• India is the seventh largest country after (Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia respectively) by area and the second largest by population. It occupies about 2.4 percent of the total area of the lithosphere. The main land of India extends between 804’ North to 3706’ North, latitudes while the tropical zone is located between 23030’, north and south latitudes. The latitudinal extension of the whole of India lies between 6045’ to 3706’ North latitudes. 82030’ East longitude is used to determine Indian Standard Time.

  • Total area of India is 3.28 million sq. km. Its latitudinal extent is 804’ N-3706’ N and longitudinal extent is 6807’ E-97025’ E. There are 29 states and 7 union territories in India.

  • According to Census 2011, the total number of villages in India is 6 lakh 40 thousand 9 hundred and 30.

  • As per Census 2001, area of India is 3287263 square km. which is approximately 2.4% of the total land area of the world, whereas its total population is 16.7% (17.5% as per census 2011) of the total population of the world.

  • Land Mass : 3.28 million Sq.km

  • 4% of World’s areas

  • 7th largest • Land Boundary : 15,200km

Length of coastline (Including A & N Lakshadweep): 7516.6km

  • Bounded by young fold mountains in the North – West, North & North East.

  • Latitudinal & Longitudinal extent : About 30degree

  • From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh – Time lag: 2 hours. Hence, time along standard meridian of India (82degree 30’E) passing through Mirazpur (Uttar Pradesh) is taken as IST

  • East – West : 2933km North – South: 3214km

  • India: Central between East & West Asia. India is Southern extension of Asian continent.

  • No other Country has a long coastline on Indian Ocean as India has.

  • Since opening of Suez Canal in 1869, India – Europe distance reduced by 7000km.


  • 7 Largest Countries

  1. Russia

  2. Canada

  3. USA

  4. China

  5. Brazil

  6. Australia

  7. India

Length of Borders (Highest to Lowest)

  1. Bangladesh → 4096.7km

  2. China → 3488km

  3. Pakistan → 3323km

  4. Nepal → 1751km

  5. Myanmmar → 1,643km

  6. Bhutan → 699km

  7. Afghanistan → 106km



Latitudinal Expansion

  • The area of India extends between 804’ North to 3706’ North latitudes and 6807’ East to 97025’ East longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of India.

  • Rajasthan that passes through Sikkim also passes through Rajasthan.

  • 700 East longitude passes through Jaisalmer, Rajasthan.

India and the Tropic of Cancer

  • Tropic of Cancer passes almost through the middle of India. It passes through 8 Indian states, namely Mizoram, Tripura, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

  • The place whose latitudinal position is at minimum distance from the latitude of Tropic of Cancer will be the nearest place to the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Cancer is at 23030’ N, divides India almost into two equal parts, Latitudinal position of the towns given in the options is –

Place                  Latitude            Difference in Position (23030’)

Agartala             23050’ N             -20’

Gandhinagar      23013’ N             +17’

Jabalpur             23011’ N             +19’

Ujjain                 23009’ N             +21’

  • The latitudinal position of the some cities in context to the Tropic of Cancer is:-

Delhi         –        28061’ North

Kolkata     –        22033’ North

Jodhpur     –        26029’ North

Nagpur      –        21006’ North

  • The Tropic of Cancer is located approximately 23030’ North of the Equator.

  • 23030’ North latitude divides India into two equal parts. It is known as Tropic of Cancer.

  • The length of the day increases with the northward movement of the sun from equator. Sun is at its peak point of the northern most position on 21st In this month, day duration increase on moving northward.

  • Area:

  • 28 million sq.km

  • North to South => 3200km East to West => 2900km

  • Location: Northern Hemisphere

  • Latitude: 8degree 4’N to 37degree 6’N Longitude: 68degree 7’E to 97degree 25’E

  • ISI→ 82degree 30’E



Standard Time

  • Indian standard time (IST) is 5:30 hours (5 hours 30 minutes) ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The Standard Time of India is calculated on 82030’ East longitude. It passes through Naini, Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. The location of some cities with regard to their closeness to IST meridian is:

Rewa                  –        81.190 E Longitude

Sagar                  –        78.500 E Longitude

Ujjain                 –        75.430 E Longitude

Hoshangabad     –        77.450 E Longitude

  • Indian Standard Time is calculated on the basis of 82.50 E longitude. The difference between the longitude of Shillong and the Indian Standard time is 920-82.50=9.50. As we know that the difference of 1 longitude is equals to 4 minutes. So the difference in time between them is 9.5×4=38 minutes.

  • The Indian Standard Time Meridian 82*1/20 E passes through Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.

  • State of Gujarat is situated on the west coast of India between 6804’ east and 7404’ East longitudes and Arunachal Pradesh is located between 91030’ East and 97030’ East longitudes. Thus, the longitudinal difference between western village of Gujarat and eastern village of Arunachal Pradesh is 97030’-6804’=29026’. As we know that there is difference of 4 minutes in one longitude, thus 29026’x4= Approximately 118 minutes (approx 2 hours) difference.

  • Latitudinal and Longitudinal positions of some cities are –

Jabalpur             –        23.110 N, 79.950 E

Indore                 –        230 N, 760 E

Bhopal               –        23.250N, 77.420E

Aurangabad        –        19053’47’’ N, 75023’54’’ E

Vadodara            –        22.300N, 73.190E

Pune                   –        18031’ N, 73052’ E

Bangaluru          –        12.970N, 77.560 E

Chennai              –        13.040N, 80.170E

  • There is a difference of about 2 hours between Kandla (Gujarat) and Tirap (Arunachal Pradesh) due to the longitudinal position of both the cities. Thus, if the Sun rises at Tirap (95032’) in Arunachal Pradesh at 5:00 am (IST) then the Sun  will rise at 7:00 am in Kandla (70011’).



Extreme Points

  • The four extreme points of India are:

  • Southernmost Point – Indira Point is a village in the Nicobar district of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. It is located in the Great Nicobar Tehsil. It is the location of the southernmost point of India’s territory. On the mainland, Kanyakumari point of India’s territory. On the mainland, Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu) is the southernmost point.

  • Northernmost Point – Near Siachen Glacier, at Indira Col (Jammu Kashmir).

  • Westernmost Point – Guhar moti or Ghuar Mota (Gujarat).

  • Easternmost Point – Kibithu (Arunachal Pradesh).

  • Kanyakumari, which is the southernmost point of Indian mainland, is the place where Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea, and Indian Ocean meet. Kanyakumari is a part of Tamil Nadu.

  • The eastern most state is Arunachal Pradesh and the western most is Gujarat.

  • West of Guhar Moti in Kutch, Gujarat is the westernmost point of India. Its Latitude/Longitude is 23.7130/6807’E. Guhar Moti is in the Kutch region of Gujarat.

  • The location of some cities can be determined by their longitudinal extension, which are –

Hyderabad          –        78029’ E

Bhopal               –        77030’ E

Lucknow            –        810 E

Bangalore           –        77040’ E

All the above cities are located in the middle of the eastern longitudes. Thus, the city which has the largest longitudinal extension is located most eastward. By looking at the above longitudes Lucknow is most eastward located.



Bordering Countries

  • West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura are the Indian states that share their borders with Bangladesh. Dhaka, Rangpur, Khulna, Sylhet, Rajshahi and Chittagong are the six divisions of Bangladesh that are situated along the India-Bangladesh border. The demarcated portions on both sides are fenced. Manipur does not share Bangladesh. Manipur has International border with Myanmar.

  • Bhutan and India are neighboring countries that share border with each other. The Indian states of West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh share their borders with Bhutan

  • The Composite Dialogue Process between India and Pakistan was started in November, 1998, under which 6 issues were scheduled for negotiation, including Sir Creek Sea Treaty, Wullar Barrage/Tulbul Navigation Project and deployment of army troops on LOC.

  • Arunachal Pradesh shares its maximum boundary with Myanmar. The neighboring countries of India are Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The Indian boundaries are of both types i.e., natural and manmade. India share longest land boundary with Bangladesh (4096.7km) and shortest Land Boundary with Afghanistan (106 km).

  • Indian states bordering with neighboring countries are –

  1. Bordering Pakistan –        Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan and  Gujarat

  2. Bordering China –        Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and

Arunachal Pradesh.

  1. Bordering Nepal –        Bihar, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and West Bengal.

  2. Bordering Bangladesh –        West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

  3. Bordering Bhutan –        West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam an Arunachal Pradesh.

  4. Bordering Myanmar –        Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.

  5. Bordering Afghanistan –        Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan-Occupied Area).

  • Bangladesh forms longest frontiers with India with 4096.7 km long international boundary. Indian states bordering Bangladesh are Mizoram, Tripura, Assam, Meghalaya and West Bengal.

  • The boundary between India and Pakistan was demarcated by Radcliff line.

  • Durand line is between India and Afghanistan.

  • Mc Mohan Line is Between India and China.

  • Maginot Line is Between France and Germany.

  • In 1947, Pakistan and India were separated on draft created by Sir Radcliff and Radcliff line was made. The two countries share superimposed boundary. A superimposed boundary is a boundary that has been imposed on an area by an outside or conquering power.

  • India has natural as well as manmade boundaries. Himalaya in the north, Bay of Bengal in south-east, Indian Ocean in south and Arabian Sea in south west form it’s natural boundary. India shares it’s border with China (Tibet), Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal and Myanmar. Radcliff line demarcates the border between India and Pakistan and Mac Mohan line between India and China. Durand line demarcates the border between India and Afghanistan. Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait. It is about 64-137 Km wide. It was named after the then governor of Madras Robert Palk.

  • The State of Sikkim in India has borders with three countries namely Nepal, Bhutan and China.

  • Tripura is bordered by Bangladesh from north, west and south. Thus it has international border on three sides. Assam and Mizoram are located in the east of Tripura.



Physical Divisions

Natural Region of India

  • The Indian land mass moved northward. This is evident from the paleomagnetic results obtained from India. Even the extension of the plateau region in north side is evident.

  • Paleomagnetism is the study of the record of the Earth’s magnetic field in rocks, sediment or archeological materials. This record provides information on the past behaviour of Earth’s magnetic field and the past location of tectonic plates. According to Tectonic Shift Theory Indian land mass was part of Gondwanaland which included South America, Antarctica, Australia and India. About 200 million years ago this large land mass broke and Indian land mass moved north wards. Vindhya and Western Ghat mountains emerged during this period.

  • The Indian subcontinent was originally part of a huge landmass called Gondwana Continent. Gondwana was an ancient supercontinent that broke up about 200 million years ago. The continent eventually split into landmasses what we recognize today as Africa, South America, Australia, Antarctica, the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Peninsula.

  • India is divided into four main natural regions. These are –

  1. Northern mountaineous region

  2. Large Plains

  3. Peninsular Plateau

  4. Coasts and Islands



  • It is further categorized in six sub physical regions –

  1. Northern Mountains

  2. Sindhu-Ganga Plains

  3. Thar desert

  4. Central highland and Deccan Plateau

  5. Coastal plains

  6. Sea and Islands

  • An artesian well is simply a well that doesn’t require a pump to bring water to the surface. This occurs when there is enough pressure in the aquifier. The pressure forces the water to the surface without sort of assistance. In Uttarakhand, artesian wells are mostly found in Tarai Region.

  • If there were not Himalaya ranges then most geographical part of India would experience the cold waves from Siberia, Indo-Gangetic plain would also be devoid of such extensive alluvial soil and the pattern of monsoon would be different  from  what it is at present.

  • The Western coastline of India is not formed by the deposition process of the rivers. In fact it is formed by submergence and emergence of the land. Gondwana rocks have the largest reserve of coal in India. Himalaya is the newly developed folded mountain.  Geologically, Peninsular region is most ancient part of India.

  • The origin of the Deccan Traps – Cretaceous Eocene

  • Origin of Western Ghats – Late Cenozoic  period

  • Origin of Aravalli Mountain –         Pre-Cambrian

  • Narmada-Tapi alluvial deposits – Pleistocene period

  • Kuttanad of Kerla is famous for its lowest altitude in India. Kuttanand is called Rice Bowl of Kerla. Here farming is (4 to 10 ft.) practiced 2.5 to 4 meter below sea level. FAO has declared the Kuttanand farming system as globally important Agriculture Heritage System.



Northern Mountaneous Region

  • The rivers originating from Himalayas are perennial because their source is located in Himalaya glaciers. Himalaya receives much of it’s rain from south-western monsoon.

  • On the basis of folds and age of formation Himalayas is divided into four parallel structural areas –

  1. Trans Himalaya

  2. Great Himalaya

  3. The Middle Himalaya

  4. Shiwalik

  • The flat plains along the sub-Himalayan region in North India are called Bhabar. It is a narrow belt ranging between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope. As a result of this, the streams and rivers coming from the mountains deposit heavy materials of rocks and boulders, and at times, disappear in this zone.  South of the Bhabar is the Tarai belt, with an approximate width of 15-30 km where most of the streams and rivers re-emerge without having any properly demarcated channel, thereby, creating marshy and swampy conditions known as the Tarai. This has a luxurious growth of natural vegetation and houses a varied wild life.

  • The foothills region of Himalaya is called Shiwalik. These are the outer most range of the Himalayas. They extend over a width of 10-15 km and have an altitude varying between 900 to 1100 meters. These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges located at farther north.

  • Shiwalik or outer Himalaya was formed approximately 5-1.7 million years ago in Pliocene Era means in Cenozoic period.

  • Shiwalik range, spread over about 2400 km is the southern range of Himalaya. It’s average altitude is 900 meter-1200 meter.

  • Bhabar region is a narrow belt ranging between 8-16 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothill at the break-up of the slope. As a result of this, the stream and rivers coming from the mountains deposits heavy material of rock and boulders. South of Bhabar is Tarai belt with an approximate width of 15-30 km. Bhabar is Southern region of Shiwalik is an example of Piedmont situation.

  • The Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) spreads across 10 states (administrative regions) namely – Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and hill regions of 2 states viz. Assam and West Bengal. On the other hand the expansion of Uttar Pradesh lies only in plain region. So the Himalayan Mountain Ranges are not a part of Uttar Pradesh.



  • The mountains ranges of Jammu and Kashmir are –

  1. Karakoram ranges

  2. Laddakh ranges

  3. Zanskar ranges

  4. Pir Pajal

  • The Himalayan Range consist of parallel mountain ranges. It includes Great Himalayas, Trans Himalayan ranges, Middle Himalaya and the Shiwalik. The mountain range which runs parallel between the Shiwalik in the south and the Great Himalayas in north is classified as the Middle Himalayas, sometimes also called Lesser Himalaya or Himachal or Lower Himalayas. It has an intricate system of ranges which have an average width of 50 Km. having elevation varying from 3500 to 4500 m. above sea level. Many peaks are more than 5050 m. above sea level and are covered with snow throughout the year. Pir Panjal, the Dhauladhar, theMussorie Range, the Nag Tiba and Mahavharat Lekh are some of the important ranges of the Middle Himalaya.

  • The orders of Himalayan Rages in the western section from south to north are – the Shiwalik-Lesser Himalayas-Great Himalayas.

