भारतीय संविधान के सबसे महत्वपूर्ण संबिधान संशोधन MOST IMPORTANT AMENDMENTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION


भारतीय संविधान के सबसे महत्वपूर्ण संबिधान संशोधन MOST IMPORTANT AMENDMENTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

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भारतीय संविधान के महत्वपूर्ण संबिधान संशोधन 

  • 1st संविधान संशोधन (1951) – इसके द्वारा भारतीय संविधान मे 9वी अनुसूची को जोडा गया है।

  • 7वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1956) – इसके द्वारा राज्यों का पुनर्गठन करके 14 राज्य और 6 केंद्र शासित प्रदेशों को पुनर्गठित किया गया है।

  • 10वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1961) – इसके द्वारा पुर्तगालियों की अधीनता से मुक्त हुए दादरा और नागर हवेली को भारतीय संघ में शामिल किया गया।

  • 12वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1962) – इसके द्वारा गोवा, दमण और दीव का भारतीय संघ में विलय किया गया।

  • 14वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1962) – इसके द्वारा पाण्डेचेरी को केंद्र शासित प्रदेशके रूप में भारत में विलय किया गया।

  • 18वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1966) – इसके द्वारा पंजाब राज्य का पुर्नगठन करके पंजाब, हरियाणा राज्य और चण्डीगढ को केन्द्रशासित प्रदेश बनाया गया।

  • 21वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1967) – इसके द्वारा 8 वी अनुसूची में सिन्धी भाषा को शामिल किया गया

  • 24वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1971) – इसके द्वारा संसद को मौलिक अधिकारों सहित संविधान के किसी भी भाग में संशोधन करने का अधिकार दिया गया है।

  • 45वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1974) – इसके द्वारा सिक्किम को भारतीय सघं में सह राज्य का दर्जा दिया गया

  • 36वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1975) – इसके द्वारा सिक्किम को भारतीय सघं में 22 वे राज्य के रूप में सम्मिलित किया गया।

  • 42वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1976) – यह संविधान संशोधन प्रधानमंत्री इन्दिरा गाॅधी के समय स्वर्ण सिंह आयोग की सिफारिश के आधार पर किया गया था। यह अभी तक का सबसे बङा संविधान संशोधन है। इस संविधान संशोधन को लघु संविधान की संज्ञा दी जाती है। इस संविधान संशोधन में 59 प्रावधान थे।

  • 1.संविधान की प्रस्तावना में पंथ निरपेक्ष समाजवादी और अखण्डता शब्दों को जोडा गया।

  • 2. मौलिक कर्तव्यों को संविधान में शामिल किया गया।

  • 3.शिक्षा, वन और वन्यजीव, राज्यसूची के विषयों को समवर्ती सूची में शामिल किया गया।

  • 4.लोक सभा और विधान सभा के कार्यकाल को बढाकर 5 से 6 वर्ष कर दिया गया।

  • 5.राष्ट्रपति को मंत्रीपरिषद की सलाह के अनुसार कार्य करने के लिए बाध्य किया गया।

  • 6.ससंद द्वारा किये गये संविधान संशोधन को न्यायालय में चुनौती देने से वर्जित कर दिया गया है

  • 44वाँ संविधान संसोधन (1978) –

  • (1) सम्पत्ति के अधिकार को मौलिक अधिकारों से हटाकर कानूनी अधिकार बना दिया है।

  • (2) लोक सभा और विधान सभा का कार्यकाल पुनः घटाकर 5 वर्ष कर दिया गया।

  • (3) राष्ट्रीय आपात की घोषणा आंतरिक अशान्ति के आधार पर नहीं बल्कि सशस्त्र विद्रोह के कारण की जा सकती है।

  • (4) राष्ट्रपति को यह अधिकार दिया गया कि वह मंत्री मण्डल की सलाह को एक बार पुर्नविचार के लिए वापस कर सकता है। लेकिन दूसरी बार वह सलाह मानने के लिए बाध्य होगा।

  • 48वाॅ संविधान संशोधन (1984) -संविधान के अनुच्छेद 356 (5) में परिवतर्न करके यह व्यवस्था की गई कि पंजाब में राष्ट्रपति शासन की अवधि को दो वर्ष तक और बढाया जा सकता है।

