Revolt of 1857


Bareilly – Khan Bahadur, descendant of former ruler of Rohailkhand

Lucknow – Begum Hazrat Mahal proclaimed Birjis Qadir as Nawab.

Arrah – Kunwar Singh, Zamindar


Reason for the revolt

  1. Religion and caste identities proved more powerful than benefits drawn company services, e.g. Afghan wars and 47th regiment at Barrack port refuses to cross ocean.
  2. Christianity being spread as thought offer activities of missionaries in the army rank.
  3. Low emoluments and subordination of Indian in army ranks.
  • Spey was peasant in uniform
  • Peasantry become progressively in acted and impoverished.
  • New land revenue system had caused eviction of 21000 in Oudh.
  • Artisans and handicraftsman were deprived of their traditional employee i.e. princes and
  • Reforming of British angered the conservative and orthodox elements of the society.

Causes of failure of the Revolt

  • Whole country was not behind then
  • Merchants, intelligent and Indian rules not only kept aloof but also supported the British
  • Half of soldiers fought with rebels.
  • Rebels were poorly saved by their leaders except Ram
  • Rebels has no political prospects or a definite vision of the future
  1. Civil Rebellions and tribal uprising
  • Doilian Rebellions were led by deposed rajas and nawabs, land lords and poligars (landed military magnate in South India) and backbone came from rack-rented peasants, rained artisans and demobilized soldiers.                STUDY FOR CIVIL SERVICES-GYAN


  • The major causes of all these was rapid changes that British introduced in the economy administration and (and revenue system)
  1. Disruption of agrarian system bring misery to peasantry in form of increased land revenue
  2. Landlord and poligars resented their extinction of rights or sale of their land to government officials or new men of money
  3. New courts and legal system favoured rich and encouraged them to appears the poor- Hogging for forcing and joining of cultivators
  4. Rain of Indian handcraft industries party as imposition of free trade in India and rest by dispossession of aristocracy class.
  5. Scholarly and priestly class was financially supported by traditional rules and ruling elite.
  6. Very foreign character of the British rule.

Major Rebellion Bengal

  • Sanyasi rebellions (Bankim Chandra Chatarjee’s Anand Math) 1763-1800
  • Chuar uprising 1765-1772
  • Rangapur and Dinajpur, Bishpur

South India

  • Raja of Vizainagarm.
  • Poligars of Tamil Nadu
  • Dewan Velu Thampi of Travancore in 1805

Western India

  • Saurashtra, Kollis of Gujarat
  • Bhil apprising, Kithur led by Chinnava, Satara and God Karries

Northern India

  • Bilaspur, Aligarh and Bardelas of Jabalpur

Causes of failure

  • Socially, economically and political they were back looking.
  • Tim was to test oration of earlier forms of rule and Social relations


  • Suppression of the civil rebellion was the major reason why revolt of 1815 did not space south India, much of eastern and Western India.                  STUDY FOR CIVIL SERVICES-GYAN

Tribal apprising

  1. It ended –isolation and being tribal into new kind revenue system
  2. It recognized tribal chits as zamindars and introduced taratfon of tribal products.
  3. Above all, it introduced a large no. of moneylenders, traders and revenue farmers as middlemen among the tribal.
  4. It assured the forest lands and placed restrictions on access to forced procedure.
  5. The complete disruption of old generation order of the provided the common faster for all the tribal uprising
  6. Tribal identity were get disrupted by the triumvirate. Emergence of message become common theme

The Santali hool

  • Sido and Kanha were principal leaders.
  • (1854) objective was to expel the dikus and annihilation of Allen regime.

Kolas of Chotanagpur

  • 1820-1837

Ramp revolt 1879

  • In Coastal Andhra Pradesh
  • They were tribal men

Ungula 1899-1900

  • By Mundatribe, Birsa Munda
  • He claimed himself a divine Messenger.
  • Religious message soon acquired


  • Causes were same as of civil or tribal uprising
  • Zamindari-rents-illegal does and Begar
  • Ryotwari-revenue- Peasants borrow money from moneylender-tenants-at-will, share droppers and landless labour rats-lands, crops and cattle-landlords, moneylender and rich peasants.

Indigo Revolt (1859-60)

  • Led by Digamber Biswas and Vishnu Biswas in Nadir district.


  • Indigo planters, nearly all Europeans, compelled the tenants to grow Indigo by instalments of forced contracts.
  • Advance was paid to tenants even against their wish.
  • European planers hired lathiyals to enforce contract rather seeing slow moving legal courts.


Hem Chandra Kar, deputy magistrate misreading official letter pro-claimed that tenants cannot be forced.


  • Villagers refused to accept advice’
  • Attack of lathigals countered with force of unity.
  • When planters used zamindari powers, they repelled with rent strike and used legal formers by contributing to a fund.

Supported By

  • Harish Chandra Mukherjee, editor of the Hindu Patriot.
  • Bengal Intelligential.
  • Din Bandhu Mitra’s Neel Darpan.
  • Considerably Hindu-Muslim unity

Pabna Unrest 1870 and Early


  • The unrest was caused by the efforts of the Zamindars To enhance rent beyond legal limits and to prevent the tenants from acquiring occupancy rights under Act X of 1859


  • Agrarian league were formed in Yusuf Shahi parganah in Pabna district.
  • Leagues organised rent strike and challenge Zamindars in the courts.
  • Major form of Struggle remained legal battle.


  • Government enacted Bengal tenancy Act
  • Complete Hindu-Muslim unity

Deccan Agrarian Unrest

  • Poona and Ahmed Nagar Districts of Maharashtra in 1875.
  • Ryotwari system and growing tension between peasants and the money lenders-Marwari or Gujarati


  • Three development occurred
  • American civil war and rise of cotton exports and prices.
  • End of civil war and crashing of cotton prices
  • Government raised land revenue by nearly 50 percent.


  • Initial Social boycotts of outsides’ and ball village servants turned into agrarian riots.
  • Deeds and bonds Publically burned
  • Modern intelligential specially Poona Sarvajanik Sabah, led by Justice Ranade supported the cause of peasants



  • Once deeds were burned, there were no need of violence
  • Deccan Agriculturist’s Relief Act of 1879.

Other Agrarian Unrest

  • Vasudev Balwant Phadke raised a ramose peasant force on the lines of social banditry.
  • Kuka revolt led by Baba Ram Singh.

Characteristics of Agrarian Movements

  • Earlier led by Princes, – and landlords but later were either crushed or co-opted after 1857.
  • Now peasants emerged as main force in agrarian movement.
  • They fought with immediate enemy- planters, landlords and moneylenders but not with colonial govt.
  • They were limited in space and were disappointed with no continuity of straggle or long term organ –
  • Moved by strong notion of legitimacy and strong awareness of his legal rights and asserted them in and outside the courts.
  • Peasants lacked adequate understanding of colonial system.
  • Their struggle with in frame- work of old societal order.
  • They lacked a positive conception of an alternative society- which would unite people in a common struggle
  • However, they were in capable of grasping on it is on the new and complete phenomenon of colonialism

5- Foundation of the Indian National Congress

  • Foundation of INC in 1885 was not historical accident but culmination of a process of political awakening that had it is beginning in the 1860’s and 1870’s and took a major leap in late 1870’s and early 1880’s.
  • Nationalist – 1875-58
  • Indian Association – Satendra Nath Bose and Anand Bose
  • Madras Mahayan Sabah- M – – charier, G. Subramanian Ayer and P. Anand charley
  • Bombay Presidency Association K.I. Teland and Pherozeshah Mehta (Dadabhai Framji and Dinshaw Petty were reactionary)
  • Major Nationalist newspaper came into existence- The Hundu, Tribure, Bengalee, Mahatta and Kesari. Amrita Bazaar Patrika.
  • Large number of agitations were help in last 10 years
  • Cotton import duties compaign
  • Indianization of govt. Services
  • Opposition of Afghan war
  • Disarming through arms act.
  • Albert bill campaign
  • So INC was the culmination of political awakening process.
  • The basic objectives of the early nationalist leaders were to lay foundation of a secular and democratic national movement to politicize and politically educate the people, to form the headquarters of the movement, that is to form an all-India leadership group, and to develop and propagate an anti-eolontal nationalist ideology