  • The Shiwalik Himalaya formed in the last stage of formation of Himalaya, thus they are considered as the youngest mountain range. It comprises the outermost range of the Himalayas and is also known as outer Himalayas. Flat scraps, anticlinal crests and synclinal valleys are the chief characteristics of this range. The Shiwaliks are formed of great thickness of Mio-Pleistocene sand, gravels and conglomerate which have been brought by the rivers flowing from the higher ranges of the Himalayas. These have been folded and faulted by the earth movements. Shiwaliks have difficult name in different areas like Jammu Hills in Jammu, Dafla, Miri, Abora and Mishmi Hills in Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Gondwana Rock System is the latest rock system in India. Gondwana coal is of much recent origin than Carboniferous coal. Gondwana system is Upper Carboniferous to the recent. Gondwana rocks contain nearly 98% of India’s coal reserve.



  • The correct northward sequence of the relief features are –

Pirpanjal Ranges – Zaskar Ranges – Laddakh Ranges – Karakoram Ranges

  • The Correct sequence of mountain peaks from east to west is:

Kanchenjunga – Everest – Annapurna – Dhaulagiri

  • Kanchenjunga is the third tallest mountain in the world. Three of the five summits of the Kanchenjunga (main, central and south) are situated on the boundary of the North Sikkim districts in Sikim, India and the Taplejung District in Nepal. The two other peaks are entirely situated in Taplejung District. Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain in the world above sea surface. The elevation of Mount Everest is 8848 meters. The peak is situated in the Himalayas on the border of Nepal and China, which is also known as the Sagarmatha Zone. The Annapurna region is an area in central Nepal where some of the most popular treks are located. Dhaulagiri Peak is also located in Central Nepal, west of Annarpurna peak.

  • The tree-line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. The value of tree-line in eastern Himalaya and Middle Himalaya lies between 3600 to 3800 m, while in western or north western region, it declines to 3300-3600 m. Thus, in comparison to eastern Himalaya the value of height of tree-line in western area is less.

  • In Himalayan Ranges, the types of vegetation changes with altitude due to decrease in temperature, changes in rainfall, unfertile soil, low atmospheric pressure and low air.

  • Patkoi Range is situated in lower Himalayan ranges. It originated in territory era.

  • The Kashmir Valley is bounded on the south west by Pir Panjal Range and on the north-east by Great Himalayan Range.

  • Aksai Chin is spread over about 3800 square kilometer in Jammu Kashmir’s Laddhakh region. It is an Indian territory under the occupation of China.

  • The Patkai Hills are situated on India’s north-eastern border with Myanmar. The Indian states along Patkai Hills are Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland. Mizo Hills stretches through Mizoram and Tripura.

  • Garo, Khasi and Jaintia tribes are found in Meghalaya whereas Naga tribes are found in some districts of Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh also besides Nagaland. Garo tribe is found in the western part of Meghalaya, Khasi in central and Jaintia in eastern part.

  • The major natural resources of Western Himalayas are forests. Forests contribute major share in the land use of region, covering more than 65% of total geographical area of the region.

  • The average height of the Great Himalaya is 6100 m while the height of its highest peak. Mount Everest is approximately 8850 m. (8848 m).

  • The Middle Himalayas forms the most intricate and rugged mountaneous system, with an average width of 50 km and elevation 3500-4500 m. Its Vedic name is Himachal. Most of the hill stations like Shimla, Nainital, Mussourie are located in this range.

  • Himalayas are spread over most of the northern and north-eastern states i.e., Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura. Besides these, mountain range of Assam and West Bengal are also part of the Himalayas. So Himalayas are spread over more than five states. Western Ghats are spread over the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala i.e., 6 states. Pulicat lake is second largest (after Chilika lake) lagoon in India, straddles the border of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.



Mountain Ranges and Hills of South and Central India

  • The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains in western India running approximately 800 km in north eastern direction across the States of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Haryana, ending in Delhi. These are highly eroded hills and are found as broken hill. The Aravalli Range is the oldest fold mountains of the world. It was formed in Precambrian Era (600 to 570 million years ago). Its highest peak is Guru-Shikhar (1722 m.).

  • Residual Mountains are remnants of old mountains which have been worn down by agents of denudation. Residual mountains are formed from old fold, block or volcanic materials. Satpura are examples of residual mountains. The Aravalli ranges are remnants of early mountain ranges.

  • Anaimudi is the highest peak of Southern India and a part of the Western Ghats Mountains, having an elevation of 2695 meters. It is located in the Idukki district of Kerala. The heights of peaks given in below –

Dodabetta           –        2637 meters

Amarkantak       –        1048 meters

Mahendragiri     –        1501 meters

  • Annaimudi is the highest peak in the Western Ghats in South India with a height of 8842 feet. The name of Annaimudi literally translate to “elephant forehead” a reference to resemblance of the mountains to an elephant head.

  • Anaimudi is the highest peak (height 2695 meter) of peninsular India. It is located to Idukki district of Kerala. It is part of Western Ghats Mountain Range. The height of Dodabetta is 2637 meter, Ootakamund 2240 meter and Mahabaleshwar is 1438 meter.

  • Satpura Range is part of the Deccan plateau, in central India. The hills stretch through the states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The Satpura Range means “Seven Folds”, which forms the watershed between the Narmada (North) and Tapti (South) rivers.



  • West to eastward sequence of the relief features is Mahadev range, Maikal range, Chhotanagpur plateau and Khasi hills. Mahadev and Maikal ranges are the eastward extension of Satpura range. Chhotanagpur Plateau spread over much of Jharkhand as well as adjacent parts of Chhattisgarh, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha. Khasi hill are situated in Meghalaya.

  • Nallamalai Hills are situated between the Krishna River and the Pennar Hills, stretched from north to south, parallel to the Coromandel Coast on the Bay of Bengal. Javadi Hills are located on the Eastern Ghats in North Arkat district of Tamil Nadu State. Renowned as “Queen of Hills”, Nilgiri Hills are located at junction of Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats. Doddabetta is the highest mountain the Nilgiri Hills at 2637 meters.  There are around 15 tribal groups in the Nilgiris. Among them the Badagas, Kotas and Todas are the main tribal groups of the region. The Anaimudi Hills form the southern portion of the Western Ghats and span up to the border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in southern India. Anaimudi is the highest peak in the Anaimalai Hills at 2695 meters. These four hills are located in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala states in India form north to south.

  • Nilgiri Hills are part of Western Ghats spread in western Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala in southern India.

  • Indian Oceanists have discovered three marine mountain ranges in which one is located in Indian Ocean basin; Second is  Sagar Kanya in  Eastern Arabian Sea and third one is a high mountain with height of 1505 meter at the bottom of Arabian Sea about 455 km west south west from Mumbai.  This mountain is named after famous scientist C.V. Raman as Raman Sagar Mountain.



  • Ajanta Range: Ajanta Range is located in Maharashtra. It is a mountain range which is spread over only state. Others are expanded to more than one state.

  • Satpura Range: The Satpura Range is a range of hills in Central India. The range rises in eastern Gujarat running east through the border of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to the east of Chhattisgarh.

  • Aravalli Range: The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains in western India running approximately 692 km in northeast direction across the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Haryana ending in Delhi.

  • Sahyadri Range: Sahyadri Mountain Range or the Western Ghats originates near the town of Nasik in Maharashtra, runs parallel to the coast and merge with the Nilgiri hill complex of Tamil Nadu in the south. These hills cover 1600 km and form the catchment area for complex river drainage systems.

  • Western Ghats is known as Sahyadri in Maharashtra, Goa & Karnataka. The Western Ghats has a high altitudinal variation and the average elevation is 1200 meters.

  • Balaghat Range, Harishchandra Range & Satmala Hills are expanded in Maharashtra while Mandav Hills are located in Gujarat.

  • The correct location from south to north of the given hills is –

Satmala Hills     –        Maharashtra

Kaimur Hills      –        Madhya Pradesh

Naga Hills          –        Indo-Myanmar Border

Pri Panjal Rage  –        Jammu and Kashmir

Mandav Hills     –        Gujarat

Nallamalai Hills –        Andhra Pradesh

Shevaroy Hills   –        Tamil Nadu

  • The Garhjat Hills is a mountain range that stretch into Odisha from the Utkal Plains in the Chhotanagpur region of Jharkhand and the Chhattisgarh Plains where Gond tribes reside.

  • The Cardamom Hills are southern hills of India and part of the southern Western Ghats located in south east Kerala and south west Tamil Nadu in South India. This name comes from the Cardamom spice grown abundantly on these hills. They conjoin the Anaimalai Hills to the north-west, the Palni Hills to the north east and the Agasthyamalai Hills to the south.

  • Shevaroy Hills are located in the Salem town of Tamil Nadu. The height of Shevaroy Hills is about 4000 to 5000 feet above sea level. Its total area is about 50 sq km. The famous “Yercaud” hill station is situated in these hills.

  • Mahadeo Hills are part of Satpura Hills. Satpura Mountain Range is southern of Vindhya Hills and parallel to it. It extends from Raj pipla Hills in the west to the west of Chhota Nagpur Plateau in the form of Mahadeo and Maikal Hills.



  • Mount Everest is the highest peak in the world located in Nepal. Its height is 8848 m (29028 feet). It is also known as “Sagarmatha” in Nepal.

  • Dhupagarh is the highest peak of the Satpura Range located in Panchmarhi (MP).

  • The hills of Ramgiri are located in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. It is part of Eastern Ghat or Mahendra Parvat. Apart from this Ramgiri Hills are also located in Maikal Range of Chhattisgarh. Since Maikal Range is a part of Satpura Range.

  • Parasnath hill is located in Giridih district of Jharkhand. Its height is approximately 1365 m. Shikharji Jain temple is situated on this hill. Parasnath Hills is one of the most important pilgrimage centre for Jains nmed after Parasnath, the 23rd

Mountain Peaks

  • Bachhendri Pal was the first Indian women to reach the summit of Mount Everest in 1984.

  • Junko Tabei (22 September, 1939-20 October, 2016) was a Japanese mountaineer. She was the first woman to climb Mount Everest on 16 May, 1975. She was also the first woman to climb the highest peaks of all seven continents.

  • Santosh Yadav is the first woman in the world to climb Mount Everest twice. She first climbed the peak in May 1992 and then again in May 1993. She is also the second Indian woman to climb Mount Everest. The first Indian woman was Bachhendri Pal who succeeded in climbing the Everest in 1984.

  • Mount K2 also known as Godwin Austin is the highest peak of India and second highest peak of the world. It is located in Pak Occupied Kashmir (POK) in Karakoram Range. Its height is 8611 m.

  • Nanda Devi (7816 m) is the third highest peak in Indian after K2 (8611 m) and Kanchenjunga (8598 m). It is located in Garhwal Uttarakhand.

  • Nanda Devi Peak is part of the Greater Himalayas. It is located in Uttarakhand, India. It is the third highest peak in India. First two highest peaks are Godwin Austin (K2) and Kanchenjunga. The height of Nanda Devi is 7816 m. This region has been declared as Nanda Devi National Park. UNESCO recognised it as World Heritage Site in 1988.

  • The peaks of the Himalayan Mountain range and their countries are as follows –

Mount Everest (8848 m)              –        Nepal

Godwin Austin (K2) (8611 m)     –        India

Kanchenjunga (8598 m)               –         India/Nepal

Makalu (8463 m)                          –        Nepal


  • The highest peak of Aravalli Range is Guru Shikhar (1722 m). It is located in Sirohi district of Rajasthan.

  • The correct sequence of Himalayan Peaks in the direction east to west is –

Namcha Banwa (Arunachal – Tibet border)

Kanchenjunga (Sikkim)

Mount Everest (Nepal)

Nanda Devi (Uttarakhand)

  • Nandadevi, Kamet and Trishul are the peaks located in India. Gosain Thaan is located in Tibet near Nepal border.

  • Kodai Kanal lies in Palani Hills of Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu. Palani Hills is connected to Anamalai Hills in the west. Similarly, Shimla is located in Dhauladhar Range.




  • Kullu Valley is situated in Himachal Pradesh. It is located between Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal Ranges.

  • Nelong Valley falls under the Gangotri National Park in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. It is near Indo-China border, which was closed for civilians after the 1962 war. It was finally reopened to tourist in 2015.

  • Markha Valley is situated in Laddakh (Jammu and Kashmir). Dzukou Valley is located in Nagaland at a height of 2438 m above sea level behind Japfu Range. This Valley is well known for its natural beauty and seasonal flowers. It is approximately 30 km. away from Kohima (Nagaland’s Capital).

  • Sangla Valley is in the Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh. It is surrounded by mountain peaks and Baspa River.

  • Yumthang Valley is in Sikkim at a distance of 149 km from Gangtok (Capital of Sikkim). The valley is also known as Hot Spring.

  • Silent Valley National Park is located in Palakkad/Palghat district of Kerala. It is situated on Nilgiri Hills of Western Ghats.



  • The Passes and their location is as follow –

Chang La           –        Jammu and Kashmir

Rohtang             –        Himachal Pradesh

Bomdi La           –        Arunachal Pradesh

Se Le                  –        Arunachal Pradesh

Nathu-La Pass   –        Sikkim

Banihal Pass      –        Jammu and Kashmir

Niti Pass             –        Uttaranchal

Shipki La           –        Himachal Pradesh

Mana                  –        Uttarakhand

Zozila                 –        Jammu and Kashmir

Jelep La              –        Sikkim

Muling La          –        Uttarakhand

Bum La              –        Arunachal Pradesh

Lipulekh             –        Uttarakhand

Rohtang             –        Himachal Pradesh

Palghat               –        Kerla

  • Palghat Pass is located between the Nilgiri Hills to the north and Anaimalai Hills to the south. It is located in Kerala. Thalghat, Bhorghat and Palghat are main Passes of Western Ghat whose hights are 581 m, 229 m, and 300 m respectively.

  • Shipki La is a mountain pass and border post on the Indo-China border. It is located in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh.

  • Bomdi-La Pass is located in Arunachal Pradesh in West Kameng district. Bhorghat is located in Maharashtra which connects Mumbai and Pune. Palghat-Pass is located in Kerala which connects Kollam and Madurai.



  • Lipulekh Pass is located on India-China border in Uttarakhand.

  • Zozila Pass is a high mountain pass in Jammu and Kashmir located on the Indian National Highway 1Between Srinagar and Leh.

  • Nathu La is a mountain pass in the Himalayan region situated at a height of 4508 m above sea level. On the Indian side, the pass is 52 km east to Gangtok, the capital of Sikkim and opens in ChumbiValley in Tibet. Nathu La is one of the three open trading border posts between India and China. The others being Shipki La in Himachal Pradesh and Lipulekh in Uttarakhand. Nathu La pass was reopened in 2006 following numerous bilateral trade negotiations after 1962 Indo-China War.

  • Kingri-Wingri, Neeti-Mana are passes located in Uttarakhand. Neeit is an important pass of Himalaya connecting Uttarakhand to Tibet. Mana pass which is also called as Chirbitiya la or Dungri La is located between India and Tibet. Devtal Lake which is the source of Saraswati River (tributary of Alaknand) is situated in this pass.

  • Mana Pass is located in Himalayan Region between India and Tibet. It is also known as Chirbitya or Dungri la. It is located in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand Devtal Lake is located in this pass, where Saraswati, the tributary of Alaknanda originates.