  • 52वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1985) – इसके द्वारा संविधान में 10 वी अनुसूची को जोडकर दल बदल को रोकने के लिए कानून बनाया गया।

  • 56वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1987) – इसके द्वारा गोवा को राज्य की श्रेणी में रखा गया।

  • 61वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1989) – संविधान के अनुच्छेद 326 में संशोधन करके लोक सभा और राज्य विधान सभाओं में मताधिकार की उम्र 21 वर्ष से घटाकर 18 वर्ष कर दी गई।

  • 71वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1992) – इसके द्वारा संविधान की 8 वी अनुसची में कोकणी , मणिपुरी, और नेपाली भाषाओं को जोडा गया।

  • 73वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1992) – इसके द्वारा संविधान में 11 वी अनुसची जोडकर सम्पूर्ण देश में पंचायती राज्य की स्थापना का प्रावधान किया गया।

  • 74वाँ संविधान संशोधन (1992) – इसके द्वारा संविधान में 12 वी अनुसूची जोडकर नगरीय स्थानीय शासन को संवैधानिक संरक्षण प्रदान किया गया।

  • 84वाँ संविधान संशोधन (2001) – इसके द्वारा 1991 की जनगणना के आधार पर लोक सभा और विधान सभा क्षेत्रों के परिसीमन की अनुमति प्रदान की गई।

  • 86वाँ संविधान संशोधन (2003) – इसके द्वारा प्राथमिक शिक्षा को मौलिक अधिकार की श्रेणी में लाया गया।

  • 91वाँ संविधान संशोधन (2003) –

  • (1) इसके द्वारा केन्द्र और राज्यो के मंत्री परिषदों के आकार को सीमित करने तथा दल बदल को प्रतिबन्धित करने का प्रावधान है।

  • (2) इसके अनुसार मंत्री परिषद में सदस्यों की संख्या लोक सभा या उस राज्य की विधान सभा की कुल सदस्य संख्या से 15% से अधिक नहीं हो सकती है।

  • (3) साथ ही छोटे राज्यों के मंत्री परिषद के सदस्यों की संख्या अधिकतम 12 निश्चित की गई है।

  • 92वाँ संविधान संशोधन (2003) – इसके द्वारा संविधान की 8 वी अनुसूची में बोडो, डोगंरी, मैथिली और संथाली भाषाओं को शामिल किया गया है।

  •  

1              15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.

Insert articles 31A and 31B.

Insert schedule 9.     10th May 1951   Added special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law.       Jawaharlal Nehru             Rajendra Prasad

2              Amend article 81(1)(b).         1 May 1953         Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b).

3              Amend schedule 7-   22 February 1955              Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of 4 classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.

4              Amend articles 31, 35 band 305.

Amend schedule 9.  27 April 1955       Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution.

5              Amend article 3.      24 December 1955           Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.

6              Amend articles 269 and 286.

Amend schedule 7.  11 September 1956         Amend the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes.

7              Amend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.

Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.

Amend part 8.

Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.            1 November 1956            Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union Territories.

8              Amend article 334.   5 January 1960   Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970.

9              Amend schedule 1.  28 December 1960           Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.

10           Amend article 240.

Amend schedule 1. 11 August 1961  Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.

11           Amend articles 66 and 71.    19 December 1961           Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college.

12           Amend article 240.

Amend schedule 1. 20 December 1961           Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.

13           Amend article 170.

Insert new article 371A.       1 December 1963             Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A.       Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

14           Amend articles 81 and 240.

Insert article 239A.

Amend schedules 1 and 4.   28 December 1962           Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa.

15           Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316.

Insert article 224A.

Amend schedule 7. 5 October 1963  Raise retirement age of High court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.

16           Amend articles 19, 84 and 173.

Amend schedule 3.   5 October 1963  Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligtory templates.

17           Amend article 31A.

Amend schedule 9.[19] 20 June 1964      To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution.

18           Amend article 3.     27 August 1966  Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories.          Lal Bahadur Shastri

19           Amend article 324.  11 December 1966           Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts.

20           Insert article 233A.  22 December 1966           Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgment invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

21           Amend schedule 8. -10 April 1967       Include Sindhi as an Official Language.    Indira Gandhi

22           Amend article 275.

Insert articles 244A and 371B.           25 September 1969         Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam. V. V. Giri

23           Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334. –            23 January 1970                Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Extend reservation for SC/ST and Anglo Indian members in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 1980.