Socio-Religious Reforms and the National awakening

  • Despite being regional in scope and content and confined to a particular religion, their general perspectives were remarkably similar; they were regional and religious manifestation of common consciousness (strongly humanistic inspiration)
  • Religion was dominant ideology of the times.
  • Neither arrival of the past nor a total break with tradition was contemplated.
  • Two important intellectual criteria which informed the reform movements were rationalism and religious.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Ray said (rationalism is our only preceptor)
  • Brahma samaj repudiated the Infallibility of the Vedas, and in Aligarh movement, to the reconciliation of the teachings of Islam with the needs of the modern age.
  • Although the ambit of reforms were particularistic, their religious perspective was –
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy defended the basic and universal principles of all religions – monotheism of Vedas and Unitarianism of Christianity.
  • However faced with colonial culture and ideology universalism instead of providing the basic for the development of a secular ethos, retread into religious particular
  • There were two, struggles one for the backward elements of traditional culture and other on the fast hegemonizing colonial culture and ideology. The initial reform efforts represented the former.



  • Off all the national movements in colonial countries, the Indian national movement was firmly rooted in an understanding of nature and character of colonial economic domination and exploitation.
  • In first half of 19th century Indian intellectuals supported British rule in a hope that British would shared modern economic and social system.
  • However hopes faded after 1860’s.
  • Three names stand out in earring economic critique campaign- Dada Bhai Nauroji, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade and R.O. Dutta.
  • G. Ranade- Value of modern industrial development.
  • C. Dutt- Retired ICS officer “The Economic History of India”.
  • Essence of British Imperialism lay in Subordination of Indian economy in all three fronts- trade, Industry and finance.



  • Free trade on the one hand ruining indigenous handicraft industry and at the same time exposing nascent Indian modern industries to unfair competition.
  • Railway was seen precursor of commercial revolution rather than industrial revolution or Indian subsidy to British industries as it enabled imported foreign goods to under sell domestic industrial products.


  • Though there is increase in trade but India become supplier of raw material for British industries and importer of manufactured products.
  • Trade bullion is not used for development of industries or welfare of the people.


  • Early Nationalists were against foreign capital for industrial development. Foreign capital rather than augmenting, displaced the domestic capital
  • Tax on it earns which hurts poor but Rich were not too.

Drain Theory

  • Salaries or pensions of British civil and military officials working in India.
  • Interest on loan taken by Indian government.
  • Profits of British capitalists in India.
  • The home charges or expenses of Indian government in Britain.
  • According to them, this drain amounted to one half of the government revenue, more than entire land revenue collection.

8- The Fight to Secure Press Freedom

  • ­Hindu and Swedish mitran- G. Subramanian Ayer
  • Kesari and Maratha- B.G. Tilak
  • Amrita Bazaar Patrika – Sisir Kumar Gosh and Motilal Gosh.
  • Sudarak- G.K. Gokhle
  • Indian mirror- N.N. Sen.
  • Voice of India- Dada Bhai Nauroji
  • Hindustani and Advocate – G.P. Verma
  • Tribune and Akhbar-i-am in Punjab
  • Indu Prakash, Gyan Parkas, kale, Gujarati-in Bombay
  • Some Parkas, Bangnivasi and Shadavani – in – Bengal
  • Government has enacted section 124 A in 1870 which trades as whoever attempts to excite feelings of disaffection to the government established by law in British India will be transported for we or 3 year imprisonment.
  • Early nationalists combine simplicity with subsidy- simplicity to educate the public and subsidy to convey true meaning without breaking the law.
  • Methods used were Sentiments of loyalty to the queen mix with vitriolic writing.
  • Extend from London based socialist or Irish newspaper.
  • The Vernacular Press Act of 1818 directed only against Indian language newspaper as later critical lord Lytton’s administration in case of famine of 1876-77.
  • Surendra Nath Banerjee, first Indian to go to jail in performance of duty as journalist. It criticised Justice Norris of the Calcutta High Court as he ordered a Idol to be brought to court for judging it is age. (1883)
  • Chapekar brothers associated of Rand, the chairman of the plague committee in Poona, and Lt. Ayer on 27 June 1998.
  • Tilak’s defence of Shivaji’s Killing of Afzal Khan was portrayed by the prosecution as an incitement to kill British officials.
  • Tilak refuse to withdraw his statement and apologise but the same time Tilak condemn the association and declared that he had no intention of preaching disaffection against alien rule.
  • Tilak was booked under section 124A of IPC and sent for 18 month imprisonment in jail.
  • Several cases of bomb attacks on officials occurred in the beginning of 1908.
  • Tilak said ‘Violence, however deplorable, became in evitable’. Once again Tilak was arrested and tried on the charge of sedition. Once again Tilak pleaded not guilty and behaved with exemplary courage.
  • Court awarded him the sentence of six years transportation.
  • The workers of textile mills and railway workshops went on strike for six days Lenin hailed this as the entrance of Indian working class on the political stage.
  • Gandhiji was tried in 1922 for the same offence of sedition under same section 124A for his articles in young India.
  • But Gandhiji pleaded guilty to the charges and took honour of being associated with Tilak’s name


          Indian Council Act 1861

  • Imperial Legislative council can have 6 to 12 members and at least half of them should be unofficial.
  • Could not discuss the actions of government.
  • Could not discuss financial measures or budget.
  • 1988, Peary Mohan Mukherjee and Dinshaw Petit, representative of Big Zamindar and big Merchants respectively supported the enhancement of salt taxes.

Indian Council Act 1892

  • ­10 to 16 members
  • Right to discuss budget but cannot vote nor amend it.
  • Indirectly election through municipal.


  • First half adequate saw the emergence of almost all the major political trends of Indian national movements
  • From conservative moderation to political extremism, from terrorism to incipient socialism.
  • The Swadeshi Movement had its genesis in ant-partition movement.
  • Partition was not only creating two administrative units but reducing Bengalis to a status as proper Bengal will have 16 million Bengali and 37 million Oriya and Hindi speaking population. Division was based on religion.
  • From 1903 to mid 1905 moderate techniques of petitions, memoranda, speeches, public meetings and press campaigns held fall objective was to turn to public opinion in India and England against the partition.
  • The Goal remained unmoved as decision to partition was announced on 18 July 1905. Congress was in need of different strategy.
  • The formal proclamation of swadeshi movement was made on the 7 August 1905. Nation of Boycott of foreign goods was passed.
  • Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods soon spread to the vest of the country.
  • Banaras session (1905) presided by G.K. Gokhale supported the swadeshi and boycott movement for Bengal. Extremist want to extent it forest of India and extend boycott to fall fledged political star struggle.
  • Calcutta session (1906) presided by Dada Bhai Nauroji who have declared the goal of INC was self government or swaraj like that of the United Kingdom or the colonics.