  • Jelep-La is located in eastern Sikkim between India and Tibet. Lipulekh Pass is located in Pithauragarh district of Uttarakhand. It provides entry to Mansarovar Lake through Kailash Valley. Natha La is located in Sikkim whereas Shipki-La is located in Himachal Pradesh.



Snow Lines and Glaciers

  • The altitude in a particular place above which some snow remain on ground throughout the year is called snow line. The snowline in the Himalayas has different heights in different parts. On an Average it has height of 5500-6000 m in Northern Part and 4500-6000 m in Southern Part of the Himalaya. In this was snowline in Himalayas lies between 4300 m to 6000 m.

  • Glacier Length (km)

Siachen                       70

Baltoro                        62

Chongo Lungma         42

Biafo                           63

Gangotri                      26

Rundun                       19

Kanchenjunga             16

Kedarnath                   14

  • According to the text books titled as “Bhautik Bhugol ka Swaroop” written by Savindra Singh, “Geography of India” written by V.S. Chauhan and Alka Gautam and “ Physical Geography (Introduction to Earth)” written by K. Bharadwaj and “Bharat Ka Bhugol (Geography of India)” written by Professor Ram Chandra Tiwari, the length of Siachen is 72 km. Further three of the above mentioned books states that the length of Sasaini is 158 km. The criteria to determine the largest glacier by the commission is the length of the glacier.

  • Chaurabari Glacier is located in Rudraprayag district of Uttarakhand. The glacier lies in north of the Kedarnath Temple. Due to melting of glacier, a lake is formed which is named as Gandhi Sarovar Lake.

  • The rate of melting of Himalayan glaciers is highest in the world. The Gangotri Glacier from where river Ganga originates is melting very fast, due to which it is reduced to half of its extension in last 50 years.

  • Milam Glacier is a major glacier of the Kumauon region in Uttarakhand. Sharda River (Kali Ganga) originates from this glacier.




  • The origin of rocks of Peninsular India is more than 3600 million years old. Before the Carboniferous Period, it was a part of Gondwanaland. It was during the Carboniferous period that coal was formed in the Damodar, Son, Mahanadi and Godavari basins. During the Cretaceous Period, large scale vulcanicity produced the Deccan Trap (the Lava Plateau of India) comprising Lava sheets of several thousand meter in depth. The Deccan Trap originated about 146 million years ago.

  • Meghalaya plateau is in fact an extension of the Indian peninsular plateau. It was separated from the peninsular plateau by Malda Gap. Peninsular plateau is triangular in shape. It extends from plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar towards south and encompasses whole of peninsula.

  • Peninsular plateau is part of ancient Gondwanaland was formed by Arcacian to carboniferous complex rocks. It also gave rise to initial mountains in central Dharwar metamorphic cycle. Thus additional peninsular mountains of India were formed in Palaeozic Era.

  • Dhanbad comes under Chhota Nagpur plateau which is famous for coal mining and has some of the largest mines in India. Red soil is found in most of its region which is not useful for agriculture. Availability of coal, iron, mica etc is not a good reason for population density.

  • Chhota Nagpur plateau covers much of Jharkhand as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. The Chhotanagpur Plateau extends over an area of approximately 65000 sq. km. Chhotanagpur consists of series of plateaus at different levels of elevation. On Central

    Western portion the “Patland” is extended whose height is about 1100 m. In this the sharp break in slope are marked by steep scraps. Hence it is a front sloping.

  • Malwa plateau over an area of 150000 sq. km with a length of 530 km and a width of 390 km. It’s northern end is determined by Aravalli, southern end by Vindhya range and eastern border by Bundelkhand plateau.

  • Dandakaranya region occupies an area of about 89,078 aq. km in the State of Odisha (Koraput and Kalahandi districts), Chhattisgarh (Bastar District), and Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari, Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam district). The region extends for about 480 km from east to west and 320 km from north to south.

  • Dandkaryanya is part of South India’s peninsular plateau. It extends over an area of approximately 89078 sq. km. in Odisha (Koraput and Kalahari district), Chhattisgarh (Bastar district) and Andhra Pradesh (Eastern Godavari, Vishakhapatnam and Srika Kulam district).



Coastal Regions

Coastal line of India

  • The mean sea level of India is measured with reference to Chennai coast.

  • Territorial waters is the area of the sea immediately adjacent to the shore of a State and subject to the territorial jurisdiction of that State. This area is generally 12 nautical miles. Similarly, an adjacent area of 200 nautical miles is considered as Exclusive Economic Zone of that country.

  • India is surrounded by sea on three sides. The length of it’s total coastline is 7516.6 km. India’s coastline consists of Bay of Bengal in the east, Indian Ocean in south and Arabian Sea in the west.

  • India’s coastline extends to nine States and four Union Territories. These are –

Gujarat               –        1214.70 km

Maharashtra       –        652.60 km

Goa                    –        101 km

Karnataka           –        280 km

Kerala                –        569.70 km

Tamil Nadu        –        906.90 km

Andhra Pradesh –        973.70 km

Odisha                –        476.70 km

West Bengal      –        157.50 km

Daman & Diu    –        42.20 km

Lakshadweep     –        132 km

Puducherry         –        47.60 km

Andaman Nicobar       1962 km

  • The length of mainland India’s coastline is 5422.6 km and offshore is 2094 km.

  • In ancient Indian historical geography the Indian Ocean has been named as “Ratnakara” a place where germs and jewels are found.

West Coast

  • Cities and Their Locations –

Janjira               –        Located in Raigarh district of Maharashtra.

Sindhudurh      –        Located in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra.

Kannur             –        Located in Kannur district of Kerala.

Nagercoli           –        It is located in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu.

Udupi                –        Udupi is located in the state of Karnataka.

Auroville           –        It is located in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry along the Coromandel Coast.

Tuticorin            –        It is a port city located on south-east coast of Tamil Nadu.


  • Tharangambadi” a town in the Nagapattinam district located at the coast of Tamil Nadu, was a colony of Denmark from 1620 to 1845. New Jerusalem Church and Zion Church are among the important building made by Danish people. They left this place in 1845 after selling it to the British.

  • The divisions along India’s coastline indicate underwater coastal relief contours. These show the depth of sea floor. On this basis, there are four relief zones in the sea region – Continental coast, continental slope, Deep sea plains and sea trough.

  • Sea Beach State

Digha                 –        West Bengal

Gopalpur            –        Odisha

Calangute           –        Goa

Marina               –        Tamil Nadu

  • The Coromandel Coast runs between False Divi Point in south east (Andhra Pradesh) to the Cape Comorin in the south (Kanya Kumari).

  • Coastal erosion is caused by ocean waves, tides, currents Tsunami wave etc.




Islands of the Bay of Bengal

  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal have around 572 Islands and islets, most of these islands (about 550) are in the Andaman Group. The smaller Nicobar comprises some 22 islands. Saddle Peak (732 M) is the highest peak in Andaman and Nicobar islands.

  • Total number of islands in Andaman and Nicobar is 222 whereas number of islands and islets is 572.

  • Ten degree channel separates Andaman group of Island to Nicobar group of Island. The expansion of the  channel is about 150 km. It is parallel to100 North latitude so it is called 10 degree channel.

  • Great Nicobar is the southernmost island of India located between 6045’ N-7015’ N and 93056’ E. This is approximately 480 km away from Port Blair. Indonesia Island Sumatra is geographically closest to Great Nicobar as compare to Borneo, Java and Sri Lanka. Java is an island of Indonesia to the south of Sumatra. Borneo is located to the east of Sumatra.

  • Barren Island is located in the Andaman Sea in the Bay of Bengal- 135 km north east from Port Blair. It is the only active volcano in South Asia. It first erupted in 1787.

  • The western coastal plain is divided into 3 regions namely the Konkan Coast, the Kanara Coasti and the Malabar Coast. The northern portion of west coast is called “Konkan” and southern portion “Malabar”. The western coastal plain of India is narrow, and the east-coast is very wide.

  • Barren Island is located in Andaman. It is the only confirmed active volcano in South Asia. It is part of Indian Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Island.

  • Sriharikota Island is located near Pulicat Lake of Andhra Pradesh. It separates Pulicat Lake from the Bay of Bengal. Satish Dhawan Space Centre is located in Sriharikota.

  • Adam Bridge is also known as “Ram Setu”. It is spread as chain of shoals from Dhanushkoki tip of India’s Pamban Island to Sri Lanka’s Mannar Island. Pamban Island is semi connected to Indian mainland by 2 km long Pamban Bridge.

The Arabian Sea Islands

  • Lakshyadweep is a group of Islands in Arabian Sea. These are scattered between 80 N – 120 N and 710 E-740 The entire Island group is built of coral deposits. There are approximately 36 islands out of which 10 are inhabited. Minicoy is the second largest Island separated from other Islands by 90 Channel. Kavaratti is the capital of Lakshyadweep. The largest Island of Lakshyadweep is Andrott. These Islands are located at a distance of 280 km – 480 km off the Kerala coast.

  • Lakshyadweep is a coral Island in Arabian Sea and its capital is Kavaratti. It is located in South West of India.

  • The Lakshyadweep group of Islands comprises 36 Islands, covering 32 sq. km area. Its capital is Kavaratti. Lakshyadweep is comprised of 10 inhabited Islands and 16 uninhabited Islands.

  • Islands and their location –

Elephanta Island – It is located at the distance of 10 kilometers from Gateway of India (Mumbai).

Nicobar Island    – It is located in south east of Bay of Bengal between 60– 100 north latitude and 920-940 East latitude. It consists of 22 Islands.

Rameswaram Islands – Rameswaram is located in the Ramanatha puram district of Tamil Nadu. His separated from mainland India by the Pamban channel.

Salsette Island – It is an Island in Maharashtra state of India. The metropolis of Mumbai and the cities of Thane are located here making it most densely populated islands of India.


  • India’s largest city on an island is Mumbai. The total area of Port Blair is greater than that of Mumbai however from town ship perspective it is lesser.

  • Island Location

Viyant  Syodhar          Gulf of Kutch

Piram                          Gulf of Combay (Khambat)

Dwarka                       Coast of Arabian sea

Diu                              Coast of Kathiawar

  • The Kori Creek is a tidal creek in the Rann of Kutch region of Gujarat. It is maritime border between India and Pakistan.

  • Sir Creek is a disputed area in Rann of Kutch. It is a 96 km tidal estuary on the border of India and Pakistan. It separates Gujarat state of India from Sindh province of Pakistan. The two countries are not in agreement over the demarcation line in Sir Creek in Rann of Kutch.



States and Union Territories of India


  • “Latur” is a district in Maharashtra. It is located at height of 636 m above the sea level. On September 30, 1993 Latur had faced a severe earthquake.

  • Vidarbha is north-eastern region of the State of Maharashtra. Presently, there are two divisions under this region – Nagpur and Amravati. This region comprises of Nagpur, Amravati, Chandrapur, Akola, Vardha, Buldhana,Yavatmal, Bhandhara, Gondia, Washim and Garhchiroli district of Maharashtra.

  • “Pat Region” is located in Chhota Nagpur region. This region has high hill peaks. Maximum part of Chhota Nagpur plateau lies in the State of Jharkhand.

  • Jhumri Telaiya is a city in the Koderma district of Jharkhand State of India.

  • Andhra Pradesh due to its fertile terrain is also known as “Kohinoor of India”.

  • Manipur is a landlocked small State in north eastern India. The State covers a 22,327 square kilometers area which is 0.7% of total area of India. It consists of 1843 square kilometers of river basin which is 8% of total area of Manipur whereas 92% of the area is hilly and mountaineous.

  • Phumdi are heterogenous masses of vegetation, soil and organic matters at various stages of decomposition that has been thickened into a solid form, often found in Lotkat Lake of Manipur. It is home to the endangered deer species called Sangai in Manipuri language.

  • Karnataka is known as “Silicon State” of India as it is a hub of Information and Technology Companies in India. The Silicon Valley of India is a nickname of Indian city Bengaluru which is capital of Karnataka.

  • City State

Aurangabad        –        Maharashtra

Palanpur             –        Gujarat

Hubi                   –        Karnataka

Guntur                –        Andhra Pradesh

  • Malnad is s region in Karnataka. It is covered with dense forest.

  • The National Capital Region (NCR) under Haryana sub-region includes 13 districts –

  1. Faridabad

  2. Gurgaon

  3. Mewat

  4. Rohtak

  5. Sonipat

  6. Rewari

  7. Jhajjar

  8. Panipat

  9. Palwal

  10. Mahendragarh (Narnul)

  11. Bhiwani

  12. Jind

  13. Karnal



  • Uttar Pradesh sub-region comprises of seven districts –

  1. Meerut

  2. Ghaziabad

  3. Bulandshahar

  4. Gautam Buddh Nagar

  5. Baghpat

  6. Hapur

  7. Muzaffarnagar

  • Rajasthan sub-region includes two districts Alwar and Bharatpur. (Khurja is a city in the Bulandshahar district of Uttar Pradesh).

  • Madhya Pradesh currently shares border with five States namely Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Punjab shares boundary with Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.

  • According to Census 2011, the some States it terms of area is as follows –

Madhya Pradesh       –        308252 sq km

Uttar Pradesh            –        240928 sq km

Andhra Pradesh        –        160205 sq km

Bihar                          –        94163 sq km

Rajasthan                  –        342239 sq km

Maharashtra             –        307713 sq km

Chhattisgarh             –        135192 sq km

Jharkhand                 –        79716 sq km

Himachal Pradesh    –        55673 sq km

Karnataka                 –        191791 sq km

Tamil Nadu               –        130050 sq km

Uttarakhand              –        53483 sq km

  • Uttar Pradesh shares boundary with eight States and one Union Territory – Delhi. The eight States are Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.

  • Assam is surrounded by 7 States namely West Bengal, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura.

  • Total area of India is 3287240 sq km. According to 2011 Census, the three largest States of India with respect to area are Rajasthan (342239 sq km), Madhya Pradesh (308252 sq km) and Maharashtra (307713 sq km) which accounts for 30% of the total area of India.

  • Chhattisgarh shares border with Uttar Pradesh (North), Madhya Pradesh (North West) , Odisha and Jharkhand (North East), Andhra Pradesh (South), Maharashtra (West) and Telangana.



  • The altitude (height) of sea level of some cities are –

Bengaluru          –        920 m

Delhi                  –        254 m

Jodhpur              –        232 m

Nagpur               –        312.42 m

  • Desert of Rajasthan is the most densely populated desert in the world, with a population density of 83 person/sq. km. It is about 10,000 years old. Here only 40% to 60% of the area is suitable for farming. Due to development in the irrigation processes, the increase in net sown area has adversely affected the coverage of gazing land.

  • 280 north latitude passes through Arunachal Pradesh and North Rajasthan. Arunachal Pradesh has over 80% of its area under forest cover and over 12% of the forest is protected area.

  • The seven sister States in Northeast India consist of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.

  • In an effort to gain a separate state based on linguistic basis Potti Shriramulu fasted untill death in 1952. After Shriramulu’s death, the Telugu speaking areas Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October, 1953 with Kurnool as its capital city. Later in 1956, Hyderabad was made capital of Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh was bifurcated in 2014 and a separate state of Telangana was formed. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 Hyderabad will remain the de Jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for a period not exceeding 10 years. The de facto capital city of Andhra Pradesh is Amaravati.