24           Amend articles 13 and 368.  5 November 1971            Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution.

25           Amend article 31.

Insert article 31C.    20 April 1972       Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property. However, the Supreme Court quashed a part of Article 31C, to the extent it took away the power of judicial review. This was done in the landmark case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) 4 SCC 225 which for the first time enunciated the Basic structure doctrine.

26           Amend article 366.

Insert article 363A.

Remove articles 291 and 362.             28 December 1971           Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic.

27           Amend articles 239A and 240.

Insert articles 239B and 371C.           15 February 1972              Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers.

28           Insert article 312A.

Remove article 314 –               29 August 1972  Rationalize Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence.

29           Amend schedule 9 -9 June 1972         Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.

30           Amend article 133 –  27 February 1973              Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law.

31           Amend articles 81, 330 and 332 –        17 October 1973               Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise.

32           Amend article 371.

Insert articles 371D and 371E.

Amend schedule 7 – 1 July 1974           Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh.

33           Amend articles 101 and 190 –               19 May 1974       Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker.

34           Amend schedule 9 – 7 September 1974           Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.  Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed

35           Amend articles 80 and 81.

Insert article 2A.

Insert schedule 10.[37]  1 March 1975     Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India.

36           Amend articles 80 and 81.

Insert article 371F.

Remove article 2A.

Amend schedules 1 and 4.

Remove schedule 10 –            26 April 1975       Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union.

37           Amend articles 239A and 240 –             3 May 1975         Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly.

38           Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360.[40]              1 August 1975    Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances.

39           Amend articles 71 and 329.

Insert article 329A.

Amend schedule 9 – 10 August 1975  Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election to parliament. Amendment place restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister. The amendment was introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha on August 7, 1975 and again introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha on August 8, 1975. As many as 17 State Assemblies, summoned on Saturday, August 9 ratified this amendment and President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad gave his assent on Sunday, August 10 and the civil servants issued gazette notification on Sunday, August 10, 1975. As a consequence of this amendment to the Constitution of India, Supreme Court of India’s scheduled hearing on August 11, 1975 of Petition challenging Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election became infructuous.[42]

Later however, Article 329A was struck down by the Supreme Court in case of Indira Nehru Gandhi vs Shri Raj Narain 1976 (2) SCR 347, for being in violation of basic structure.

 

40           Amend article 297.

Amend schedule 9 -27 May 1976       Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India.

Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.

 

41           Amend article 316  7 September 1976           Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Joint Public Service Commissions and State Public Service Commissions from sixty to sixty two.

42           Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F.

Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A.

Insert parts 4A and 14A.

Amend schedule 7 – 2 November 1976            Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a “Socialist Secular” Republic.

However, the Supreme Court, in Minerva Mills v. Union of India, quashed the amendments to Articles 31C and 368 as it was in contravention with the basic structure of the Constitution.

 

43           Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366.

Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A          13 April 1978       Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more ‘Anti-Freedom’ amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42.   Morarji Desai     Neelam Sanjiva Reddy

44           Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.

Insert articles 134A and 361A.

Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A.

Amend part 12.

Amend schedule 9 -6 September 1978           Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42.

45           Amend article 334 –  25 January 1980                Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990.         Indira Gandhi

46           Amend articles 269, 286 and 366.

Amend schedule 7 -2 February 1983                Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax.      Zail Singh

47           Amend schedule 9 – 26 August 1984  Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.

48           Amend article 356 – 26 August 1984  Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to two years in the state of Punjab.

49           Amend article 244.

Amend schedules 5 and 6 –   11 September 1984         Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council.

50           Amend article 33 –   11 September 1984         Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure.

51           Amend articles 330 and 332 –              29 April 1984       Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh in Loksabha, similarly for Meghalaya and Arunachal in their Legislative Assemblies.

52           Amend articles 101, 102, 190 and 191.

Insert schedule 10 – 15 February 1985              Anti Defection Law – Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other. However, parts of the 10th Schedule to the Constitution of India was struck down by the Supreme Court in the case of Kihoto Hollohan v. Zachillhu 1992 SCR (1) 686, for being in contravention with Article 368 of the Constitution.           Rajiv Gandhi

53           Insert article 371G – 20 February 1986              Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.

54           Amend articles 125 and 221.

Amend schedule 2 -1 April 1986         Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment.