Extremist Agenda

  • Political independence was to achieved through non-cooperation and passive resistance.
  • Auvindo Ghosh kept the option of violent resistance of British repression was stepped up.
  • The swadesh Banda smite set up by Ashwani Kumar Dutt, a school teacher, in Barisal was the most well-known volunteer organisation.
  • The Fold theatre forms such as Jatra were used to disseminate the swadeshi message.
  • Great emphasis is given to self-reliance or Atmasakti as part of National struggle.
  • Art, painting, and science flourished during these time
  • Social base of the national movement was now expanded to include a certain section of zamindar, lower middle class in cities and small towns and school and college students on massive scale.
  • But movement was unable to make headway in mobilizing the peasantry especially its lower rungs and also was not able to garner the support of mass of Muslims and especially the Muslim peasantry
  • Communalists (backed by state) misinterpreted and distorted the use of traditional popular customs, festivals and institutions for mobilizing the masses.

Reasons for failure of swadeshi movements

  • First, government heavy repression
  • The split in 1907 in the Congress the apex all-India organization, weak the movement.
  • Though extremists have used entire game it of Gandhinion methods but they failed to provide effective centralised focus to implementation of these methods.
  • Nature of mass movements it self contained by the fact it earn be run for prolonged period.
  • As moderate car not be called as failure as they invented the idea of economic critique but could not disseminate the idea.
  • In the same way extremists invented non-cooperation and boycott methods but failed to disseminate.


  • By 1907, the moderate nationalists had exhausted their historical role.
  • They lacked faith in common people.
  • They did not organize any all India campaign.
  • Their politics were based on the belief that they would be able to persuade the rulers to introduce economic and political reforms but their practical achievements in this respect were meagre.
  • The British has used new policy, known as the policy of the carrot and the stick.
  • It was three prolonged repression conciliation-suppression.
  • Matters come to nears split of the Calcutta Congress in 1906 over question of its President ship.
  • Four compromise resolutions on the swadeshi, Boycott, National Education and self-governments demands were passed.

Surat 1907 session

  • Question over president ship of doubly elected Ras Bihari Ghose
  • Every Nationalist disappointed by the Minto-Morley reforms.
  • Most of elected members were elected indirectly
  • They (Britishers) did not introduce any element of democracy or self government.
  • Real purpose of MM reforms was to divide the nationalist ranks and to check the growing unity among Indians by encouraging the growth of Muslim communalism by introducing the system of separate electorates.

Revolutionary Terrorism

  • Youths got frustrated by official arrogance and repression and the mendicancy of the congress moderates lack of way to express their patriotism led them to the politics of the Bomb
  • Extremists had failed to find forms through which all these ideas (passive resistance and boycott of foreign cloths, foreigners court, schools etc.) could find practical expression.
  • Objectives of popular mass uprising and changing the loyalty of army were long drawn and uphill tasks, Revolutionary youth decided to copy Irish Nationalists and Russian Nationalists and populists.
  • 1904, V.D. Savarkar (Abhinav Bharat)
  • Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose throw bomb assuming unpopular judge Kingsford.
  • Anushilan samitis and Yuganter.

12- World War I and Indian Nationalism: the Ghadar

  • Britain’s difficulties was India’s opportunities two movements were active Gadara movement and Home rule Movement.
  • Immigration to USA and Canada was opposed by the native American labourers and by the British government
  • Britishers logic were
  • Familiarity of Indians with whites in America is not good for prestige of whites in India.
  • Immigrants would get contaminated by socialistic ideas.
  • Tarak Nath Das (Free Hindustan) realized that while Britishers were with but they did not want migration to North America where they might be infected by ideas of liberty.
  • In 1910, Tarak Nath Das and G.D. Kumar were forced out of Vancouver and they setup United India House in sea in the U.S.
  • Lala Hardayal raised the dormant Indian revolutionary in him after during attack on Lord Harding.
  • These incidents influenced the course of the Gadara movement, the arrest and escape of Har Dayal Kamagata maru incident and outbreak of the First World War.
  • Hardayal was arrested on grounds of anarchist activities although real reason was not unconnected with British government influence. He freed on bail and he slipped using opportunity.
  • Komagata Maru ship chartered from Singapore carrying Indians passengers, began it is journey to Vancouver.
  • The government of Canada plugged the loopholes that resulted in Supreme Court judgement so Komagata maru ship was forced to return to Calcutta.
  • World War I was seen as opportunity without preparation when Ghadarites reached Punjab they found Punjabis the romantic adventure of the Gadara. The chief Khalsa Divan proclaimed its loyalty to the sovereign.
  • Success o f Ghadarites
  • Secularism- contradict loyalty tendency to Sikhs.
  • Egalitarian and democracy later Gadara leader become communist to agitate for formers rights.
  • Gadara movement has failed to understand the amount of preparation in every level- organization ideological strategic, tactical and financial.
  • Hardayal was a propandist, an inspire but poor organizer

13- Home rule movement and it is fallout

Annie Besant launched a campaign through her two papers, New India and Common weal

  • Annie Besant did not succeed in getting support of congress for her programme of Home Rule Leagues. However managed to start them later in September 1916.
  • Annie Besant formed her Home Rule League with George Irondale her organizer secretary.
  • Tilak’s league activity was in Maharashtra (Excluding Bombay city), Karnataka, central.
  • Home Rule activity was directed towards building up an agitation around demand of Home Rule through promoting political education and discussion.
  • Annie Besant and B.G. Tilak supported the Lucknow pact between congress and Muslim league though acceptance of the principal of separate electorates for the Muslims was certainly a most controversial decision
  • Besant Wadia and Irondale were arrested in June, 1917. Sir S. Subramanian Ayer renounced his knight hood. Moderates leaders the Jinnah Banerjee, MMM excited themselves in the league for solidarity.
  • Government in Britain decided to effect a change in policy and adopt a conciliatory posture.
  • The importance of Montagu’s declaration was that after the demand for home rule or self-government could no longer be treated as seditious.
  1. Why Home Rule league were fizzled out in 1918 on words.

An.1. Moderates were pacified by the league of Mrs. Annie Besant and the promise of reforms.

  1. Annie Besant herself indulged in a lot of vacillation in question of government reforms as well as on passive resistance.
  2. Tilak were out of country for libel case in England entrance Home Rule-leader less- Gandhi

Gandhiji’s Early Carer and Activism

Gandhi Ji Struggle in South Africa

  • White settlers recruited indentured Indian labour mainly from South Indian and later come Indian merchants. mostly man Muslim
  • They were mostly electorate in English.

Gandhi Ji Phase

  • 1st phase was moderate phase of struggle of South African Indians. He started the Newspaper Indian opinion.
  • After 1906, he use passive which he help satyagraha
  • Certificate registration was essential any these on person at all times.
  • Government brought in legislative to restrict Indian immigration.
  • Polls tax on Indian forced labourer and Indian marriage were declared illegal.
  • Through service of negotiations involving Gandhi, Lord Harding, C.F. Andrews and agreement was reached.
  • Three struggle were launched India under leadership Gandhi

Chaperon Satyagrah

Cause: Released from teenkathiya system in new of increased rents and other illegal dues.

Demand: The Tinkathiya system needed to be abolished and compensated for illegal enhancement.

Compromise: 25% of illegal dues Raj Kumar shukla, RP JB .

  1. Ahmadabad labour dispute

Cause:  plague bonus was to be withdrawn once epidemic passed.

Demand: Worker wanted it to stay once the enhancement handy compensated for the living due to world war.

Gandhi solution: demand would be determined through arbitration by tribunal.

Consequences: tribunal ordered for 35 year increase in wages

Key person; Anusuya Ben sister of friend-turned-foe Ambalal Sarabhai


3 Kheda Satyagrah

Cause: The peasants were in distress due to failure of crops and their appeals for the remission of the land revenue were ignored

Demand: Total remission of land revenue Gandhi with holding o revenues

Consequences: Government hinted that those who can pay should pay.