  • The number of districts in the some cities –

Madhya Pradesh         –        50

Maharashtra                –        35

Tamil Nadu                 –        32

Uttar Pradesh              –        75

  • Sonbhadra was carved out from Mirzapur on 4th March, 1989. Sonbhadra borders 4 States namely – Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.

  • Imphal is the capital of Manipur while Aizawl is the capital of Mizoram.

  • Gandhinagar is the capital of the State of Gujarat. It is located approximately 23 km north of Ahmedabad which is the biggest city of Gujarat.

  • Capital city of Rajasthan in Jaipur. Jaipur is also known as Pink City. Hawa Mahal is situated in Jaipur.

  • Telangana is the 29th State of India with Hyderabad as its capital.

  • Itanagar is the capital of Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Chandigarh, Bhubaneswar and Gandhinagar are well planned cities.

  • State Capital

Assam                Dispur

Meghalaya         Shillong

Mizoram            Aizawl

Nagaland            Kohima

Gujarat               Gandhinagar

Manipur             Imphal


Union Territories

  • Presently India comprises 29 States and seven Union Territories. The Seven Territories are –

  1. Delhi

  2. Chandigarh

  3. Lakshadweep

  4. Dadra and Nagar Haveli

  5. Puducherry

  6. Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  7. Daman & Diu

  • The area of Some Union Territories –

Delhi                  –        1483 sq km

Puducherry       –        479 sq km

Chandigarh      –        114 sq km

Daman and Diu-       112 sq km

  • Lakshadweep is the smallest Union Territory of India having area of 32 sq km with population of 64429.



  • The Union Territory of Puducherry consists of four small unconnected districts:

  1. Yanam –        Surrounded by Andhra Pradesh

  2. Puducherry –        Surrounded by Tamil Nadu

  3. Karaikal –        Surrounded by Tamil Nadu

  4. Mahe –        Surrounded by Kerala

  • Daman and Diu is a Union Territory of India. It is divided into two parts Daman (on the Arabian Sea coastline of Maharashtra and Gujarat) and Diu (Saurashtra, coast of Gujarat). Its capital is Daman and Gulf Khambhat is located between Daman and Diu. Daman was acquired by the Portuguese from Shah of Gujarat. Thereafter it was under the rule of Portuguese (not the British) till its liberation in 1961.


  • Mongoloids, who were originally the inhabitants of America, reside in north east and south east Asia. The colour of skin of this race is yellow and they have straight hair. Their obligue eyes are a peculiar feature.

  • Mongoloids are the racial groups found in hilly and forest area of north-eastern India.

  • Tribes like Santhal, Bhil, Yeruva etc which forms the population of South India, belongs to pre-Dravidian or Proto-Australoid race.

  • White browed Gibbon found in India’s north east is an Anthropoid ape of the Indian sub-continent.

  • The Dravidian races are mainly confined to South India. This race is related to Dravidian language family that includes Tamil, Kannad, Malyalam, Telgu etc. They are also found in central and south-east India.

  • According to 2011 census Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi and Puducherry have not identified tribal communities. 8.6% of the total population of India are tribal communities with the maximum population concentrated in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Odisha.

  • According to 2011 census, Tharu tribe is found in Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar where as Kol tribe is found in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Odisha. Munda Tribes is found across much of Jharkhand as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh and Bihar.

  • Tharu tribe dwells in the lowland from Nainital in Uttarakhand to Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. They follow Hinduism and celebrated all the festivals however they observe Diwli as a mourning occasion.

  • Gaddi tribe lives in the Dhauladhar Range of Western Himalaya which extends in Kangra and Chamba districts of Himachal Pradesh. Gaddi Tribe relate themselves to the dynasty of Garba Rules of Rajasthan. This is one of the main tribes of Dhauladhar Range which constitute a population of around 1 lakh. The lifestyle of Gaddi tribe is different from other tribes. Main tribes of Dhauladhar Range are Gaddi, Laddakhi Gujjar, Bakarwal, Laholi, Bari etc.

  • Santhal tribe is one of the main tribes of India. Santhals are indigenous to West Bengal, Bihar, Tripura, Jharkhand and Odisha.



  • Marriage among santhals is called Bupla. There are different types of Bupla such as Sanga Bupla, Kirin Bupla, Itut Bupla, Nir Bolok Bupla etc. Generally, bride’s father asks for ‘bride price’ which is called as ‘Pon’. Divorce is also a common practice. Both male and female have equal rights in this regard. “Bitlaha” is a severe punishment is Santhal society. It is a type of social boycott. The chief of Santhal village is known as “Manjhi”.

  • Bhoksas, Jaunsaris and Tharus are permanent settlers. These are all agriculture based tribes. Bhuties are found in frontier areas of Sikkim adjacent to Nepal, Tibet and West Bengal. Bhuties practice transhumance. They are also known as Lhasa, Palai and Fobetian etc. They use Tibetan language.

  • Bodo tribe is an ethnic and linguistic group which mainly resides in Garo hill of Meghalaya. Santhal Pargana is a Santhal majority division of Bihar.

  • Khasi and Garo speaking population is found in the state of Meghalaya, Assam and Mizoram.

  • Munda tribe is found across of Jharkhand as well as Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. They celebrate festivals like Mage, Phagu, Karma, Sarhul and Sohrai. Sarhul is celebrated in month of March-April during spring season with seal flowers.

  • Oraon, Munda and Ho tribes in Jharkhand celebrate the “Sarhul Festival”. This is celebrated every year in the Chaitra month of Hindu calendar marking the beginning of New Year. Trees are worshipped in this festival. This shows the closeness of tribes and nature.

  • The “Youth Dormitory” of Oraon tribe is called Dhumkaria. Endogamy is prohibited in Oraon tribe. Child marriage is not participated in Oraon society. The most common form of marriage in Oraon tribe is “arranged marriage”. The Chief of Oraon village is known as “Matato” and Panchayat is called as “Panchora”.

  • According to Census 2011, Tribes and their population in respective States is –

Bhotiya              –        5196          –        U P

Khasi                  –        1411775    –         Meghalaya

Toda                   –        2002          –        Tamil Nadu

Santhal               –        2754723    –         Jharkhand

  • State Festival

Assam                Bihu

Kerala                Onam

Tamil Nadu        Pongal

Punjab                Baisakhi

  • In India Jaunsari, Khasi, Toda, Kota, Bota, Tian, Irawa and Nayar tribes practice polyandry.



  • Tribe Habitat

Bhil                    Rajasthan

Santhal               Jharkhand

Raji                    Uttarakhand

Lepcha               Sikkim

Birhor                Jharkhand

Bhutia                Sikkim

Sentinelese         Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Garo                   Meghalaya

Tharu                 Uttar Pradesh

Gaddi                 Himachal Pradesh

Munda                Jharkhand

Moplash             Kerala

Murias                Chhattisgarh


  • Sahariya is one of the main tribes of Rajasthan and is mainly located in Baran district. The name Sahariya is said to be derived from the Arabian word ‘Sehara” or “wilderness”.

  • The criterion followed for the determination of Tribes is cultural specification, primitive trait, distinctive culture, geographical location.

  • Tribe District

Pahadi Korba     Jashpur

Baiga                  Mandala

Maria                 Patalkot (Chhindwara)

Sehariya             Gwalior

  • The Changpa are semi-nomadic Tibetan people found mainly in Zaskar region of Jammu and Kashmir. The main occupation of this community is animal husbandry or ranching. They can often be seen with yaks and goat herds in the hilly areas.

  • Korba tribe is mainly found in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

  • The Agariyas are one of the major tribe of India engaged in the production of iron in central. Their main deity God is Lahasur (the god of iron). The Agarias worship “Lahasur’ or Kalabhairo as their tribal God.

  • Zulu is a tribe found in South Africa.

  • The people of “Onge” tribe live in the west of Little Andaman Island in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

  • The Jarawa or Jarva tribe live in India’s South Andaman Island region of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. They were in news as Court passed an order banning to tourist in the areas of Jarwa.

  • “Andi” and “Oportipi” form of marriage is related to “Ho” tribe Marriage by negotiation is “Andi” whereas marriage by capture is known as “Oportipi”.

  • Among the 32 tribes of Jharkhand, 8 tribes are included in “primitive” Tribe Groups’. They are Asur, Birhor, Birajia, Korawa, Parahiya (Baiga), Sabar, Mal Pahariya and Sauriya Pahariya. 27% population of Jharkhand is tribal. According to 2011 Census, population of primitive tribe groups is 2.23 lakhs.




  • Census related to language has two important component –

  1. L-1- People

  2. L-2 People using a language as second language besides primary language or mother tongue. The total numbers of L-1 and L-2 considered as the total number of users of a language. According to Ethnologue 7 most spoken languages of the world are –

Language               L-1                     L-2                 Total users

Chinese                   897071810     193880000         1090951810

Spanish                   426515910     91308400           517824310

English                   339370920     603163010         942533930

Arebia                     267092450         –                      –

Hindi                      260123420     120490000         380613420

Poutgual                 202225450     120490000         208525450

Bengali                   189144830     19200000           208344830

Language               L-1                     L-2                 Total Users

Hindi (in India)      138000000     120000000         258000000

Hindi Abroad)        122123420         490000              122613420

Hindi (Census)       422048642         NA                 NA

According to Enthnologue data, Mandarin is the largest language in terms of number of people using it as mother tongue (L-1). In this context Hindi is the fifth largest language of the world. According to census, the number of people using Hindi as mother tongue is 422048642. If the ethnologue data (122123420) of people using Hindi as mother tongue abroad  is added, then the total number of people using Hindi as mother tongue will be 544172062. Thus, Hindi will become the record largest language after Mandarin. In terms of total users according to ethnogogue data, the largest language of the world is Mandarin followed by English and Spanish. On the basis of same data Hindi will become the fourth largest language of the world. If the census of India is to be made basis Hindi will become the third largest language after Mandarin and English. The main different between the data of Ethnologue and Census of India is that while the former only collects “Kahri Boli” later, the alter includes Awadhi, Begheli, Bhojpuri etc. (total 49 regional languages) largest languages in India according to Census 2001.




  • Odiya became the sixth language of the country to get classical language status on 29 Feb, 2014. Classical language status was given to Tamil in 2004, Sanskrit in 2005, Telgu and Kannad in 2008 Malyalam in 2013.

  • The largest linguistic group of India is Indo-Aryan. This is most important family of Indian languages and comprises of all the principal languages including Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Rajasthani, Assamese, Oriya, Kashmiri Urdu and Sanskrit. It is related to 76.87% of the total Indian population as per census 2001.

Drainagope System

Ganges Drainage System

  • Himalayan Rivers are great examples of antecedent drainage. These rivers have carried on erosion since the event of Himalayan rise. Rivers like Indus, Brahmaputra, Sutlej and Ganga originated on Tibetan side and travelled across the existing mountain ranges, cutting deep gorges. An antecedent stream is a stream that maintains its original course and pattern despite the changes in underlying rock topography.

  • Ganga is the longest river of India. The length of it’s drainage in India is 2415 km (total length 2525 km). It emerges from Gangotri glacier. Ganga is joined by Bhilangana in Tihri and Alaknanda in Dev Prayag. Flowing north to Rajmahal hills at the border of Jharkhand Ganga enters Bangladesh at Farakka in West Bengal. Here Ganga is known as Padma. Ganga merges in the Brahmputra River in Bangladesh and further this stream merges in Meghna River. Meghna River finally empties in the Bay of Bengal and forms the largest delta. This delta of Ganga and Brahmputra River is created between Hugly and Meghna Rivers.

  • After entering Bangladesh, the main branch of the Ganges is known as “Padma”. The Padma is joined by Brahmputra River and the confluence is known as Jamuna. Further it meets Meghna River and is commonly known as Meghna which flows into the Bay of Bengal.

  • According to Oldhum the depth of Gangetic alluvial soil below the land surface is about 400-600 meters and according to Glany, it is about 2000 meters.

  • Sunderban Delta is the world largest delta formed by the River Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna. Two third of Sunderban Delta is in Bangaldesh while rest is in India.

  • Devprayag is located at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers.

  • Rudraprayag is located at the confluence of the Mandakini and Alaknanda Rivers.

  • Alaknanda flows in Chamoli, Tehri and Pauri district. Badrinath is a Nagar Panchayat of Chamoli district which is situated at the bank of Alaknanda River.

  • Badrinath was established as a major pilgrimage site by Adi Shankracharya.

  • Mandakini River originates at Chorabari Taal. It merges with Kaliganga at Son Prayag. Further it merges in Alaknanda in Rudra Prayag south of Badrinath. Alaknanda emerges at Satopanth Peak glacier and Satopanth Taal located in Alkapuri north east of Shivlinga Peak. The famous “Panch Prayag” and Badri Vishal pilgrimage is situated on the bank of Alaknanda River.

  • Mandakini River flows between Kedarnath and Rudra Prayag Mandakini originates from the Chorabari Taal near Kedarnath in Uttarakhand. Mandakini is fed by Kaliganga River at Sonprayag. Mandakini joins Alaknanda at Rudraprayag. Alakndanda then proceeds towards Devprayag where it joins Bhagirathi River to form the Ganges River.

  • The Ganga is the most important River of India. It rises in Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. Here it is known as Bhagirathi. It cuts through the Central and the Lesser Himalayas. Bhagirathi meet Alaknanda at Dev Prayag, hereafter it is known as Ganga.

  • The famous Badrinath temple is situated near the bank of Alaknanda River while Kedarnath Temple is located near the banks of Mandakini River in Uttarakhand.



  • The Length of flowing Rivers of India –

Ganga River       –        2525 km

Godavari River  –        1465 km

Narmada River  –        1312 km

Mahanadi River –        858 km

  • Yamuna becomes a dead river between Delhi and Agra most of the year because of domestic discharge and industrial waste in Delhi, Gaziabad, Mathura, Agra.

  • Ramganga River originates from Doodhatoli ranges in Pauri Garhwal, Uttarakhand. It is a tributary of the river Ganges while Chambal, Betwa and Ken are tributaries of River Yamuna.

  • Bhagirathi emerges from Gomukh glacier, 19 km away from Gangotri under the Shivalinga Peak. Siyaganga merges in Bhagirathi near Jhala. The joint stream of Alaknanad and Bhagirathi flowing Dev Prayag onwards is known as Ganga.

  • Yamuna originates from Yamunotri Glacier near Bandarpoonch peak.

  • The Gomti River originates from Gomat Taal which was formally known as Pulhar Lake, near Pilibhit district Uttar Pradesh. It s the only tributary of River which rises in the plains.

  • Kaimur Ranges forms the watershed or divide two major river of Peninsular India, the Son on the south and the Tons (Tributary of Yamuna) on the north.

  • The source of river Brahmaputra, Indus and Sutluj, is near Mansarowar Lake in Tibet.

  • Yarlung Zangbo is known as Brahmaputra River in India. It originates at Angsi glacier in western Tibet south east of Mount Kailash and Lake Mansarovar. It is known as River Jamuna in Bangladesh.

  • The area drained by a single river system is called a Drainage Basin

  • Water Divide→ Upland separates 2 drainage basins.

