade with Roman Empire:-

Roman Empire            – Main Partner More no of Roman coins were found

  • China
  • Egypt and Ethiopia
  • South-East Asia including Burma and Sri Lanka


Pepper (Yavanapriya) Cheri kingdom

This was most important in exports


High quality cotton – Muslim

Leading exporters – Satavahanas and Cholas


Leading exporters: Pandas

Very demanded item in Europe

Guptam Age

(300-500 AD)

Two Capitals: Pataliputra, Ujjain



Epigraphy (inscriptions)

Numismatics (coins)

Literary Sources:-

Scholar                                  Book                          Content

Karaganda                            Nitosara                    Administration

Vajjika                              Kaumudi Mahoshara             Coronation of Chandra Gupta

Vishakahdutta         Devi Chandraguptam        Story of Chandra Gupta II and Queen Dhruva Devi

Base                                  Swan Vasavadatta                  The dream of Vasavadatta

Shudraka                            Mrichachakatika                  story of Brahman charodutta

Fahier (399-414)

Chinese Buddhist pilgrim came to India in Chandragupta II period

Book: Fu-Kuo-Ki (Common man life and untouchability)


After Guptans, no dynasty was discussed in Puranas

Epigraphical Sources:-

42 inscriptions

Inscriptions of Somedeva Gupta:-

  • Allahabad – Prashasti

List of Kingdoms he conquered

  • Gaya copper plate inscription – Land charter
  • A village was donated to Buddhist vihara at Gaya Vihara was built by Mahamegha Varma (sri Lanka Kingdom)

Inscriptions of Chandra Gupta_II

  • Mehrauli Iron Pillar inscription – Prashasti

Inscriptions of Skunda Gupta:-

  • Bhitari – Prashasti
  • Information about invasion of Huns
  • Retreated invasion of Huns leads to end of Guptam period
  • Two Leaders of Hurst

Toramana     – Jainism

Mihirakula    – Slavism

Inscription of Bhanu Gupta:-

  • Earn (Madhya Pradesh) – 510 AD
  • Prashati the first epigraphically evidence of Sati

Numismatic Sources:-

  • Coins of Guptan – Dinars
  • Gold Coins



Coins of Chandra Gupta I

  • Portraits of King and queen (Kumara Devi)

Coins of Sumudra Gupta:-

  • Playing with Vera (lute)
  • Title: Kavi Raja
  • Performing rituals
  • Title: Aswamedha Pasakrana

Coins of Chandra Gupta-II:-

  • Hunting Lion
  • Title: Simha Chandra
  • 1st king of Guptans who issued Silver coins- Rupya

Coins of Kumara Gupta:-

  • Performing Aswameda yaga
  • Title: Aswameda Mahendra

Political History:-

1st King          – Sri Gupta

2nd King         – Ghatotakacha

Title – Maharaja

  • This title indicates the political status of these two kings not independent. They were Samantas to Kushans
  • Chandra Gupta-I (1st Independent King this dynasty)
  • Title: Maha Rajadiraja

Samudra Gupta:-

  • Allahabad inscription was issued by Mahirsena, who was sandivigrahka (minister of external affairs) of Samudra Gupta acc to this inscription, the King conquered 100 Kingdoms
  • 3 Aryavrata Kingdoms (border states)
  • 9 Ganarajas (Republican states)
  • 18 Atavikarajyas (Jabalpur region)

V.A. Smith, a British Historian described Samudra Gupta as Indian Nap dean

Chandra Guptam-II:-

He captured Ujjain and took two title

  • Sakari (destroyer and Shakas)
  • Vikramaditya



Ujjain become cultural capital and Guptans 9 great scholars in his court “Navaratnas”

  1. Kalidasa:-

Three dramas –

  • Natakatriya
  • Abhigyans Shakuntalam
  • Mahavikagna Mitran


  • Megadhutam
  • Raghuvansha
  • Kumara Sambhavan
  • Rubesambhava
  1. Vishnu Sharma:-
  • Panchtantra
  1. Amara Simha:-

Dictionary: Amarkosha

  1. Varauchi:-

Book: Praksutra Prakasa

  1. Sushrutu (doctor)

Book on surgery: Susruta samhita

  1. Dhanvantri (Doctor)

Medical Dictionary: Nighantu

  1. Arya Bhatta (5th AD)
  • Surya Siddhanta (on Astronomy)
  • Arya Bhattian (on Maths)

0 (zero) was invented by unknown Indian and it was used by Arya Bhatta in his book.

  1. Varah Mihira:-

Brihat Samhita – Sarvanga (deals with every science ecyclopedia)

Panchasiddhandta (Astronomy)

  1. Brahma Gupta (7th ):-

Khandara Kanda Khavya

He was known as Indian Necotor

Decimal system was invented by Arabs

Wil nut – cloning master

Kumara Gupta:-

1st King who placed problems due to man

Nalanda University belongs to Mahayana Buddhism.