  1. Rowlett Satyagrah

Cause: Government passed two bills (committee chaired by Rowlett) to curb civil liberties in the name of curbing terrorist violence.

Demand: Satyagrah was launched, members of Home Rule, leagues more than willing together

Consequences: Movement emerged was different from planned. Considerable violence in the streets o Delhi (6 April movement was launched 18th April: Jalliawala Bag on the day of Baisakhi.

15- The Non-Cooperation Movement 1920-22

  • On 9 June, 1920, the Khilafat committee at Allahabad University accepted the suggestion of non-cooperation and asked Gandhi to lead the movement.
  • 1st August congress started non-cooperation movement the day Lokmanya Tilak was passed away.


  • Defeat of Man Empire in 1st world war.
  • Jalliawala Bag, Hunter committee was on eye wash and house of lords had voted in the favour of Dyer
  • Even moderates were disillusion with the government reforms programme of non-cooperation.
  • Surrenders titles and honours
  • Boycott of government affiliated schools and colleges, law courts, foreign cloths could be extended to include resignation from government services and mass civil disobedient including non-payment of taxes


Goal of Congress

  • Goal was changed from the attainment of self-government by constitutional and legal means to the attainment of swaraj by peaceful and legitimate means.
  • Congress working committee of fifteen members to look its day to day attains
  • Provincial congress committees were organised on a linguistic basis for more people-to-people contact.

Consequences of Movement

  • Educational boycott was highly successful.
  • Boycott of law courts was not as successful as was educational boycott
  • Most successful item of the programme was the boycott of foreign cloths.

Reasons for withdraw of Movement

  • He already told ‘no-violence’ the Bardoli sytyagrah civil disobedience (it could have been defeated if Gandhi was arrested)
  • There was considerable demoralization but can be more demoralization if repression continued
  • Movement had shown clear signs of being on the ebb


  • After Non-cooperation, the charge of representing a ‘microscopic’ minority made by the could never be hurdled at INC
  • Many places, Muslims gave the mass character to the movement


16- Peasant Movement and Nationalism in the 1920

The Kisan Sabah Movement

Causes: Talukadars or big landlords strengthen and over the of Awadh in 1856 illegal levies, reward fees or nazrana and arbiter

After World War I High prices make the ore miserable

Method: Organization of the peasants on modern lines into Kisan Sabhas key persons: Gauri Shankar Mishra, Indra Narain Dwidi and with support of MMM.

Demand: Oudh Kisan Sabha asked the Kisans to refuse to till bedakis land, not to after hari and beggar.

Consequences: Pattern of activity was the looting of bazaars, houses, granaries and charts with the police.

  • Government brought seditious meetings Act and Oudh Rent Amendment) Act brought decline of the movement.

Eke Movements

Cause: The main grievances here related to the extraction of a rent that was 50% higher than recorded rents, the oppression of the kedars to whom the work of rent collection was formed out and practice of share-rents.

Demand: They would pay only the recorded rent but pay it on time.

Consequence: Madavi pasi or other lower caste leaders who were not included to accept the discipline of non-violence contact with nationalists diminished. Heavy repression brought the movement to stand still.

Moppilla Revolt

Causes: Lack of security of tenure, renewal fees, high rents and other oppressive landlord exactions spark: congress and Khilafat leaders supported tenants cause.

  • Government issues prohibit arrest for Khilafat tenets leaders.
  • This resulted leadership to pass into hands of local leaders
  • 1st phase: Targets of attack were the unpopular Jemmies (landlords) and courts, police stations and office.
  • 2nd phase: Once British declared martial law and repression began, some Hindu supported British either after being assured. Revolt takes common character so later heavily repressed.


Bardoli Satyagrah

Causes: 30% increase over land revenue later reduced to 21.97% after press campaign by Gandhi through young India and Navjivan.

Demand: Refuse Payment until independent tribunal or take current as full payment.

Method: Kalyan and Kumar Mehta and Dayal Desai worked hard to spread the message of NCM

17- Indian Working class and the National Movement

  • Modern worker makes his appearance in India in the second half of the 19th century with the slow beginning of modern industry and the growth of utilities like the Railways and the post and the telegraph network.
  • Prior to 20th Century attempt organised effort to improve the condition of the workers remained philanthropic efforts.
  • Mainstream National movement in fact was yet indifferent to the question of labour.
  • Also, have differential attitudes towards European enterprises and Indian enterprises. Having following reasons-
  1. The nationalists did not wish to in any way, weaken the common struggle against British rule but later anti-imperialist united front unity was no longer sought at unilateral cost of the worker and the oppressed
  2. Earlier Nationalists saw rapid industrialisation as the problems of the Indian poverty (However exception remains as Maratha under G.S. Agarkar)
  • The swadeshi upsurge of 1903-08 was a distinct lord-mark in the history of the labour movement.
  • Two distinct features of this period were rise of the ‘professional agitator and ‘power’ of organization of labour into industrial strikes.
  • However differential attitude persuaded throughout this period
  • Biggest shift was from only economic question to wider political issues of the day.


Activity of during 1920s

  • The working class now created its own national-level organization to defend its class rights
  • The most imp development was the formation of the All India Trade Union Congress (AIITU) in 1920 Lajpatrai (first) link capitalism with imperialism and emphasize the crucial role of working class in fighting this combination.
  • Gandhi said in trusteeship concept that mill worker are the owner of the mill and if ‘trustee’ mill owner do not act in the interest of real most is should offer satyagrah to start their rights.

18- The struggles for Gurudwara Reform and Temple entry

  • Struggle to reform the Indian Society (social and religious ) led to clash with colonial
  • As social base of colonialism narrowed, the colonial authorities began to seek support of social, cultural reactionary economical

Akali Movement

Objective: Freeing Gurudwara from control of ignorant and corrupt Mahants.

Cause: Government gave full support to the Mahants and used as managers to preach loyalist Golden temple at Amritsar issued a hakmam against Ghadarites.

  • Declaring them renegades and then honoured General Dyer and declare him to be Sikh
  • Government easily transferred the keys of Akali fact and choose not to antagonise reformers
  • Shiromani Gurudwara committee and shiromani Akali dale central body to struggle for the cause
  • Seeing the emerging integration of Akali movement with Nationalism it decided to follow a two pronged policy 1. Neutralize moderate 2. repress the extremists of Akali in the name of maintaining law and order
  • However Akalis gave full support to the Nationalists key persons.
  • Kartar Singh Jhabhar-libeator of Nonkana shahib
  • Baba Kharak singh and master Tara Singh- keys of Toshakhana of golden temple
  • The movement encouraged the religiosity which later utilized by communalism.
  • 3 streams emerged out of Akali movement
  1. Unionist party –loyalist
  2. Leftist kirti Kisan or
  3. Akali dale – vacillated nationalist and loyalist, mixing religion and politics


19- The Years of Stagnation Swajaists, No-changers and Gandhi

  • Congress was in disarray after arrest and conviction of Gandhi for 6 years imprisonment
  • Two Themes emerged, one congress-Khilafat Swaraj party and second being no changer
  • Swaraj party led by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru wanted to expose the councils as impotent by ending-or-mending the councils
  • Transform the councils as arena of political struggle on which the struggle for overthrow of colonial state was to be carried out
  • No changers opposed them as parliamentary work would lead to the neglect of constructive work, among masses, the loss of revolutionary zeal and political corruption.
  • However partition was avoided by
  1. Both factions realize real overthrow can happen through satyagrah
  2. Both factions believed in the leadership of Gandhiji

Working of Swaraj party

  • 1923 elections
  • 42 Seats in central assembly
  • Clear majority in the central provinces, largest in Bengal, quite well in Bombay and U.P. not in Madras and Punjab.
  • Problem in 1919 reform, the viceroy of governor could certify any legislation, including a budgetary grant, if it was rejected in the legislature
  • Three set of problems taken by swarajist party in the legislature
  1. Problem of constitutional advance leading to self-government
  2. Civil liberties, release of political prisoners, and the repeal of repressive laws;
  3. Development of indigenous industries.