  • →Himalayan Rivers

  • Perennial→ Rain and Snow Indus,

  • Brahmaputra→ Originate from North of Mountain Ranges.


  • They have long courses from source to Sea.

-Upper Coarse: Erosional Activity, huge silt

-Middle, Lower→ Meanders, Oxbow Lakes, Flood plains, Deltas

  • Drainage Patterns

 – Depends on slope of land, underlying rock structures, climate.

  1. Dendritic→ Branches of tree, develop where river flows slope of terrain

  2. Trellis→ Right angles, forms → where Hard & Soft rocks exists parallel to each other.

  3. Rectangular→ Develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain

  4. Rodial→ Streams flow in different directions from central peak or dome – like structure.



Brahmputra Drainage System

  • The tributaries of Brahmputra River are Kameng, Sankosh, Raidak, Amochu, Dibang, Lohit Barhidihing Rivers. Dibang River flow across Dibang Valley district of Arunachal Pradesh, Kameng River also flows in Arunachal Pradesh while the Lohit River originates in eastern Tibet and surges through Arunachal Pradesh.

  • The Tibetan Plateau is also known in China as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau or the Qingzang. With an average elevation exceeding 4500 meters, the Tibetan Plateau is also called “the Rook of the World”. The rivers originating from this 2.5 million sq. km. plateau are Yangtze, Huang He (Yellow River), Mekong, Indus, Satluj, Brahmaputra and Irrawaddy. Hence it is clear that Brahmputra and Indus originate from the Tibetan Plateau.

  • Brahmputra, Irawaddy and Mekong Rivers originate in Tibet and flow parallel to mountain range in appear reaches. Brahmputra makes a “U” Turn in it’s course to flow into India due to syntaxial bending of geologically young Himalaya.

  • Lohit, Subansiri Rivers flow through Arunachal Pradesh while Barak River flows from its source in the Manipur Hills, through Manipur, Mizoram and Assam. The Subansirir River originates in the Himalayas; it is a tributary of the Brahmputra River in the Indian states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The Lohit River rises in eastern Tibet, in the Zayal Chu Range and surges through Arunachal Pradesh for 200 kilometres before entering the plains of Assam. It is also a tributary of the Brahmputra River.



  • Himalayan Rivers

  1. Indus

  2. Ganga

  3. Brahmaputra

River + tributaries = River System

  • Indus River System

  • Source: Rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar.

  • Enters India in Ladakh dist of Jammu and Kashmir pass through Gilgit →forms Picturesque Gorge

  • Tributaries in Kashmir Region:

  1. Zaskar

  2. Nubra

  3. Shyok

  4. Hunza

  • The Brahmaputra River System

  • Source: Rises in Tibet east of Mansarowar Lake very close to sources of Indus & Satluj.

  • Longer than Indus & most of its course lies outside India.

  • Flows parallel to Himalayas. On reaching Namcha Barva, it takes ‘U’ turn & enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge→ Here, it is called “Dihang”.

Joined by Dibang, Lohit & others to form Brahmaputra in Assam

  • In Tibet→ Carries small volume of water & less silt as it is cold & dry area.

  • In India→Passes through high rainfall regions→ carries large volume of water & huge amount of silt.

  • It has a Braided Channel in Assam & forms many riverine islands.

  • Every year – rainy season: over flaws its banks, floods in Assam & Bangladesh.

  • It is marked by huge deposits of silt on its bed causing the river bed to rise.

  • Shifts its channel frequently.



The South Indian Rivers

  • Major Rivers of the Peninsular India originate from Western Ghats. Eastward flowing peninsular rivers follow long route and also form Deltas. The Westward flowing peninsular rivers pass through tough rocks and follow small route. This is why these rivers do not make deltas.

  • All major Rivers of Peninsular India flow into the Bay of Bengal except Narmada and Tapti because of the rift valley course of these rivers. These rivers do not follow the slope of the plateau and flow through rift.

  • Narmada River does not form delta at it’s mouth. This is because it flows through rift valley and does not deposit silt.

  • Godavari is the largest river in Peninsular India and second largest river in India. The major tributaries of Godavari are :

  • Purna

  • Pranhita

  • Indravati

  • Sabari

  • Pravara

  • Manjira

  • Manair

  • The Godavari River is second largest River in India after Ganga and the largest peninsular River of India, about 1465 km long. It originates at Trimbakeshwar near Nasik, Maharashtra and flows into Bay of Bengal.

  • Two important rivers, Narmada and Son, originate from Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh. Son flows towards north and merges with River Ganga flowing towards Bay of Bengal.

  • The quays of Sabarmati and Tapti Rivers have deficiency of water.

  • Mahanadi is a River in eastern India which rises from Shihava hills in Chhattisgarh and flows eastwards. Traversing over 858 km through Chhattisgarh and Odisha, this river forms delta near Paradeep in the Bay of Bengal.

  • There are three east flowing rivers in Kerala – Kabani River, Bhavani River and Pambar River. The Tapti, Mahi and Narmada Rivers originate in Madhya Pradesh and flow from east to west and empty into the Arabian Sea.

  • Krishna River water dispute is between Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra since 1957. Besides many committees, two separate tribunals were set up under the chairmanship of Justice R.S. Bachhawat and Brijesh Kumar.

  • Cauvery River rises from Brahmgiri Hills in Coorg distict of Karnataka and flows 805 km. in the drainage area of 87900 sq. km. It empties into the Bay of Bengal near Tiruchirapalli. It’s dranage area is spread in Kerala (3%), Karnataka (41%) and Tamil Nadu (56.1%). This river forms islands of Srirangapattanam, Shivasamudram and Srisangam in the Deccan Plateau.

  • Tawa River is the longest tributary of Narmada River. It rises in Satpura range of Betul and flowing north and west joins Narmada at the village of Bandra Bhan in Hoshangabad.



Other Rivers

  • Ganga, Brahmaputra, Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, Cauvery, Pennar, Swarnarekha and Brahmani are drainage systems (rivers) which flow into Bay of Bengal while Narmada, Tapti, Sabarmati, Mahi, Luni are important rivers that fall into Arabian Sea.

  • River named Doodh Ganga flows in Uttarakhand and Maharashtra also besides Jammu and Kashmir.

  • Satluj River rises from Rakas Lake in Tibet. Flowing north west, it enters Himachal Pradesh near Shipki La. It creates deep gorges cutting Himachal ranges. It further flows into Beas River. It total length is 1500 km.

  • Tel is a tributary of Mahanadi River. Major tributaries of Krishna River are – Koyna, Yerala, Dina, Varna, Panch Ganga, Ghat Prabha, Bhima and Tungabhadra.

  • The Correct order from north to south of the four Rivers will be –

Kishangana        –        Ganga River       –         Wain Ganga       –        Painganga

  • Hagari River originates in Western Ghats and flows through Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to join Tungbhadra. It is also known as Vedavathi. Veda and Avathi Rivers originate at Sahayadri; join each other at Pura and known as Vedavathi.

  • Kishanganga is a tributary of Jhelum in Jammu and Kashmir. Thus, it is the northernmost among the four. To it’s south is the Ganga which rises from Gangotri glacier in Uttarakhand. Painganga and Wainganga, both are tributaries of Godavari. Wain Ganga is located in north and painganga in south.

  • Edon Canal is a 65 km long canal taken out from Damodar River in 1938. It provides irrigation to 10000 hectare of land.

  • Luni River originates in Aravalli range, south west to Ajmer. It disappears in the Runn of Kutchh traversing a distance of 320 km. Thus, it does not come in contact with the sea.

  • Inland drainage River is that drainage in which River does not reach ocean and falls into lake or inland sea. The example of inland river are Ghaggar, Mahi, Muni, Rupen, Saraswati, Banas etc.

  • The most polluted river of India is Damodar River. The enormous quantity of pollutants coming out from the mines, industries, cities and agricultural fields have so much degraded the quality of the River water between Giridih and Durgapur that it has virtually become a biological desert.

  • The Kosi River has seven tributaries in which Aruna is most important. It originates from north of the Gosainthan area. The Kosi River is known for its dangerous floods and especially for maximum shifting of its course. Thus, it can be said that the Kosi River changes its course for maximum times among all rivers of India.

  • Shyok River in known as “Yarkandi” in Central Asia and “River of Death” in Karakoram. Ancient evidences indicate that it was also medium of trade between Yarakand and Laddakh. Zanskar River flows through hard rock and form deep gorge. It originates on the border of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. It flows in north and then flows in east and joints Indus at Nemu.

  • Spiti River originates at height of 16000 ft from Kunzun pass. It merges into Sutlej River and Namgiya in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh after flowing 60 miles.

  • Sutlej River rises in Tibet it crosses Great Himalaya and Zaskar range and crosses Indo-Tibet border near Shipki La. Spiti River merges in Sutlej from north.

  • The Triveni Canal receives water from River Gandak. It is located in West Champaran district.

  • Doab Rivers

Bist Doab           Between Beas and Satluj

Bari Doab           Between Ravi and Beas

Rachna Doab     Between Ravi and Chenab

Chaj Doab          Between Chenab and Jhelum

  • The Hizla fair is organized on the banks of the Mayurakshi River in Dumka, Santhal Pargana. Hizla is located on the banks of the Mayurakshi River.

  • On 25 August, 2005 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed for Ken-Betwa Link project. It was signed by the then Chief Minister of U.P., Mulayam Singh Yadav, the then Chief Minister of M.P., Babulal Gaur and the then Union Water Resources Minister Priyaranjan Das Munshi.

  • Source River

Brahmgiri Hills                    Cauvery

Verinag Spring                    Jhelum

Mahabaleshwar                    Krishna

Chhota Nagpur Plateau        Subarnarekha

  • Mahatma Gandhi Setu is a bridge over the River Ganges connecting Patna in the South to Hajipur in the North of Bihar. Its length is 5575 meters. It was officially inaugurated in March, 1982. On 15 November, 2016 Asian Development Bank and Government of India signed an agreement for the construction of a new bridge parallel to the existing bridge. Once constructed, the new bridge (9.8 km long) will be the longest River Bridge in India.

  • Kali River rises near Diggi village in Uttar Pradesh Kannad distict of Karnataka. It follows an arch shape course in west direction and flows into the Arabian Sea. Total length of this River is 184 km.

  • Deccan Plateau is extended from Narmada River to Kumari Island and Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. Average elevation of this plateau above sea level is 600 meter. Western Ghats parallel to the Arabian Sea is high mountaneous region and eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau gently slopes towards the Bay of Bengal. All the rivers flowing east wards from the Western Ghats follow this slope and fall into the Bay of Bengal.



  • Kapli River is a Tributary of Brahmputra, Kamrupnagar is situated on the bank of this river.

  • River Tributary

Ganga                 Son

Godavari            Manjara (Manjira), Indravati

Krishna              Bhima

Yamuna              Ken, Chambal

  • Mahi River originates in Madhya Pradesh and enters Rajasthan in the district of Banswara and then flows to south-west direction of Gujarat and falls into the Gulf of Khambhat.

  • Mithi River is originates from Vihar Lake in Mumbai. After flowing 2 km, the water of Powai Lake also merges in the streams. It traverse over a distance of 18 km and falls into the Arabian Sea near the Bay of Mahim.

  • “Leh” is located on the right bank of Indus River in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

  • Eastern Dhauliganga is a tributary of Kali River. Kali River originates from Kalapani, near lipulekh pass. Main tributaries of Kali River are Gori, Sarju, Ladhiya, Lohavati etc.

  • The prime tributary of Ganga River is Bhagirathi which originates from Gomukh, Uttarakhand district in Uttar Pradesh. The confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi at Devprayag forms river Ganga.



Cities Located on the Bank of Rivers

  • Ludhiana (Punjab) is located on the old bank of Satluj River. Presently, Satluj River flows 13 km north to it.

  • Hyderabad is located on the bank of river Musi a tributary of the Krishna River.

  • Bhubaneswar is the capital of Odisha. The famous city of Odisha “Cuttack” is located on the bank of Mahanadi River.

  • The list of cities with corresponding Rivers on the bank of which they are located is as follow –

Cuttack (Odisha)        –        Mahanadi

Ludhiana (Punjab)      –        Satluj River

Nashik (Maharashtra) –        Godavari River

Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh)    Kshipra River

  • Ahmedabad is located on the bank of Sabarmati River, Lucknow-Gomti River, and Ujjain- Kshipra River.

  • Betul is a district of Madhya Pradesh. Tapti River originates in the Betul district from a place called Multai. It flows from east to west direction same as River Narmada and Mahi. Its total length is 724 km.



  • Jagdalpur: It is a city in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. It is located on southern bank of Indravati River.

  • Jabalpur: It is a district of Madhya Pradesh. It is located near Narmada River.

  • Ujjain: Ujjain is the oldest city of Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. It is located on the eastern bank of “Kshipra” River.

  • Gaurikund, Rambara and Guptakashi are located along the Mandakini River, whereas Govind ghat is located at the confluence of Alaknanda and Lakshman Ganga.

Waterfalls and Lakes

  • Hundru fall is located on the course of the Subarnarekha River. It is 45 km away from Ranchi. Its height is 98 m (322 feet).

  • Waterfall          Rivers

Dudhsagar                   Mandavi (on the border of Goa and Karnataka)

Duduma                      Machhkund (Koraput, Odisha)

Gukak                         Ghatprabha (Belgaum, Karnataka)

Jog                              Sharavati (Karnataka)

Chulia                         Chambal

Sivasamudram            Kaveri

Dhuandhar                  Narmada

  • Sivasamudram falls is located on the River Cauvery.

  • Kapildhara falls is located in newly created district Anuppur (Madhya Pradesh) on River Narmada.

  • Chitrakoot waterfalls is popularly known as Niagara falls of India. Its s located near Jagdalpur, in Batar district of Chhattisgarh on Indravati River. It’s height is 29 meter.

  • Snow covered Ghepan lake formed by gradual receding of a Gigantic glacier is located in Lahaul Valley, Himachal Pradesh.



  • Lake Location

Ashtamudi         Kerla

Pulicat                Tamil Nadu

Roopkund          Uttarakhand

Surajkund           Haryana

Vembanad          Kerala

Loktak                Manipur

Dal                     Jammu and Kashmir

  • Roopkund is a glacial lake in Uttarakhand. It is famous for hundred of human Skeletons found at the edge of the lake. It is called “Mystery Lake” and “Skeleton Lake”. These skeletons were discovered by H.K. Madhaval in 1942.

  • Lonar Lake is located in Maharashtra, Nakki in Rajasthan Kolleru in Andhra-Pradesh and Pulicat Lake is located on the border of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

  • Loktak Lake is in Manipur whereas Didwana and Uday sagar lakes are located in Rajasthan and Kolleru Lake is located in Andhra Pradesh.

  • Chilka Lake is a lagoon on the mouth of River Mahanadi in Odisha. Odisha coast is also called Northern Circar. Karnataka coast is on Karnataka’s coastal area. Konkan coast is on Maharashtra’s western coast and Malabar coast is on Kerala’s western coast.

  • Gomti River originates from Fulhar Lake. Which is situated in Mado Tanda. Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh.

  • Lagoon Lake of Kerala is also called as “Kayal”. Some of the Kayals (lagoon) found in Kerala are Punnamada Kayal, Ashtamudi Kayal, Vembanad Kayal etc.