Acc to HuenTsand, the strength of this university is 8500 students 1500 teachers from different places of world

200 Villages under this university for maintenance purpose Archaeologists said the capacity of this university 2000

They excavated entire University

  • Skanda Gupta
  • Vishnu Gupta(Last King)


Not a religion, it is a way of life

  • Vedic rituals without animal sacrifice Bake
  • Rudra+Shiva
  • Vishnu+Krishna+Buddha
  • Conflicts b/w worshipers – 2 important sects
  • Slavism
  • Vishanavism

Growth of Art and Architecture:-

Buddhist- Brahman cal

Architecture – 2 types

  • Cave temples
  • Structural temple

Cave temples: – Large of Buddhist caves

  • Ajanta (Maharashtra)
  • 31 Buddhist caves today
  • Some of them were built by Guptans

Bag (MP)

  • 9 Buddhist cave temples



Hindu Caves:-

  • First Hindu caves in India built by Guptans in Udayagiri (MP)

Structural temples:-

  • Ikshvaku dynasty, built first Hindu structural temples in Nagarjuna Konda (3rd)
  • In 4th C, Guptans built three temples in North India

Kankalidevi temple (Jabalpur)

Vishnu and Varaha temple (Earn)

Shiva temple (Bhumara)

Parvati Mahadeva temple (Nachna kumara)

Dashavtar temple (Doughier)

Ruined Temple (Bhitargar)

  • Shikara/Nagra – Style invented by Guptans (4th )
  • Dravidian – Style invented by pal lavas in south
  • In Deccan, Vesara style invented by Badami Chaluyan


  • A copper Buddha- Sultan gang
  • Now this is in queens palace (Baking ham palace)
  • Stone sculpture of Vabaha at Udayagiri


Ajanta and bag (Not surviving)

  • Ajanta:-

31 caves

  • chaityas
  • Viharas

Mural/Fresco painting – Painting on Walls

Stories of Buddha, Bodhisattvas paired on walls of caves called Jatakas

  • Cave 10: Shavasti Chama tar (one big Buddha and 100 another Buddha’s)
  • Caves 26: Mahaparinirvana
  • Cave 9 and 10 were built by Shatavahana period
  • 8th -19th these caves were missed
  • In 19th a British Officer discovered these caves.



Post-Guptam Age


Some important Kingdoms in North-India        

Pushyabhuti                        – Thaneswar

Maukhari                  – Kanauji

Gouda (Bengal)       – Karnasurna (mushirabad)

Kumarsupa (Assam) – Prag jyotish

Maitreka       Vallabhi (ancient Buddhist university vallabhi founded by Maitrekas)

  • In Deccan Badam chalukyas Kingdom was most Important in South Pallavas of Kanchi
  • Great Harshvardhana belongs to Pushyabhuti Kingdom

Pushyabhuti’s Of North India:-

  • Samantas in guptam period
  • Harshvardhana came into power and the Kingdom of Independence (606-647)

Political Career:-

He conquered Kanauj (capital), Bengal, Assam, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajasthan

When he conquered Gujarat, the King was Pulkeshin-II of Badami Chalukyas

  • Harshavardhan was defeated by Pulkeshin-II and made agreement that “Narmada” as border

This information was known from “Aihole” inscription, which was on the walls of Jain temple.

In that inscription “Sakalottara podeshwara” refers to Harshvardhana

Sakola – vohole, uttara-uttara (lord of North India)


Harshavardhana wrote 3 dramas only

  • Pridarshini
  • Naganandam
  • Ratnavali

“Baan Bhatt” who was a great scholar in his courts some of important Books he wrote-

  • Harshacharita
  • Kadambari
  • Parvati Parinagam



Welfare of the poor people:-

After Ashok, Harshavardhana was the king who takes welfare measures

Mahamoksha Parishad: – A programme conducted regularly for every 5 years without failure. So this was known as quinquennia

In this period, he distributes all wealth to the poor people

Kanauji Assembly:-

Around 643 AD, he held Kanauji Assembly at Kanauji which was a religious conference

All religious peoples came and share their ideas

Huentsant, a Chinese pilgrim lived in India (630-644)

  • In 647 AD, Harsh was died.
  • During the period (650-750 AD) History of North India was not known
  • The 3rd Chinese pilgrim “It sings” (675-685) does not give information about kings.
  • Around 700 AD, a king called Yashovarman ruled Kanauji
  • He may not belong to Harsha’s Dynasty
  • He himself as a great scholar
  • He wrote a book called “Ramabhyudayam” in this he described himself as a king of Kanauji.
  • Important scholar of his court-
  1. Bhavabhuti:-

Books- Uttar Rama charita

Mahan veer charita

Malati Madhavam

  1. Vokpati – wrote a book in Epudavaka in prakrit Badami Chaluya Dynasty:-

They ruled Deccan b/w 543-735

Badami was a place in Karnataka (BAL kot district)

Vatapi Chalukya – Ancient name


He was great warrior, and conquered many Kingdoms according to Aihole inscription

This inscription was authored by Ravi Kirti described the victories of his master.