Limitation of Swarajist:-

  1. After out voting the government and forced it to certify its legislation, there was no way of going further inside the legislature, which could be achieved through mass movement, but they lacked co-ordinating strategy without side world.
  2. The Swarajist could not carry their co-alit ion partner for ever.
  3. Very soon responsible arose in the party who wanted to work for the reforms and to hold office where ever possible
  • 1926 election
  • Two front attack on Swarajist the government loyalist and resurgent Hindu and Muslim communalists on the other.
  • In election forced badly Public Safety Bill (1928) to deport undesirable and subversive foreigners mainly the communist international
  • No changers work undemonstrative, grass roots constructive work around promotion of Khadi and spinning National education and Hindu-Muslim unity, struggle against untouchability and boycott of foreign cloths.
  • Constructive work was a major channel for soldiers of freedom and their political training constructive workers were to act as the steel frame of the nationalist movement in its active satyagrah

Bhagat Singh, Surya Sen. and the Revolutionary Terrorists

  • Sudden suspension of the NCM shattered the hopes of many Youth began to question of Nationalist leadership and its emphasis on non-violence and began to look for alternative
  • Gradually two separate strands of revolutionary terrorism develop in Punjab, Up and Bihar and second in Bengal
  • New sound forces like working class made unionism have influence ever there activity
  • Second Influence was that of the Russian Revolution and success of the young socialist state
  1. 3rd influence was that of the newly sprouting communist groups with their emphasis on socialism and the

Revolution of Northern India

  • Sachin Sanyal’s Bandi Jeevan served as text book for later revolutionaries
  • 1924, Hindustan Republican Association/Army to organize armed revolution to overthrow colonial role and establish a Federal Republic of united states of India(based on adult franchise)
  • Action was Kakori Robbery which was later proved to be disaster for the HRA
  • 1928- Young Revolutionaries met at Firozshah kotla to organize Hindustan socialist Republican Association (army)
  • Bhagat Singh, Azad and Raj guru assassinated Saunders which ordered lathe charge on Lala Lajpat Ray
  • HSRA decided to let people know about their changed objectives and need for Revolution of masses. Public safety Bill and the trade dispute bill passage was made target. Bhagat Singh and Batta Keswar Dutt threw Bomb at central assembly.
  • Jatin das, failing young man died due to fasting


Revolution in Bengal

  • After CR Das death, congress leadership divided into two faction – Subhas Chandra Bose (Yugantar group) and J.M. Sengupta (Anushilan group)
  • Gopinath Sabah was hanged because he targeted a hated police commissioner although killing another one name day
  • Surya Sen., (Chittagong group) Humanism is a special virtue of a revolutionary under his leadership was conducted on but they could not locate communication.
  • Large scale participation by women in the terrorist movement
  • Kaplan Dutt gets life sentence
  • Santi Gosh and santi choudhary shot dead DM.
  • Bina das fined point blank at the governor

Different between Revolutionaries of northern Indian and Bengal

  • Chittagong rebels was a group action aimed at the organs of colonial state but Bhagat Singh and his replied on individual’s act of heroism or the assassination of a individual

Bhagat Singh

  • Avaricious reader, one of the most well read political leader of his time
  • After his arrest he transformed Jail into a veritable University
  • The Philosophy of the Bomb was written by Bhagwati charan Vohra.
  • Punjab Naujawan Bhagat Sabah to carry out open political work among the youth, peasants and workers
  • Lahore students Union for open legal work among the students by Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev
  • Singh’s work ‘end exploitation of man by man’ is the revolution.
  • Singh’s says communalism was as big as enemy as colonialism
  • Revolutionaries want to transcend natural time for acquiring new ideology and recruiting young revolutionaries through heroic Act.


21- The Gathering Storm 1827-29

  • Touch of nationalism kept alive by Gandhinian conservative worker, swarajist, Akali and Kaya tribal’s
  • Similar to Rowlett Bills catalyst was provided by all white Simon commission
  • Call for boycott of the commission was endorsed by the liberal federation (Tej Bhadur Saptu) Indian industries and commercial congress
  • The Hindu Mahasabha, Muslim league (Jinnah in favour of boycott)
  • December 1927, complete independence as a goal of the congress
  • JN had returned from Europe in 1927 after representing the INC at the Brussels congress of league against imperialism
  • Lord Birkenhead, secretary of state harped on the inability of Indians to formulate a scheme of constitutional reform

Nehru Report

  • Dominion state for India
  • Rejected separate electorates
  • Seats reserved for Muslims at centre and provinces in which they are minority but not where

Civil disobedience 1930-1931

  • 11th March 1930 Dandy March started in the Sabarmati Ashram on 6th April he picked salt and thus breaking salt law
  • Rajagopalachari Trichnopoly to Vedaraniyam on Tanjoure coast
  • Kelappan, hero of Viacom satyagrah walked from Calicut to Dayanur
  • Similarly a walk from Elect to Noakholi
  • For Indian women, the movement was the most liberating experience to date and can truly be said to have marked their entry into


23- From Karachi to Wardha The year from 1832-1934

  • Karachi session is memorable on fundamental rights and the national economic programme
  • Congress defined swaraj as in order to end exploitation of the masses political freedom must include real economic freedom of the starving millions
  • Free and compulsory primary education
  • RTC was convinced with majority of loyalists in the confidence
  • British policy was build up by Gandhi loyalists must act

24- The Rise of the left-Wing

  • Rise of CPI and CSP
  • A. Dange wrote Gandhi and Lenin
  • Nehru and Bose have left leaning leaders within congress
  • Nehru popularise political freedom along with economic freedom – emancipation of masses
  • Nehru hold that the replacement of the present system by a higher ideal of co-operative service.
  • Nehru has complete relationship with Gandhi Ji as later refused to recognize the conflict of classes, preaching harmony between exploited and exploiters, his theory of trusteeship


  • MN Roy along with Lenin helped evolve the communist internationals policy towards the colonies M.N. Roy established CPI however independent of it groups come together in 1925 and formed CPI
  • Kanpur Boot shaved conspiracy case
  • Meerut conspiracy case weaken the left movement
  • LEFTIST DEVIRTION –was the biggest setback
  • C. Joshi reorganised CPI and bring CPI back into fore of Nationalism

Congress Socialist Party

  • Young congressman disenchanted with Gandhinian strategy and leadership and attracted towards Social union
  • CSP was formed in 1934 under leadership of J.P. Acharya Narendra Dev and Mino Masonic
  • CSP was family grounded into the Indian situation of British. As 1938, they refused to support Bose in his Gandhi ji and his right wing of the congress
  • We only want to influence the congress decisions


25- Strategic Debate 1934-1937

  • Rajagopalachari white no changer recommended the swarajist approach to Gandhi ji with proviso that the congress should itself undertake parliamentary work
  • Third tactical perspective based that continuation of non-violent mass movement as two other causes entry and con active programme G.S they think situation continued to be revolutionary due to economic crises and readiness of mass to fight
  • Nehru emphasised on S-V struggle victory type of method logy to admire independence
  • Clouds of split began to intervention of Gandhi two factions refuses to split
  • Gandhi backed pro-council leaders as no less particles and elected Nehru as Congress president in 1986
  • Gandhi jj was out of fame of power full trends in the congress as large section still favouring parliamentary politics (his fundamental disagreement)
  • Congress won 45 seat out of 75 in central assembly