  • Vembanad lake is the largest lake of Kerala. Its length is 96 km and width is 14.48 km. The lake is bordered by Alappuzha, Kottayam and Ernakulam districts of Kerala.

  • Lodh waterfall is situated in Latehar district of Jharkhand at the source of Burha River. This is a major waterfall of Jharkhand and ranks 21st among the highest waterfalls in India. This fall is also called as Budha ghagh falls its height is 469 feet.



  • According to the latest world waterfalls data base high water falls of India are as follows:

Nohkalikai Falls         Meghalaya                  340 meter           1115 feet

Mawsmai Falls           Meghalaya                  315 meter           1035 feet

Dudhsagar Falls          Karnataka                    310 meter           1017 feet

Kynrem Falls              Meghalaya                  305 meter           1000 feet

Meenmutty Falls         Kerala                         300 meter           984 feet

Thalaiyar Falls            Tamil Nadu                 297 meter           975 feet

Barkana Falls              Karnataka                    259 meter           850 feet

Jog Falls                      Karnataka                    253 meter           829 feet

Khandadhar Falls        Odisha                         244 meter           800 feet

Vantawang Falls         Mizoram                     229 meter           750 feet

Barehi Pani Falls        Odisha                         2017 meter         712 feet

Kune Falls                  Maharashtra                200 meter           656 feet

Soochipara Falls         Kerala                200 meter                  656 feet

Magod Falls                Karnataka           198 meter                  650 feet

Kunchikal Falls          Karnataka           193 meter                  600 feet





  • The word “Monsoon” has been derived from the Arabic word “mausim” which means “season”. Traditionally, Monsoon is conceived as seasonal reversal of winds because of which rainfall occurs in South and South East Asia.

  • The lofty Himalayas in the north along with extension acts as an effective climate divide. The towering mountain chain provides an invincible shield to protect the sub continent from the cold northern winds. The Himalayas also trap the monsoon winds, forcing them to shed their moistures within the subcontinent.

  • In India, monsoon arrives first in Kerala. India receives 92 percent of it’s total rainfall from south-western monsoon which starts from Kerala and is active from June to September.

  • India is home to diverse climates. It hosts humid tropical to temperature zones. Thus different geographical regions experience different temperature. The above map depicts annual mean temperature. Northern India is relatively warmer than south. Similarly during winter northern area is colder than southern area.

  • The south west monsoon is responsible for the most of the rainfall in India. It is caused due to high temperature and low pressure over the subcontinent during Summer season which draws air from the Indian ocean.

  • Desert areas of Rajasthan have highest daily range of temperature. Daily temperature variation is one of the main features of Desert climates. Desert are hot during day but cold during night.

  • The January isotherm taken as basis for dividing India into tropical and subtropical zones is 180

  • The period of October to December is referred to as North East Monsoon season over Peninsular India. It is the period of rainfall over South India, particularly in Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema and Tamil Nadu. This is the main rainy season in Tamil Nadu region. During this monsoon on 26 December, 2004, Tamil Nadu was struck by Tsunami.

  • Indian monsoon is indicated by seasonal displacement because of different temperature of land and Sea. Some of the important concepts about the origin of Monsoon are:

  1. Thermal Concept: It propounds that primary arrival of the Indian monsoon circulation is the differential heating effect of the land and the Sea.

  2. Dynamic Concept: Put forward by Flohn, according to this concept, monsoon is the result of seasonal migration of planetary winds and pressure belts.

  • The amount of rainfall decreases from east to west owing to the progressive decrease in humidity of the winds. Southern part of India being near to sea gets rainfall early and for a longer duration than the northern part.

  • Humid South-East climate is found in the region of West Bengal, Chhota Nagpur, Odisha plain, southern Chhattisgarh and Northeast part of Andhra Pradesh. Sub humid transitional weather extends to central Gangetic plains (eastern U.P. and western Bihar). Sub humid littoral weather spreads on the coromandel region and sub humid continental weather spreads to upper gangetic plains.

  • Kochi and Tejpur experience more humid climate due to heavy rainfall. Kochi experience rainfall up to 3228mm. Ahmedabad- 800mm, Ludhiana- 730mm and Tejpur- 1600mm. Compared to Ahmedabad and Ludhiana, Kochi and Tejpur experience more rainfall which makes their climate more behind.

  • Amritsar (31.640) and Shimla (31.610) are almost on the same latitude but their climate difference is due to the difference in their altitudes. Amritsar is located at 768 feet and Shimla at 7866.10 feet above the mean sea level.

  • When monsoon returns from north, there is slight increase in temperature on Land. The low pressure covers Bay of Bengal and the sky is clear.

  • The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is also as the ‘Indian Nino’. IOD is an irregular oscillation of sea-surface temperature in which the western India ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the Indian Ocean (not the tropical eastern pacific ocean). An IOD phenomenon can influence an El-Nino’s impact on the monsoon.




  • During April and May when the Sun Shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer, the large land mass in the north of Indian Ocean gets intensely heated. This causes the formation of an intense low pressure in the north western part of the subcontinent followed by the northward shift in the position of Inter Tropical convergence Zone (ITCZ). The south west monsoon may thus, be seen as the continuation of the southeast trades deflected towards the Indian subcontinent after crossing the equator. Southwest monsoon enters India in two rain-bearing systems. First originates in the Bay of Bengal causing rainfall over the plains of the north India. Second is the Arabian Sea current of the   south west monsoon which brings rain to the west coast of India. According to data provided by Indian Meteriological department for year 2014, south west monsoon supplies over 90% of India’s annual rainfall.

  • Tamil Nadu, located in south east peninsular India, receives the major part of its annual rainfall during the North East monsoon season. Tamil Nadu receives about 50-60% of its annual rainfall during Northeast monsoon.



  • Place Rainfall (cm)

Kochi                          250

Kolkata                       150

Patna                           100

Delhi                           50

  • According to Indian Meteorology Station data, the average temperature of Chennai is 240 C in winter whereas 300 C in summer. The average rainfall is 60-70 cm. The average temperature of Tamil Nadu for whole year is 260 Its annual rainfall is 63cm and annual range temperature is 90 C.

  • Mango shower is the name of pre-monsoon showers in Karnataka and Kerala that helps in the ripening of mangoes. It is also known as April rains or summer showers. The reason of the Mango showers is the thunderstorms over the Bay of Bengal. The shower prevents mangoes from dropping prematurely.

  • Leh receives least rainfall in India. The annual rainfall for some towns is as follow-

Leh            –        9.20 cm (lowest rainfall in India)

Bikaner     –        24.30 cm

Jaisalmer   –        10 cm (Lowest rainfall in Rajasthan)

Cherrapunji        1100 cm (Mawsynram- 1148 cm is the place with highest rainfall in India and the world according to current data).

  • The hallmark of watershed development in the semi-arid regions of India is setting up a system of tanks by embanking water from seasonal rivers. Today there are approximately 120,000 small tanks irrigating about 4.12 million hectare of agricultural land in semi-arid areas of India.

  • The climate of Chennai is warmer than Kolkata due to different in latitudes. Snowfall occurs in Himalayas due to higher altitude. Rainfall decreases from West Bengal to Punjab due to distance from the sea and Sutlej-Ganga plain gets some rain in winter due to western depression.

  • The Desert Development Programme (DDP) was started in the areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh in 1977-78. In 1995-96 the coverage was extended to a few districts in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.



Winter Rainfall

  • India’s northern plains get winter rainfall due to western disturbance. Western disturbance is an extra tropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that bring sudden winter rain in the north-western part of the Indian sub continent.

  • Rainfall during winter in northern India is due to the western disturbance. Anti-cyclonic conditions in India already exist and it has nothing to do with winter rains. Anti-cyclonic conditions during winter are formed when the atmospheric pressure is high and temperature is low.

  • Winter monsoon winds do not cause rainfall as they move from land to the Sea. So, most parts of India do not have rainfall in the winter season. However, there are some exceptions to it:

A – In north western India, western disturbance causes rainfall in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh.

B      – During October and November, north east monsoon while crossing over the Bay of Bengal, picks up moisture and causes rainfall over Tamil Nadu coast, southern Andhra Pradesh, southeast Karnataka and southeast Kerala.

  • Coastal areas of Tamil Nadu receive winter rainfall up to 65-75 cm due to retreating North-East Monsoon. Additionally, Punjab also receives winter rainfall due to Western Disturbances.

Natural Disasters

  • On 26th December, 2004, Tsunami originated from Indian Ocean, worst affected the Coromandel coast of India. The Coromandel coast is south-eastern coast of Indian subcontinent. The coastline runs from False Divi Point in north to Kanyakumari in the south.

  • Hudhud cyclone struck Andhra Pradesh coast at Vishakhaptnam in October 2014. Hudhud caused extremely heavy rainfall with strong gale wind leading to structural damage over north Andhra Pradesh. The name Hudhud was suggested by Oman.

  • “Flood Forecast & Warning Organisation” was set up by Central Water Commission in 1969 to establish forecasting sites on Inter-State Rivers at various flood prone places in the country. The “National Flood Forecasting and  Warming Network” of Central Water Commission, which comprised of 175 flood forecasting sites including 15 flood-prone States & one Union territory; maximum  in  Uttar Pradesh(35) and followed by Bihar (32). The most drought affected area is Middle East India. Generally, the Cyclones affect eastern coast of India. Central eastern India is most affected by cyclones originating in Bay of Bengal. Cyclones are generated more frequently in Odisha.

  • The Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC) is established at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Science, (INCOIS- ESSO) Hyderabad. Its operation started from July, 2005.

  • Indian Meterological Department was established in 1875 under the Ministry of Earth and Science whose Head Office is situated at Lodhi Road in New Delhi. Indian Institute of Tropical Meterological Institute and deputy director office of IMD (Indian Meterological Department) is situated at Pune. Calcutta was the first head office of Indian Meterological Department. The headquarter of IMD was later shifted to Shimla in 1905, then to Pune in 1928 and finally to New Delhi in 1944.

  • The first Disaster Management Training Institute of the country has been established in Latur, Maharashtra by the CRPF. Notably, India’s first disaster management training institute was set up on 29 April, 1957 in Nagpur.



  • Zone –        Zone 5 occurs 10.9% area of the country with the highest risks zone that suffers earthquakes of intensity MSK IX or greater. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.36 for Zone 5. Structural designers use this factor for earthquake resistant design of structures in Zone 5. The zone factor of 0.36 is indicative of effective (zero period) level earthquake in this Zone. It is referred to as the very high damage risk zone. The region of Kashmir, Western and Central Himalayas, North and Middle Bihar, North-East Indian region and the Rann of Kutch fall in this zone.

  • Zone IV –        This Zone is called the High Damage Risk Zone and covers area liable to MSK VIII. The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.24 for Zone 4. The Indo-Gangetic basin and the capital of the country (Delhi), Jammu and Kashmir fall in Zone 4. In Maharashtra, the Patna area (Koyananagar) is also in Zone no-4. This Zone covers remaining parts of Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Northern parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the West coast and Rajasthan. It comprises 17.3% areas of the country.

  • Zone III –        The IS code assigns zone factor of 0.18 for Zone 3. It covers Lakshadweep Islands. This Zone is classified as Moderate Damage Risk Zone. It includes 30.4 areas of the country.

  • Zone II –        The IS code assigns Zone factor of 0.10 (maximum horizontal acceleration that can be experienced by a structure in this Zone is 10% of gravitational acceleration) for Zone 2. It comprises 41.4% areas of the country.

Major parts of peninsular region and Karnataka Plateau fall in this Zone. Thus, it does not come under the Zone of high seismic intensity.

  • Cities Seismic Zones

Bhuj                   Zone V

Hyderabad          Zone II

Srinagar             Zone V

Chennai              Zone II

  • The frequency of floods in north Indian plains has increased during last couple of decades. Its main reason is shallowness of rivers due to deposition of silts. There has been reduction in the depth of river valleys due to deposition of silts which causes flood in normal rain.

  • Uttar Pradesh is divided into high flood affected, medium flood affected and low flood affected regions. High flood affected region covers 48% of total flood affected regions of Uttar Pradesh. Eastern areas are the maximum flood affected regions of Uttar Pradesh.




Black Soil

  • The black soil is also called “Regur” (from the Telugu word Reguda), cotton soils and tropical Chernozen etc. This soil is mainly found in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Geographically, Black soil is spread over 5.46 lakh sq km.

  • Regur soil or Black soil has been formed due to weathering of basaltic lava. These types of soil is typical of Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over north-west Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flow. They are ideal for growing Cotton. They cover the plateau of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and extended to Godavari and Krishna Valley.

  • The black soil of the Deccan trap is also known as Regur or Reguda. The black soil is very suitable for cotton cultivation. It lacks in phosphorous, nitrogen and organic matter (humus). The black soil is rich in alumina, iron, lime and magnesium carbonates, potash.

  • “Black Soil” or “Regur Soil” or “Black Cotton Soil” is generally clayey, deep and impermeable. They swell and become sticky when wet, and shrink when dried. So, during the dry seaton, these soil develop wide cracks. Thus there occurs a king of “Self-ploughing”. Because of this character the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, to sustain even during the dry season. This soil lacks in phosphorous, Nitrogen and humus.

  • The Black soil of western India is made up lava. Hence it is also known as Lava soil. Malwa Plateau comes under this black soil region of Deccan trap.



Laterite Soil

  • The Laterite soil is red in colour due to the wide diffusion of iron oxides through the materials of the soil. Generally, Laterite soil is deficient in nitrogen, lime, humus and potash, but rich in Iron & Aluminum. Laterite soil is mostly found in South Maharashtra, parts of Karnataka, Kerala, and Meghalaya. Typical Laterite soils generally lack fertility and are of little use for crop production. Topioca and Cashew nuts grow well on these soils.

  • Laterite soil is found in typical monsoon conditions such as high temperature and heavy rainfall with wet and dry periods. The alterations of wet and dry season leads to the leaching away of siliceous matter and lime of the rocks and a soil rich in oxides of iron and aluminium compounds is left behind. These are leached soils of wet humid tropical regions which are less fertile. They are well developed in parts of Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, South Maharashtra, parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Jharkhand, Assam and Meghalaya. Laterite soils are widely spread in India and cover an area of 1.26 lakh sq km. Laterite soil is mostly in Kerala (Malabar coastal region) followed by Maharashtra.

  • The net sown area of West Bengal is approximately 60% while it is 40% in Andhra Pradesh. The Laterite soil is formed in heavy rainfall areas by leaching. They are well developed in parts of Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats,  South Maharashtra, parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Kerala,  Jharkhand, Assam and Meghalaya. Andhra Pradesh has Red soil and Alluvial soils in most parts of its area.



Alluvial Soil

  • Alluvial Soil is the most fertile soil in India. It has less amount of Nitrogen. Alluvial Soils are formed mainly by Himalayan sediments and sea retreat. It covers 7.68 lakh sq. km land.

  • Alluvial Soil is the largest and the most important soil group of India. Covering about 15 lakh sq km or about 40% percent of the total land area of the country, these soils contribute the largest share of our agricultural wealth. The widest occurrence of the Alluvial soils in the Indo-Gangetic plain starting from Punjab in the West to West Bengal and Assam in the East. They are also found in deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery, where they are called deltaic alluvium. Along the coast, they are known as coastal alluvium. Some alluvial soils are found in Narmada and Tapi valleys. Geologically, the alluvium is divided into newer or younger Khadar and older Bhangar soils. Geographically, Black soils are spread over 5.46 lakh sq km while the red soils occupy a vast area of about 5.18 lakh sq km.