  • Kadamba (kal) – Banavali
  • Ganga (Myssoure)
  • Alupa Kingdom
  • Harshavardhana was defeated – which was a greatest victory
  • Coastal districts of AP
  • Ne province has created, Vega as capital and appointed Kebab Vishnu vardhana as governor
  • After Pulkeshin-II, Kubja Vishnu vardhan declared it as independent and ruled by vengi chalukyans about 400 years
  • In this period only, Telugu literature was developed. Around the king, Raja Narendra had two Telugu Poets in his court
  1. Nannaya – Adikavi



The translated some poets of Mahabharat in to Telugu

This was 1st available book in Telugu

  1. Palluvari Mahanna:-

Translated Ganita Sara sangraha into Telugu written by Jain scholar

13th, Tikkana – translated another some parts of Mahabharata

14th, Errata – remaining     ,

Kavitrayam: – Nannaya, Tikkana and Errata

Pulkeshin-II wars with pal lavas

2 important wars

  1. The battle of Paullauru

Mahendra verma killed in this war.

  1. At manimangla around 642

Narasimha-I killed by Pulkeshin-II

Title- Vatapi Kanda (kounda conquered/victor)

After Pulkeshin II, important Kings of Badami Chalukyans dynasty





Keertivarma-II – He was assassinated by his governor Dantiduraga around 755 AD

He was the in charge of Rostra his dynasty was known as Rastrakuta capital as Ellora.

Art and Architecture:-

Badami chaluyans build two types of temples

  1. Rock cut cave type temples
  2. Structural type temples


Dravidian style

Vesara style

Rock-cut cave temples found at Badami

3 Hindu and 1 Jain temple

Structural temples:-

  • Aihole in Karnataka
  • Durga temple
  • Hucimalli gudi
  • Ladhahan temple (Siva temple)
  • Jain temple
  • Pattadakal



The best temple in ancient India was Kailasanath temple at Kanchi build by Pallava

Virupaksha temple is quiet imitation of Kailasanath temple

  • Alampur, Mahabubnagar district in AP
  • Nava Bhrahmeswara temples on the bank of Tungabhadra
  • Sangameswara temple at Kudali sangam

South Pallavas of Kanchi (550-850)

Political History of Pallavas:-

  • Founder – Simhavishnu follower of Vishnavism
  • Mahendra verma-I

He wrote a Sanskrit drama – Matta Vilasa prahasanam

He was killed in the war with Pulkeshin-II

  • Narasimha Verma-I

Title: Vatapi Konda Mahabali/Mahaballu

The build a new city called Mahabalipuram

  • Narasimha verma-II



Title: Raja simha

He build no of Ghatikas educated inscriptions related to Hindu temples – Vedopasatap

Muslims – Madarasa

  • Nandi Verma –II

2nd last follower of Vyshnavism

  • Nandi Verma-III

A Tamil scholar contemporary to this King

Art and Architecture:-

Initially, they passionate only Rock-cut cave temples

  • Mahindra Verma-I
  1. Siva Cave temple at Sittanavasal this temple had painting and Murals
  2. Ajanta shaman cave temple at undavali Best cave temple
  • Narasimha Verma-I
  1. Mahabalipuram- Many cave temples are build


Imp Caves: Pandavas Caves

Huge Monolithic Chariots

Each chariot caved from single rock

A great huge sculpture is also found

In left side – A muni with penance

In right side – Kailasam, Siva with parvati and water flows from Siva to muni this sculpture was known as “Arjunas Penance”

  • Structural temple build by Narsimha verma-II

He developed a new plan for Hindu temples – Dravidian style

His temples were found at 1. Mahablipuram

  1. Kanchi
  • Mahabalipuram is known as Birth place of Dravidian Architecture

The best temple was “Shore temple” (both Siva and Vishnu temple are found)

  • Aparajita Verma (last king):-

At Tanjavur a Samantha King “Adyta Cholas” assassinated this king

So, the rule of Cholas began

Capital: Tanjavur


  • Pallavas gave importance to Sanskrit
  • Two great Sanskrit scholars-
  1. Bharavi – wrote a book “Kiratarjuniyan”
  2. Dandy

Author of “Dash Kumar Charta”

This book was translated into many languages.

In 13th C Ketene, disciple of Tikkara translated this book into Telugu. So he was called as “Abhinava Dandy”

  • Tamil Literature:-

Some religious literature was composed into Tamil

  1. Prabhandham

Natayira Divya Prabandham

This was composed by 12 Vyshrava Saints and also poet saints popularly known as “Alvars”

Alvars were treated as Semi gods now

Among 12, one women was “Andale”

  1. Tevaram/Tirumurai/Dravidian Veda

This was Tamil sylvan literature composed by “63 Nayanars”

Naynars were also worshiped in temple

Marine archaeology studied that, many temple were found are submerged this was found after Tsunami in 2004

  • Kanchi

Best temple in ancient period—Kailasanatha temple

Raja Simheswara temple:-

Temples of Narasimha Verma-II in Kanchi

  • Vykunta perumal
  • Mukhteswara temple
  • Matangeswara temple

Pokasurameswara temple at Gudimahan, chattier district Mp

At Gudimallam, the 1st Siva lingam was excavate, which belongs to 2nd C AD and it was Ekamukha Lingo.








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