Why Reforms of 1935

  1. Intention was to propup moderate faction of the society and also of congress
  2. Representative of princely status appointed by princes hence putting princes against nationalists
  3. Provincial autonomy would create powerful provincial leaders hence congress would be province

Second Stage of Debate


  • All of them agreed that the 1935 Act must be opposed root and branch.
  • Opposition from leftist leadership Negation of opposition of 1935 Act
  • If would take away revolution character of the movement
  • Leftist recommended old swarajist strategy.
  • But mass movement was not possible so it is need to be a constitutional phase
  • If congress left the field then reactionary would take over.
  • Finally through election tours and results heartened Nehru made him reconcile to the dominant strategy of S-T-S


26- Twenty-Eight Months of Congress Rule

  • TS stop provincialization parliamentary sub-committee was formed
  • The congress has now dual role government of provinces and GS the opposition the central government
  • Functions of congress were
  1. Civil liberties – All emergency powers were repealed like PSA though ban on common of party remained as imposed by central government police powers were curbed shadowing of political works by CID. Kakori revolutionaries were released.
  2. Peasants and the workers
  • Reform of the system of land tenures and the reduction of rent.
  • But did not attempt to completely over haul of the agrarian
  • All illegal exactions such as Nazarene and beggar were abolished.


  • The period of the congress ministries witnessed the emergence of serious weakness in the congress.
  • Oppositions, self seekers and carrier drawn by lure of office into the congress fold.
  • As Gandhi accepted the resignation to cleanse the congress.
  • One of the great achievement was their firm handling of communal riots

28- The Freedom Struggle in Princely India

  • General Conditions in the princely state.
  • States were unmitigated autocracies
  • Burden of the land tax was usually heavier than British India
  • As princes were called upon to play work of reaction
  • 1927, all India states people conference (AISPC) was established
  • Leaders were Balwant Mehta Manilal Kothari and G.R.
  • Policy of the Indian congress towards the state was though individuals can be member of the state congress but congress would not initiate political activity in the name of congress but in individual capacity or by local organization
  • Urgency of responsible government was hastened by the 1935 Act as 1/3rd on federal legislative members would act as a solid conservative block
  • 1937, congress ministries formal the government in provinces Praia mandals mush in many states. Major struggles broke out in Jaipur, Kashmir, political etc
  • Policy of 1938, changed earlier non-intervention policy



  • Lakhajiraj taken great care to promote the industrial, education and political development
  • Lakhajiraj died in 1939 and his Dharmendra Singh soon took charge of the state
  • Durbar decided to ignore the political departments advice and go ahead with a settlement with Sardar Patel
  • But defiance by the Thakore could hardly welcomed the British government
  • List of name Sardar Patel suggested rejected as did not give representation to Rajput Muslims, and the depressed classes
  • Gandhi ji intervened negotiations-chief justice’s Award- Jinnah and Ambedkar
  • Thokre dishonoured the agreement-Gandhi ji apologized to the Viceroy and chief Justice



  • Nizam’s dominions Marathis speaking (20 %.), Konnad (22%) and Telugu (50%)
  • 10% of area which accounted for meeting royal expenses only
  • Forced labour was prevalent in the Nizam’s dominion
  • Cultural and religious suppression by the Nizam
  • Swami Ramanad launched the satyagrah however after 2 months, on Gandhi Ji insistence, satyagrah was suspended because there was a satyagrah by Arya Samaj followers hence to be distinguished
  • Join India satyagraha launched JP was actively involved in the movement
  • In organizing the defence against the Razakars and attacks on Razakars’s camps, the communities played a very important role
  • Peasant were organized into dalams, given training in arms, and mobilize for the anti-Nizam struggle
  • As case in Hyderabad and Rajkot, non-violent mass civil disobedience or satyagrah did not same viability
  • Much greater tendency in these states to resort to violence method of agitation
  • Communists and other left groups, less hesitation about violent form of struggle were placed in a more favourable situation in these states


30-The Development of a Nationalists Foreign Policy

  • From beginning the Indian Nationalists opposed British policy of intervention in internal matter of states, the use of Indian army and resources to promote British interest and defend British imperialism in Africa and Asia.
  • More Wars-More finance-More burden on Indians
  • Nationalists opposed Afghan war, expedition on Egypt, Burma, Tibet and also Anglo-Russian
  • Three major themes during 1880-1914
  1. Sympathy and support for people fighting for independence and liberation. Boxer uprising was supported
  2. Asia consequences 1885 attack on Burma raised the identity of Asian defeat of Russia by Japan boosted the morale of Indians
  3. Understand the economic rationale including foreign capital exports of imperialism attack a Burma was motivated
  • Indian national leaders including Lokmanya Tilak favoured/supported the war. Hope was that British government would repay the loyalty of Indian in form of economic and political concessions including self government and would apply principals of democracy in India.
  • Indians supported Burma struggle in 1920s and would give independence if India gets the same


= Travel of Nehru to Europe and came into contact of left-wing European leaders and thinkers.

  • International congress against colonial oppression and imperialism, Brussels in Feb 1927
  • Nehru came to understanding of US imperialism in Latin America
  • Fascism triumphant in Italy and Germany. It extended full support to Ethiopia, China, Spain and Slovakia
  • Gandhi Ji condemned the execution of few in Germany under Hitler rules
  • 1938, Hitler began his diplomatic and political aggression of Slovakia hence Nehru rejected to be state guest of Berlin but went to Prague instead
  • France and Britain see fascists Germany to be natural counter poise against Soviet Union
  • 1937, Japan launched attack on China, Congress send a medical team under Dr. M. Atoll Dr. Konia lay down his life in the war

31- The Rise and Growth of Communalism

  • Communal ideology consists of three basic elements-
  1. People following one religion have common secular interests that is, common, political, social and cultural interests.
  2. Liberal or moderate communalism, in a multi-religious society like India, there is divergence of interest of different communities. Most of the communalist before 1987- the Hindu Mahasabha, the Muslim league, Ali brothers after 1935. Jinnah, MMM
  3. Extreme communalism interests of follower of different communities are seen to mutually incompatible antagonistic and hostile have a fascist syndrome formed last stage filled with fear and hatred “what communalist projected as problems were not the real problems, and what communalist said was the answer was not the real answers”
  • Communalism, as other modern views as nationalism and socialism could emerge only politics based on the people, politics of popular participation and mobilize opposed to upper based class polities
  • Due to colonialism, new ways for seeing one’s common interests was called for
  • New emerging political reality and social relations and the adoption of new writing principles new political and social identity was bound to be difficult and gradual process. Process involves the spread of modern ideas of nationalism, cultural linguistic development and class struggle.
  • Growth was slow and partial, people used the old, familiar pre-modern categories of self-identity caste, locality, region, religion sect and occupation to grapes the reality to make wider connection and to evolve new identities and ideologies.
  • Though growth of communalism was not inherent in the situation, it was not a mere conspiracy of power hungry politicians and crafty administration either
  • Reasons for growth of communalism –
  1. Unemployment was acute problem in India.

Nationalists – Long term sol

Communalists – short term sol and narrow immediate interests.

Economic stagnation– Intense competition among individuals for government Jobs, in professions like law and medicine- all means of theirs disposals.

  1. Gradually social base expanded into Zamindars and rich peasants who were job seeking.
  2. In the absence of openings in industry, commerce, education the government was main employer, the communal question was therefore a middle class question par excellence
  3. Secular Indian social development in several parts of the country, religious distinction coincided with social, and class distinction e.g.
  4. Muslim Zamindars turn the anger of Muslim tenants towards Hindu traders and moneylenders. Made the question of Zamindars-tenants to a Hindu-Muslim conflict
  5. Bengal has 75% of Hindu landlords. Permanent settlement eliminating old Hindu and Muslim family with new money of Hindu moneylender.