  • Alluvial sand soil has minimum water retention capacity because soil with limited water holding capacity (i.e. sandy loam) reaches the saturation point much sooner than a soil with a higher water holding capacity (i.e. clay loam).

  • Generally Loam soil has 40% sand particles, 40% clay particles and 20% silt particles.



Soils: Miscellaneous

  • The districts of Jaisalmer, Bikaner, Barmer, Jalor, Jodhpur, Ganganagar, Sirohi, Jhunjhunu, Pali and Sikar of Western Rajasthan have alkaline and saline soils with a calareous base. There is some nitrate concentration in the soil of these regions.

  • Legume crops enrich the soils with nitrogen content by atmospheric nitrogen fixation. Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include clover, soybeans, alfalfa, lupins, peanuts and rooibos etc.

  • The Himalayan soils lack humus while the Himalayas have the largest area under forest cover.

  • Clay soil has highest water retention capacity. Therefore soil water available to plants is maximum in it. Clay soil has less than 50% silt, 50% clay and some amount of sand. This soil slows air ventilation, due to which it sustains water.

  • The crop of Black Gram (Urd) is grown for improving the soil fertility. Occasionally, it is also used as folder.

  • Most of the red soils have come into existence due to weathering of ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks. The red soils are short of lime, magnesium, phosphates, nitrogen and humus, but are fairly rich in potash. In their chemical composition, they are mainly siliceous and aluminous. The reason of the red colour of the soil is presence of ferric oxide.

  • The diameter of clay is less than 0.00mm. Silt has a diameter of 0.002 mm to 0.26 mm and fine sand’s diameter is 0.06 mm to 2 mm.

Acidic and Alkali Soil

  • The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity in soils. A pH below 7 is acidic above 7 is alkaline. Soil pH is considered a master variable in soils as it controls many chemical processes that take place. It specifically affects plant nutrient availability by controlling the chemical forms of the nutrient. Most nutrients that plants need can dissolve easily then the pH of the soil solution ranges from 6.0 to 7.5.

  • Generally lime is used to make acidic soil cultivable. It is notable that excessive alkaline or acidic soil is not good for soil health it is not used for cultivation of common crops.

  • Calcium sulphate is used to remove salinity or alkalinity of soil. It also requires one feet water for soil leaching.

  • Soil salinization is often a problem in arid regions where ions of soluble salt built up in the soil. In these regions, where irrigation is required for plants to grow, the processes of evaporation and transpiration leave the salt behind in the soil. Over several years. the amount of salt grows to the point that it hinders both used germination and plant growth, reducing crop yields and eventually rendering soil unusable.

  • Tea is grown in variety of soils. The best, however, is soil slightly acidic and without calcium as tea is highly intolerant to stagnant water. Although tea requires heavy rainfall for its growth, stagnant water is injurious to its roots. It is therefore, grown on hill slopes where water drains away easily and water-logging does not place. However, it grows equally well in the valley if the drainage system is good.



Soil Erosion and Improvement

  • The maximum soil erosion affected areas in India are –

  1. Barren land of Chambal and Yamuna Rivers

  2. Foothill areas of Western Himalayan Ranges (including foot hill areas of the Shivalik  Ranges)

  3. Chhotanagpur Plateau

  4. The area between Tapti and Sabarmati Valley (Malwa Plateau etc)

  5. Black soil area of Maharashtra

  6. Arid regions of Haryana, Rajasthan & Gujarat.

  • In Madhya Pradesh, the problem of soil erosion is mostly found in Chambal valley where channel formation is very common and known as Chambal ravines. Soil contents are characterised by soft and alluvial soil, which help in the formation of these channels. Mainly Morena, Bhind, Gwalior and Shivpuri have become barren and infertile due to gully erosion by various rivers.

  • Rain drop or Splash erosion: Erosion preceded by the destruction of the crumb structure due to the impact of falling raindrop on the surface of soil is termed as splash erosion.

  • Sheet erosion: It is the fairly uniform removal of soil is thin layers from the land surface, often scarcely perceptible, especially when caused by wind. Areas where loose, shallow topsoil overlies compact soil are most susceptible to sheet erosion.

  • Rill erosion: A form of water erosion in which numerous very small and more or less straight channels are produced; the channels get obliterated by ordinary use. It can be removed by normal tillage operations.

  • Gully erosion: A form of water erosion in which gullies are produced by combination of unattended rills.

  • Stream Channel erosion: Stream banks are eroded by water either flowing over the sides of a stream or scouring at the base. It is aggravated by removal of vegetation over grazing or cultivation near the stream banks.

  • According to an analysis of World Wildlife Fund, farm land tends to erode most rapidly when planted with sorghum while clover causes minimum soil erosion.

  • Seed modification method would affect crop production but not affected soil fertility. Soil fertility can be improved by crop rotation, mixed cultivation and multiple cropping methods.

  • The destruction of soil cover is described as soil erosion. The soil forming processes and the erosional processes of running water and wind go on simultaneously. But generally there is a balance between these two processes. Sometimes, such a balance is disturbed by natural or human factors, leading to greater rate of removal of soil.

  • Deforestation is one of the major cause of soil erosion. Plants keep soils bound in locks of roots, and thus, prevents erosion. Terrace farming is a method of soil conservation. Tropical climate is not responsible for soil erosion.



Natural Vegetation

  • The birch tree is found in the Himalayas. The white paper like bark of the tree was used in ancient times for writing scriptures and texts. It grows up at elevations up to 4500 meters.

  • The Kattha is obtained from wood of Khair. Kattha is a white substance found in Khair wood. It grows throughout India from the Himalayas to the south of India especially in arid regions.

  • Tropical Moist (Dry) deciduous forest occupies the largest area in India. The tropical moist deciduous forest is the second largest forest area in India. Teak and Sal are significant products of it.

  • The western Himalayan region extends at elevation of 1500-3600 meters. Its temperate zone is rich in forests of Deodar, Chir, Pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. The trees of Deodar are abundant in temperature zone of western Himalayas than any other plants.

  • The Cinchona is an evergreen tropical plant. In India, evergreen forests are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands while Chhattisgarh is suitable for Tropical dry and monsoon type forests. The Cinchona tree does not grow in Chhattisgarh. It is found in Assam, Kerala and West Bengal.

  • Butea monosperma is called the “flame of the forest”. It is known as Dhak or Palash also. Palash (Butea monosperma) has been declared as the State Flower of Uttar Pradesh.

  • Teak forests have specific contribution in the economy of the country. Teak, Sal, Shesham, Rosewood, Deodar, Chir Pine and Spruce are economically important. Teak is found in total 8.9 million hectare area of India. Total 50% of teak plants area is expanded in Madhya Pradesh.

  • Oryx is adapted to live in hot and arid areas like Saudi Arabia etc while Chiru is adapted to live in Steppes and semi desert areas of cold high mountains.

  • The fern is vascular plants that reproduce by spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. These plants are seedless.

  • Teak: The expansion of Teak trees is found in Central India i.e. Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. Teak is found in total 8.9 million hectare area of India.

  • Deodar: Cedrus deodar is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas at elevation of 1500-2000 meters.

  • Sundari: It is the dominant mangrove trees species of the Sundarbans of Bangladesh and India.

  • Cinchona: The Cinchona is plant of Himalayan terai region.



  • Tropical Forest –        Silent Valley

Conifer Forest             –        Himachal Pradesh

Mangroves                  –        Sunderbans

Deciduous Forest        –        Rajasthan

  • The Sunderbans (largest delta) is a mangrove forest in West Bengal. Coniferous forest spread across Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir in India. Silent Valley tropical evergreen forest located in the Palakkad district of Kerala. Dry Deciduous forest spread across Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

  • Tropical moist deciduous forest: These forests are found in areas of moderate rainfall of 100 to 150 cm per annum therefore they are known as monsoon forests. Such areas include a belt running along the eastern slopes of Western Ghats. North eastern region of peninsular India and Bhabar and Tarai regions.

  • Tropical dry deciduous forest: The dry deciduous forests are mainly situated in the area, where annual rainfall ranges from 70-100 cm. These are spared from central Gangetic plains to southern India.

  • Alpine Forest: The Alpine forests grow all along the Himalayas at altitudes ranging between 2800 to 4000 meters. The expansion of these forests is found in Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests: These are typical rain forests which grow in those areas where the annual rainfall exceeds 250 cm. The evergreen forests are found along the Western side of the Western Ghats (The Sahayadri) North-East and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

  • The description of mangrove vegetation regions found in India is given below:

Mangrove vegetation areas of Maharashtra: Achra, Ratangiri, Raigad, Devgarh-Vijaydurg, Kundalika Revdanda, Mumbara-Diva, Srivardhan, Vaitarna, Malvan etc.

Mangrove vegetation areas of Kerala: Vembanad, Kanoor.

Mangrove vegetation areas of Tamil Nadu: Pichavaram, Muthupet and Ramnad, Pulicat, Kajuvelli etc.



Mangrove vegetation areas of West Bengal: Sundarbans

Mangroves vegetation areas of Odisha: Bhitarkanika, Devi, Dhamra, Chilikar etc.

  • Lisa is a significant forest product obtained from pine trees of Uttarakhand. It is also tapped commercially for resin. On distillation, the resin fields an essential oil, commonly known as turpentine oil and non-volatile erosion which are used in a wide variety of industries such as paper, soap, cosmetics, paint, varnish, rubber and polish industries. Lisa is prime resource of self employment and a base of rural economy of Uttarakhand.

  • Climate Affected by→

  1. Location

  2. Altitude

  3. Distance from sea

  4. Relief

  • Natural Vegetation: 5 Types

  1. Tropical evergreen forest

  2. Tropical deciduous forest

  3. Thorny bushes

  4. Mountain Vegetation

  5. Mangrove forests (Tropical Rain Forests (Evergreen))

  • Receive heavy rainfall

  • Maximum height: 60m

  • Shed their leaves at different times of year. So, always appear evergreen.


  1. Mahogany

  2. Ebony

  3. Rosewood (Keyword is MER) etc

  • Areas:

  1. Andaman and Nikobar islands

  2. Parts of North – East states

  3. Western slopes of Western Ghats

  • Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • Large part of India has this.

  • Monsoon forests

  • Less dense, shed their leaves at a particular time of a year.

  • Example:

  1. Sal

  2. Teak

  3. Peepal

  4. Neem

  5. Shisham



Irrigation and Canals

  • One of the major sources of irrigation practiced in Peninsular India is pond irrigation as undulating relief and hard rock make it difficult of dig canals and well. Most of the rivers in peninsular region are seasonal and dry up during summer season. So they cannot supply water to canals. Therefore the main source for irrigation is tank.

  • Fertilizers/nutrients loss can be reduced by micro-irrigation. In some areas of farming, receding of ground water level can be checked by micro- irrigation due to limited and beneficiary use of water.

  • Life saving of protective irrigation refers to irrigation of P.W.P. (Permanent Wilting Point). Permanent wilting point is the extent at which the moisture is no longer available in sufficient quantity for plants to sustain. The irrigation become compulsory in this situation.

  • Plains across the River Saryu lack canals. Hence irrigation is this area is done by tubewells.

  • Net area under irrigation and area irrigated by tubewells –

State                  Gross Irrigation Area                 Net Area under Tube-well irrigation

(In thousand Hectare)

         Uttar Pradesh     13426                                                     9984

         Punjab                3949                                                       3022

         Bihar                  3053                                                       1830

         Haryana              3287                                                       1721

  • The Garland Canal System in India was proposed by Captain Dineshaw J. Dastur. The thought of river interlining was first proposed by irrigation engineer M. Visvesvaraya. Later K.L. Rao also proposed another project of River interlinking. Then, Water Resource Ministry rejected both projects (river interlinking & the Garland canal system).

  • Sir Arthur Cotton was a British irrigation engineer who devoted his life to the construction of irrigation and navigation canal throughout British India. He is regarded as the Pioneer of irrigation works in South India.

  • Irrigation Projects in India are classified in three categories:

  1. Minor Irrigation Projects: All ground water and surface water schemes that have a Culturable Command Area (CCA) up to 2000 hectares individually are classified as Minor Irrigation Schemes. The minor irrigation projects comprises all ground water development schemes such as dug wells, private shallow tube wells, deep public tube wells, and boring and deepening of dugewells, and small surface water development works such as storage tanks, lift irrigation projects, etc. 62 percent irrigation potential of India is created through minor irrigation projects.

  2. Medium Irrigation Projects: Those having a CCA between 2000 hectares and 10000 hectares fall under the category of medium irrigation projects.

  3. Major Irrigation Projects: Irrigation projects having culturable Command Area (CCA) of more than 10000 hectares each are classified as major projects. 38 percent of irrigation potential of India is created though major irrigation projects.

  • Triveni Canal is made for irrigation in north western part of Bihar. This canal is related to Chandan irrigation project.



  • Indira Gandhi Canal originates at Harike Barrage near the confluence of Satluj and Beas Rivers in Ferozpur district of Pujab. The total length of main canal system is 649 km. Ganganagar, Bikaner, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts of western Rajasthan are mainly irrigated by Indira Gandhi Canal.

  • Indira Gandhi Canal receives its water supply from Satluj, Beas and Ravi.

  • The Beas project is joint project of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan States. Under this project, a dam was built on Pong River to maintain water flow in Indira Gandhi canal during winter.

  • The Government of India initiated a centrally sponsored Command Area Development Programme (CADP) in December 1974 to improve irrigation potential utilisation and optimise agricultural production from irrigated land through integrated and coordinated approach of efficient water management. In tune with objectives of the programme, a number of components such as construction of field channels and field drains, enforcement of warabandi, land levelling and shaping, realignment of field boundaries/consolidation of holdings, introduction of suitable cropping patterns, strengthening of extension services etc. were included in the programme and three projects were launched:

  1. Sharda Tributary

  2. Ramganag

  3. Gandak

  • Drip irrigation is a form irrigation that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of many different plants. Advantages of practicing drip irrigation are: maximum use of available water, maximum crop yield, reduction in weed, reduction in soil erosion, low labour cost, no run off of fertilizers, less evaporation of waters, improved seed germination etc.

  • “Hariyali” scheme was launched by the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 27 January, 2003 under watershed management project. This project is being run through 2.32 lakh panchayats of the country. This project encourages people of afforestation.



Multi-Purpose River Valley Projects

Narmada Valley

  • Sardar Sarovar Dam (height – 138.68 meter) has been constructed on Narmada River near Navgam in Gujarat. It has installed capacity of 1450 M.W. electricity generation. The beneficiary States of Sardar Sarovar Project are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.

  • Harsud town of district Khandwa of Madhya Pradesh was submerged in 2004 due to construction of Indira Sagar Dam.

  • Bargi, Omkareshwar and Indira Sagar dams are among the series of 30 major dams on Narmada River. Whereas Ban Sagar dam is located on Son River.