55           Insert article 371H –  20 February 1987              Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh.

56           Insert article 371I –   30 May 1987       Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa.

57           Amend article 332 – 21 September 1987         Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies.               R. Venkataraman

58           Insert article 394A.

Amend part 22 –        9 December 1987             Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments.

59           Amend article 356.

Insert article 359A – 30 March 1988   Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab.

60           Amend article 276 –  20 December 1988           Profession Tax increased from a minimum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-.

61           Amend article 326 –  28 March 1989   Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18.

62           Amend article 334 –  20 December 1989           Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000.         V. P. Singh

63           Amend article 356.

Remove article 359A –           6 January 1990   Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed.

64           Amend article 356 –  16 April 1990       Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab.

65           Amend article 338. –  12 March 1990   National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.

66           Amend schedule 9 – 7 June 1990         Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.

67           Amend article 356 –  4 October 1990  Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to four years in the state of Punjab.

68           Amend article 356 – 12 March 1991   Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to five years in the state of Punjab.

69           Insert articles 239AA and 239AB –        1 February 1992                To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory.   P. V. Narasimha Rao

70           Amend articles 54 and 239AA –         21 December 1991           Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election.

71           Amend schedule 8 – 31 August 1992  Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as Official Languages.        Shankar Dayal Sharma

72           Amend article 332 –  5 December 1992             Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly.

73           Insert part 9 –            24 April 1992       Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages.

74           Insert part 9A, amend article 280 –     1 June 1992         Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities.

75           Amend article 323B –              15 May 1994       Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals.

76           Amend schedule 9 –  31 August 1994  Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution.

77           Amend article 16 –    17 June 1995      A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions.

78           Amend schedule 9 – 30 August 1995  Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.

79           Amend article 334 –  25 January 2000                Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010.         Atal Bihari Vajpayee       K. R. Narayanan

80           Amend articles 269 and 270.

Remove article 272 –             9 June 2000         Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre.

81           Amend article 16 –   9 June 2000         Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies.

82           Amend article 335 –  8 September 2000           Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates.

83           Amend article 243M –             8 September 2000           Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions.

84           Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332.[87] 21 February 2002              Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats.

85           Amend article 16 –     4 January 2002   A technical amendment to protect Consequential seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees.

86           Amend articles 45 and 51A.

Insert article 21A –    12 December 2002           Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six.                A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

87           Amend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330 –  22 June 2003      Extend the usage of 2001 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats.

88           Amend article 270.

Insert article 268A.

Amend schedule 7 – 15 January 2004                To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax.

89           Amend article 338.

Insert article 338A – 28 September 2003         The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.

90           Amend article 332 -28 September 2003         Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area.

91           Amend articles 75 and 164.

Insert article 361B.

Amend schedule 10 –           1 January 2004   Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws.

92           Amend schedule 8.- 7 January 2004   Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali as official languages.

93           Amend article 15.      20 January 2006                -To enable provision of reservation(27%) for other backward classes (OBC) in government as well as private educational institutions. Manmohan Singh

94           Amend article 164.-   12 June 2006      To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States including Madhya Pradesh, Orissa.

95           Amend article 334.-  25 January 2010                To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years.              Pratibha Patil

96           Amend schedule 8. 23 September 2011         Substituted “Odia” for “Oriya”.

97           Amend Art 19 and added Part IXB.   -12 January 2012                Added the words “or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions” in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.

The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.

 

98           To insert Article 371J in the Constitution-      2 January 2013   To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.            Pranab Mukherjee

99           Insertion of new articles 124A, 124B and 124C. Amendments to Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231.        13 April 2015   Formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States including Goa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Gujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation, enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill. The amendment was struck down by the Supreme Court on 16 October 2015.   

 

100         Amendment of First Schedule to Constitution    1 August 2015    Exchange of certain enclave territories with Bangladesh and conferment of citizenship rights to residents of enclaves consequent to signing of Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) Treaty between India and Bangladesh.

101         Addition of articles 246A, 269A, 279A. Deletion of Article 268A.

Amendment of articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366, 368, Sixth Schedule, Seventh Schedule.

 

1 July 2017           Introduced the Goods and Services Tax.

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