“Colonial history guaranteed the growth and economic domination of merchant-moneylenders: medieval history had guaranteed that they would mostly be Hindus.

  • Communal fissure was the most serviceable from point of view of British admin.
  • British encouraged and nurtured communalism through way of –
  1. Freaking Hindu, Muslim and Sikhs as separate communalists. India is not nation or nation in making but consists of mutually excessive and antagonistic religion based communities.
  2. Official patronage and patronage were extended to communal
  3. Communal press and persons and agitation were shown extraordinary tolerance
  4. Communal demands readily accepted as in 1906 and 1932.
  5. Recognized their organization and leaders as real spoke person for their communities, but nationalists were treated as representing a microscopic minority the elite
  • A strong contributory factor in the growth of communalism was Hindu in much of nationalist thought and propaganda in beginning of 20th
  • Bunkim Chandra Chatterjee and many other writers in Bengali, Hindu etc often referred to Muslims as foreigners in their novels, plays, poems tended to identity nationalism with Hindus
  • Ancient India as glory of India medieval period of Muslims beginning James mills (why not Christian period)
  • Religion was not responsible for communalism, religiosity was a major contributory factor
  • Religiosity tendency to let religious emotions intrude into non-religious or non-spiritual areas of life and beyond the individual’s private and moral world.
  • Secularization means reducing the religiosity

32- Communalism- The Liberal Phase

  • No communalism before last quarter of the 19th
  • Syed Ahmed loudly preached the commonness of Hindus and Muslims till founding of the congress.
  • Syed Ahmed, believing that the Muslim share in administrative posts and profession could be increased only by professing and proving the loyalty to colonial rulers.
  • So Syed Ahmed introduced the communal ideology that if representative government formed in Indian than Hindus will override the interests of the smaller community.
  • Muslim league was formed at the end of 1907, its activities were directed wards national congress and Hindus and not against the colonial regime.
  • Hindu communalism was also being born.


All over India, anti-cow slaughter propaganda was undertaken in the early 1890s; the British cantonments were left free to carry on cow slaughter on a large scale.

1st session of All-India Hindu Mahasabha was held in April 1915 under the president ship of the Maharaja of Kasim Bazaar.

  • The weak position of the middle class among Muslims and its social and ideological backwardness contributed to the growth of Muslim communalism
  • Separate electorate did not have appeal to voters belonging to other religions, so could make blatantly communal appeal
  • Assigning the ‘original blame’ to the other communalism a sort of backdoor justification for one’s own communalism is province.
  • 1912 to 1924, young nationalists began to over shadows the loyalists in the league. But their nationalism was flowed in so for they were not fully secular. Strong religious and pan-Islamic tinge. Instead opposing on economic and political consequences of modern imperialism, they fought on ground of threatening of capital and holy places.

This religious tinge did not the harm the national movement immediately but in long run it proved harmful as it brought habit of seeing political question from religious of view.

Pitfall of 1916 Lucknow Pact

  • The congress accepted the separate electorate and hence formally acknowledgement communal politics.
  • The Pact was totally based on the assumption that India consist of different communities with separate interests of their own.
  • There was nothing wrong in the nationalist movement taking up a demand that affected Muslims only Sikhs Akalis untouchability among Hindu.

But Khilafat leaders made appeals to religion and made full use of false. Hence they kept an opening for communal ideology and politics to grow at a later state- strengthened the hold of orthodoxy and priest hood over the minds of people.

Diarchy becomes operational after post non-cooperation movement, communalism record its ugly, old communal organizations were, revealed and fresh one founded. These years that sangthan and Shuddhi movement among Hindus and Tanzeem and Tabligh movements among Muslims came up.

  • The nationalist was not able to evolve an effective line of action. It is basic strategy was to try to bring about unity at top with communal leaders
  • Delhi proposals two point made their way in Jinnah’s fourteen points. (Proportional representation in Bengal and Punjab)
  • Congress effort to co-ordinate top leaders made implicit acceptance that they are representative of their community and there by weakened the position of secular, anti-imperialist Muslim and Muslim leaders like Azad, Ansari and Asaf Ali
  • All effort to compromise would led to temporary effort as seen in Lucknow poet and to some extent the Nehru report as soon as one group is appeased a more extreme or recalcitrant leader or group emerged and pushed up the communal demand.
  • The REAL answer lay in an all-out opposition to communalism in all areas-ideological, cultural, social and political take up peasants cause where their class struggle was being distorted into communal channels
  • Gandhi Ji several times stalked his life for the secular
  • But Gandhi Ji and the congress provided no-deeper analysis of the communal phenomenon
  • More ever in 1932, in an effort to bolster the sagging Muslim communalism, the British government announced the communal award which accepted virtually all the Muslim communal demands embodied in the Delhi proposals of 1927 and Jinnah fourteen points of 1929

33- Jinnah, Golwalkar and Extreme Communalism

  • Liberal communalist argued that India consisted of distinct religion-based communists which had their own separate and special interests which often came into mutual conflict. But also accepted that the ultimate destiny of Indian politics was the merger of the different communities into single nation.
  • Liberal communalism had also a rather narrow social base. Politically, it was based mainly on the upper and middle class.
  • Because of the revolutionary upper class base of communalism, an appeal to radical social issues could not be made. So appeal was made to religion.
  • From unionist party to Muslim league.
  • D. Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha President, began to condemn ‘selfish’ class tussle between land lords and tenants.
  • Communal card alone was available in hand of Britishers against national movements
  • Congress resigned from ministries and demanded that the British would give complete freedom after the war
  • Britishers answer:


The league was recognized as the sole spoke person for the Muslim and given the power to veto any political settlement. A successful right wing model of mass politics became available in form of the fascist movement. Both Hindu and Muslim communalist decided to follow this model. Urgency was added by the Nehru’s Muslim mass contact programme communalists ideology is an inclined plane on which a constant side down becomes inevitable unless counter steps are taken.

  • Jinnah could not give up communalism without losing all political influence as become apparent in 1928-29 during Nehru report discussion Jinnah has 3 options left:
  1. Stick with his semi-nationalist, liberal communalism
  2. To abandon communal politics
  3. Take mass politics which in view of the semi-feudal and semi-loyalist social base of the league and his own socially economically and politically conservative views could only be based on the Islam in danger and danger of a Hindu raj
  • RSS became the chief ideologue and propagator of extreme communalism
  • Two major controversy –
  1. Jinnah had been conciliated during 1937-38 in particular, it a coalition government with the Muslim League had been formed in UP in 1937
  2. However Jinnah never told what demand would satisfy him as impossible condition was laid down by him that congress leadership should 1st renounce its secular character and decline itself a Hindu communal body and accept the Muslim league as the sole representative of the Muslims
  3. It is also not true that congress failure regarding communalism occurred in 1947 when it accepted the partition of the country. Perhaps there was no other option of the time unless there can be a civil war.

34- The Crisis at Tripura to the Cripps Mission

  • 1938- Bose unanimous choice
  • 1939- Bose decided to stand again this time as militant political leader and radical group
  • Bose defeated Sitaramayya by 1980 to 1977
  • One was the line of propaganda adopted by Bose against Sardar Patel and majority of congress leader whom he called rightists.
  • Nehru did not like the idea of confronting Bose publicly. But he did not agree with Bose either.
  • At Tripura session of the congress. Bose had completely miss judged his support
  • Bose wanted Gandhi Ji to be leader of the congress but the policy of him and his left followers.
  • Bose could not get support of the congress socialists and the communists at Tripura
  • Bose formed forward block within the congress
  • World war was broke out in Europe. British declared India to be at war with Germany without the congress
  • Gandhi Ji reaction was highly emotional. He was for full and unquestioning support for Britain in war.
  • Socialists and Subhash Bose war is a imperialist war which was trying to defend their colonial territory.
  • Jawaharlal had a stand of his own. He was against Nazi aggression but also communal that Britain and France were imperialist country and wars result of inner contradiction of capitalism
  • Gandhi Ji position was not supported by his closer followers and hence decided to support Nehru’s position which was then adopted by the working committee

They Demanded

  • If Britain was fighting for democracy and freedom then it should prove that in India asked for the war aims that would be implemented after the war

Britishers Reply

  • Tried to use the Muslim league and the princes against the congress and refused to define Britain war aims beyond starting the Britain was resting aggression
  • The secretary of the state land branded the congress as a purely Hindu organizations

India’s Reaction

  • Dominant leadership
  • Congress had not enough organization capacity to immediately launch on civil mass disobedience movement.
  • Left wing and Subhas Bose
  • War arises give them opportunity and masses are ready for action
  • Communal tension will be resolve during the period of civil disobedience.
  • Nehru, dilemma resolved by going along with dominants leadership
  • Individual Satyagrah
  • Later called as Delhi chalo movement
  • The demand of a satya grahi would be for the freedom of speech to preach against participation in the war through men or money.
  • Binova Bhave and Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Two changes happen
  1. Nazi Germany had already occupied Poland, Belgium, Norway and France
  2. Japan had ran over almost all of south east Asian countries
  • President Roswell of USA and Chine president
  • Indian leaders were released from prison
  • Cripps Mission was sent.


Cripps Mission

  • Headed by Sir Stafford Cripps
  • Declaration promised dominion state to include
  • Constitution making body having elected members of provincial assemblies and nominated by the rulers in case of princely states
  • The state which do not accept the new constitution can have separate agreement with Britain government

36- Quit India Movement

  • At Gowalia tank, Gandhi Ji proclaimed the door die mantra.
  • But government was in no mood to either negotiate with the congress or wait for the movement to be formally launched
  • Reaction was most intense in East UP and Bihar where it take attained the proportions of a rebellion
  • The Brutal and all-out repression succeeded within a period of weeks in bringing about a cessation of the mass phase of the struggle
  • Sumanti Mukherjee, who became India’s leading woman industrialist, helped Asyut Patwrdhan to evade detection by providing him with a different car every day.
  • Gandhi Ji started the 21 day fact and held government responsible for the violence.
  • 3 Viceroy executive council members resigned. Who had supported the government its suppression of the 1942 movement, but were in no mood to be a party to Gandhi Ji death
  • Parallel Government in different part of country-


Ballia – Chitty Pande

Tanaluk – Jatiya sarkar

Satara – Prati Sarkar

  • Aruna Asaf Ali and Sucheta Kripalani were two major women organizer. Usha Mehta member of small group that the congress radio
  • Peasants activity was attacking symbols of British authority and absence of anti-zamindar violence
  1. Quit India movement had greater element of sporting pattern of Gandhinian movement was that the leadership checked out abroad programme of action and left its implementation at local level to the initiate of the local and grass root level political activists and the masses.
  • Salt satyagrah by Gandhi Ji

Stop payment of rent and revenue forest laws, or picket shops or follow any other item

  1. Many staunch Gandhians, who used ‘violent means’ in 1942 felt that the peculiar stones warranted their use in Francis view, Gandhi Ji major objection to violence was that its use prevented mass participation in a movement, but that, in 1942 Gandhi Ji had come round to view that mass participation would not be restricted as a result of violence

Indian National Army (INA)

  • The idea of the INA was first conceived in Malaya, by Mohan Singh.
  • Japanese wanted only a token force of 2000 men, while Mohan Singh wanted to raise an Indian National Army of 20000
  • Bose returned to Singapore and set up the provisional government of free India. The it declared war on British and united states

36- Post War National Upsurge

  • Congress won over 90 years of the general seats in principal elections while the Muslim league made a similar sweep in the Muslim constituencies.
  • Speeches were made about enquires into official actions
  • The defence of the INA prisoners was taken up by the congress and Bhula Bhai Desai, Tej Bahadur Sapru, K-N-Katju, Nehru ad Asaf Ali appeared in court at the historic Red Fort trials
  • Significant features of the INA trials was its aside government graphical reach and the participation of diverse social groups and political parties
  • INA trials was land marks
  1. High pitch at which campaign for release of INA prisoners
  2. Geographical and social groups untouched
  3. upsurges
  4. 21 Nov. 1945 in Calcutta over the INA trials.
  5. 11 Feb. 1946, second upsurge in Calcutta against 7 year sentence given Rashid Ali
  6. Royal Indian Navy (RIN) mutiny


General Stage

  1. Student or group defied authority
  2. People of city joined in
  3. When people of the other part of the country expressed sympathy and solidarity

37- Freedom and Partition

  • Congress had a two told task structuring diverse classes communities groups and regions into a nation and securing independence from the British rulers for this emerging nation

Struggle for hegemony

  • Success can be measure with swelling wide reach and deep intensity at Nationalist fervour of the people.
  • Second graph for decreasing novel of British officials and the changing loyalties of Indian official’s and loyalists, which would felt the same story of success but differently
  • The social base of the colonial regime was among the zamindars and upper classes the loyalists who reserved the main share cot British favours and offices.
  • When the loyalists began to Jump over board when prestige was wake, which district officer and official left the help it becomes clear that ship was sinking and sinking fast.
  • After 15 march 1946 statement that a minority will not be allowed to place a veto on the progress of majority was far cry from Wavell’s allowing Jinnah to wreck the Shimla conference in June-July 1945 by his insistence on nominating all Muslims

Cabinet Mission

  • A-Madras, Bombay, UP, Bihar, C.P. and Orissa
  • B- Punjab, NWFP, Sinah
  • C- Bengal and Assam

Which would meet separately to decide on group constitution?

  1. There would be common centre controlling defence, foreign and communication
  2. After 1st general elections a province could come out of a group. After ten years a province could for a reconsideration of the group or union constitution

Congress Demand

  • A province need not wait till the 1st elections to leave a group it should have option not to join it in the 1st (Assam and NHEP in mind)

The league Demand

  • It wanted the provinces to have the right to question union constitution now, not wait for 10 years.
  • The date or British with drawl from India was fired a 30 June 1948 and the appointment of a new viceroy Lord Mount Batten was announced on 20 Feb. 1947

38- The Long Term Strategy of the National Movement

  • Large elements of the nationalists strategy were evolved during the moderate and the extremist phases of the movement, it was structured and came to fraction

39- The Indian National Movement the Ideological Dimension

  • Already by the end of 19th century, the founding fathers of the national movement had worked out a clear understanding of all the 3 modes of colonial exploitation.
  1. Through plunder, for action, and the employment of Englishmen in India
  2. Through free and unequal trade
  3. Through the investment of the twin themes of the drain of wealth and the use of India as a market for Britain’s manufactured goods and the consequent destruction of the Indian handicraft industries
  • Secularism was from beginners made a basic constituent of the nationalist ideology and a strong emphasis was laid on Hindu Muslim unity.
  • From its early days the national movement adopted a pro-poor orientation of the moderates and their critique of colonialism was linked to the growing poverty of masses
  • A major ideological dimension of the national movements was the overall social outlook of Gandhi Ji and the Gandhinians. Gandhi Ji did not accept a class analysis of society and the role of class struggle
  • Thus the national movement based itself on clear out anti colonial ideology and the union of a civil liberalism, democracies secular and socially radical society.










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