  • Medha Patekar is a social activist who has led the struggle for people affected by the Sardar Sarovar Project on the Narmada River in Gujarat, India. She founded the Narmada Bachao Andolan.

  • Sardar Sarovar Dam Project Provides irrigation facility to 17.92 Lakh hectare area of Gujarat. Thus Gujarat is most beneficiary state from this project although 57% of the total power generated through this project is supplied to Madhya Pradesh.

Bhakra Nangal Dam

  • Bhakra Nangal Project is a joint venture of the Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan States designed to harness the precious water of the Satluj for the benefit of the concerned States. The project has been named after the two dams built at Bhakra and Nangal on the Satluj River. It is notable that the command area of this project is expanded in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

Dam Built on the River Cauvery

  • Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Puducherry are the States related to Cauvery River Water Dispute. The Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT) came up with its final order in 2013, giving 270 TMC (Thousand Million Cubic) water to Karnataka, 30 TMC to Kerala, 419 TMC Tamil Nadu and 7 TMC to Puducherry.

  • The oldest hydropower plant is in Darjeeling district in West Bengal. It is commissioned in the year 1897. The hydroelectric power station near Shivasamudram was set up on the Cauvery River in Karnataka. It is the second oldest power station in India. It was commissioned in 1902.



Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

  • Nagarjuna Sagar Project has been built on Krishna River near Nandikoda, Andhra Pradesh. A masonry dam (1550 meter) has been constructed under this project. This project is expanded in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

  • Nagarjuna Sagar Project is a multipurpose scheme on River Krishna. The project was completed in 1969. The dam is located near Nandikonda village at the border of Telangana and Adhra Pradesh. The project provides irrigation to Nalgonda, Khammam, Krishna, Guntur and Prakasam districts.

Hirakund Dam

  • Hirakund dam is built across river Mahanadi in the State of Odisha. Length of the main dam is 4.80 km, flanked by 21 km earthen dykes on left right sides, making a total length of 25.8 km. Hirakund dam has been built 15 km away from Sambalpur town. It has the capacity to irrigate about 10 lakh hectares of agricultural land.

  • Rana Pratap Sagar Dam is a great masonry dam built on the Chambal River at Rawatbhata in Rajasthan. The height of this dam is 177 feet. It’s construction started in 1953 and it was inaugurated in 1970.

Chambal Valley Project

  • Chambal River originates near Janapav Hills in Mhow in Madhya Pradesh. It merges with Yamuna River near Itawa. U.P. Chmabal Project built on Chambal River is a joint project of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. This project includes Gandhi Sagar Dam (M.P.), Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam (Rajasthan). This project supplies electricity to Gwalior, Muraina, Bhind, Nagada and Mandasur districts in Madhya Pradesh and Kota, Jaipur, Ajmer, Udaipur, Alwar and  Chhittaurgarh in Rajasthan.

  • Chambal Valley Project benefits Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, Mayurakshi project is shared by West Bengal and Jharkhand. Whereas Hirakund and Sharavasti projects benefit Odisha and Karnataka respectively.

  • Gandhi Sagar Dam is the first of the four Chambal Valley Projects, located on the Rajasthan-Madhya Pradesh border. The dam is located in the Mandsaur district of Madhya Pradesh. It is a masonry gravity dam of 62.17 m height. The construction of the dam started in 1954 and was completed in 1960.

  • Govind Sagar is a man-made reservoir situated in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh. It is formed by the Bhakra-Nangal dam. Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar is a man-made lake situated in southern region of Sonebhadra (Uttar Pradesh). Gandhi Sagar (Madhya Pradesh) and Jawahar Sagar (Rajasthan) are associated with Chambal Valley Project.



Tehri Dam Project

  • Tehri dam has been constructed on the Bhagirathi River in Tehri district of Uttarakhand. Bhilangana River flows into Bhagirathi at old Tehri before the site of Tehri dam. The major objectives of the project are to impound floodwaters of the Bhagirathi and the Bhilangana Rivers into a large reservoir behind the dam, generation of hydroelectricity and irrigation of agricultural land. The project was cleared by the Planning Commission of India in 1972 but construction started on April 5, 1978.

Damodar Valley Project

  • Maithan, Belpahari and Tilaya Dams were constructed on Barakar River which is main tributary of Damodar River in Eastern India. These dams were constructed in the first phase of Damodar River Valley project.

  • Tilaiya dam is constructed on River Barakar in Kodarma district of Jharkhand. It was constructed in 1953. Its length is 366 m. This dam helps in irrigation and hydroelectric generation.

  • Damodar River was termed as “River of Sorrow or Sorrow of Bengal” because Damodar River in its upper reaches flows rapidly and in its lower reaches, it runs too sluggishly causing major floods in the area and also the sediments brought by the Damodar creates the problem of sedimentation. To control these devastating floods Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) was established to construct the Damodar Valley Project.

  • Damodar Valley Corporation was established in 1948 in accordance with article 12 of Damodar Valley Corporation Act, 1948.

Miscellaneous Projects

  • Canal/Dam/Project with the Rivers –

Midnapur Canal          –        Kangsabati River

Tawa Project               –        Narmada River

Mettur Dam                –        Kaveri River

Ukai Project                –        Tapt River

Almatti Dam               –        Krishna River

Mettur Dam                –        Cauvery River

Gandhi Sagar Dam     –        Chambal River

Sardar Sarovar Dam   –        Narmada River

Dulhasti                      –        Chenab

Indira Gandhi Canal   –        Sutlej

Ukai                            –        Tapti



  • Project State

Hirakund Project        –        Odisha

Haldia Refinary          –        West Bengal

Tarapur Nuclear Station      Maharashtra

Kudremukh Hills        –        Karnataka

Jawahar Sagar             –        Rajasthan

Nagarjun Sagar           –        Andhra Pradesh

Shivsamudram            –        Karnataka

Gandhi Sagar              –        Madhya Pradesh

Nangal Dam                –        Sutlej


  • Himachal Pradesh dam is now being built over the River Sutlej to check the flow of silt in Bhakhra dam. The silts which flow in Bhakhra dam weakens the dam and the age of Dam is reduced.

  • Govind Ballabh Sagar is constructed on River Rihand at a place named Pipri in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh. It spread across approximately 130 square km of area. This region has very wealthy reserves of coal.

  • Telugu Ganga Project is the joint venture of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka. It is a water supply project to provide drinking water to Chennai city in Tamil Nadu by using the water of Krishna River.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru Called the multipurpose River valley projects as “the temples of modern India”.

  • Multipurpose Project River

Rihand Project                              Rihand (Tributary of Son)

Rani Laxmibai Dam Project         Betwa

Tehri Dam Project                        Bhagirathi

Ramganga Project                        Ramganga

Matatila                                         Betwa

  • Reservoir State

Bhadra                                 Karnataka

Bhavani Sagar                      Tamil Nadu

Gandhi Sagar                       Madhya Pradesh

Rana Pratap Sagar               Rajasthan

  • River Valley Project River

Tilaiya Dam                         Barakar

Panchet Hill Dam                Damodar

Rana Pratap Sagar Dam       Chambal

  • The “Babli Project” is a controversial reservoir project being constructed by Maharashtra across the Godavari River. It has been disputed by Andhra Pradesh.

  • Shivasamudram dam was constructed in 1902 for electricity generation. It is located on Kaveri River in Karnataka.

  • Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar Reservoir is located at Pipri in Sonbhadra district in Uttar Pradesh. It is constructed on River Rihand, a tributary of River Son.




  • “The History of Indian Agriculture” is written by M.S. Randhawa. His full name is Mahinder Singh Randhawa. He played major role in the field of agriculture research and Green Revolution in India.

  • Green Revolution can be brought in dry zones of India by providing irrigation facility. Agriculture is the base of the economy of these areas.

  • According to the National Bureau of Soil Survey, India has been divided into 20 Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs). Each AEZ is as uniform as possible in terms of physiography, climate, length of growing period and soil type for macrolevel land-use planning and effective transfer of technology.

  • Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology is the first agricultural university of India. It was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru on 17 November 1960 as the “Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University” (UPAU) in Pantnagar, Uttarakhand (Earlier it was the part of Uttar Pradesh). Later the name was changed to “Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology” in the memory of the first Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.

  • Agricultural Universities by States (In Descending Order):

State                           Universities

Uttar Pradesh                       8

Maharashtra/Rajasthan        6

Gujarat/Karnataka                5

Others                                  37

Total                                     67

  • According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards if safe storage is to be ensured, the moisture content of food grains at the time of harvesting should not be higher than 14%.

  • The practice of consecutively producing two crops of either like or unlike commodities on the same land within the same year is called double cropping. An example of double cropping might be to harvest a wheat crop by early summer and then plant corn or soybeans on that acreage for harvest in the fall. This practice is only possible in regions with long growing seasons. While the cultivation of two or more crops simultaneously on the same field s called Intercropping.

  • Mixed farming has equal emphasis on crop cultivation and animal husbandry. Crop rotation and intercropping play an important role in maintaining soil fertility. Animal like sheep, cattle pigs and poultry provide the main income along with the crops.

  • Overcrowding in agriculture, small land holding and traditional agricultural practices all these are among the main reasons of low productivity in Indian agriculture.

  • The average size of operational holdings in India is largest in Rajasthan followed by Punjab.

  • Green Revolution Technology played a crucial role in gradually transforming traditional agriculture into modern scientific agriculture with the use of irrigation, specialized seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and machinery.



  • Pressure of the population on the land, disguised unemployment and small land holding are the reasons for low productivity in Indian agriculture. Whereas cooperative farming is one of the means of the development of agriculture. Cooperative farming is farming where each member farmer is owner of his land, but farming is done jointly and profit is distributed among member farmers.

  • The average size of operational holdings in India is largest in Rajasthan followed by Punjab.

  • In newly improved arid land Dhaincha is suitable crop for the green manure.

  • Agmark is a quality certification mark productivity by the Government of India which is under Agricultural produce (Grading and marking) Act, 1937. This Act provides for the grating and marking of agricultural and other produce. This plan is being implemented in India since 1938.

  • Green Agriculture involves the adoption of integrated pest management, integrated nutrient supply, scientific water management and use of appropriate crop varities.

  • Narsimha Rao Government made major modifications in its economic policy in 1991 by introducing Globalization in India. It had large impact on India Agriculture which includes emphasis on cash crops, growth of income inequality, reduction of subsidies and many more.

  • Punjab is the pioneer in introducing contract farming in India.

Green Revolution

  • Green Revolution started in 7th decade in the year 1966 which was its first stage and underwent till 1981. In the first stage. Haryana, Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh were included. Second stage commenced from 1981 till 1995 and third stage started from 1995, which included all the States of India.

  • The term “Evergreen Revolution” was used for increasing agricultural production in India. It was used by Father of India’s Green Revolution, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan. He described “Evergreen Revolution” as increasing productivity in perpetuity without ecological harm. Dr. Swaminathan has proposed the following steps for second Green Revolution.

  • “Zero Till Seed cum-Fertilizer Drill” was developed by G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar. This machine enables to sow directly after paddy harvest without prior seedbed preparation. This saves the diesel, tractor’s working time, labour and most important it gives higher yield.



  • Growth in Food Productions          –         Green Revolution

Milk Production                                     –         White Revolution

Fisheries                                                –         Blue Revolution

Fertilizers                                               –         Grey Revolution

Production of Fruits and Vegetables     –         Golden Revolution

Production of Eggs/Poultry                   –         Silver Revolution

Production of Potato                              –         Round Revolution

Production of Prawn/Onion                   –         Pink Revolution

Production of Meat/Tomatoes               –         Red Revolution

Petroleum                                               –         Black Revolution

Oilseed                                                   –         Yellow Revolution

  • The Second Green Revolution in India aims at extending seed, water, fertilizer and technology to areas which could not be benefited from the Green Revolution and integrating agriculture with animal husbandry, social forestry and fishing. It does not aim yielding the crop other than used in Green Revolution in the beginning.

  • On 28 July 2008, new National Agricultural Policy was announced by the Central Government. In this policy the concept of Rainbow Revolution was introduced. The various colours of the Rainbow Revolution indicate various farm practices such as Green Revolution (Food grains).

Food Grain Crops

Rabi Crops

  • On the basis of seasons, the crops in India have been divided into three types:

Kharif Crops: The Kharif crop is the summer crop or monsoon crop in India. Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains i.e. in June-July and harvested in October-November.

Major Kharif crops of India include Millets (Bajra&Jowar), Cotton, Soybean, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Paddy (Rice), Maize, Moong (Pulses), Groundnut, Red Chillies etc.

Rabi Crops: The Rabi crop is the spring harvest or winter crop in India. It is sown in October-November last and harvested in March-April every year. Major Rabi crops in India include Wheat, Barley, Mustard, Sesame, Peas, Potatoes.

Zaid Crops: This crop is grown in some parts of country during March to July. Prominent examples are Muskmelon, Watermelon, Vegetables of cucurbitaceae family such as bitter gourd, pumpkin, ridged gourd etc.

  • In India, wheat requires 100 to 250 C temperature and 80 cm average annual rainfall which can be termed as moderate temperature and moderate rainfall. Wheat is grown on 31 million hectare area (2014-15) of the total cropped area.

  • In Parallel cropping, two crops are selected which the different growth habits and have a zero competition between each other and both of them express their full yield potential.

  • Cash crops include Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute, Tobacco, Banana, Oilseeds etc and Wheat, Rice etc. are food crops.

  • Mahi Sugandha is a variety of Basmati Rice. It has longer grains, and is non sticky elongated after cooking. Other varieties of rice are:

Abha (R-155-355)

Ajay (CRHR-7)

Akashi, Ambika, Deepti, Divya  Gajpati (IET-13251), Garima Geetanjali (CRM-2007-1)

  • To increase the possibility of increasing the wheat production in India, scientists introduced five dwarf wheat varieties, viz, Lema Rojo 64-A, Sonora-63, Sonora 64, Mayo 64 and S227. Sonora-64 is developed through induced mutation exercise at IARI, which increase the production of wheat.

  • P. 308 is Mexican dwarf wheat variety. It is mainly used in Dharbhanga district of Bihar.

  • Pusa Sindhu Ganga (HD 2967) is a variety of wheat identified by 48th All India Wheat and Barley Research Workers Meet held at IAREI, New Delhi.

  • Karnal Bunt is a fungal disease of wheat. It is caused by Tilletica Indica. This disease was first identified in 1931.

  • Sonalika and Arjun are varieties of wheat while Jaya and Padma are varieties of rice.

  • P.A.S.-120 is a suitable variety of pigeon pea (Arhar) which can be used for double cropping with wheat. Other variety of Arhar are I.C.P.L.-151, I.C.P.L.-87, Bahar, N.D.A.-I etc.






Kharif Crops

  • Rice originated in South-East Asia. Rice requires Temperature above 200 C and average rainfall of 150 cm.

  • In India, the cultivation season is divided into Kharif and Rabi. Kharif and Rabi. Kharif crop is sown mainly during June-July and harvested in September-October. Main crops of Khrif are as follow- Rice, Millet (Bajra and Jawar), Cotton, Soybean, Sugarcane, Maize, Groundnut, Red Chillies etc.

  • Rice is a Kharif crop which requires average temperature of 240 C and high humidity with annual rainfall of 150 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation.

  • Varieties of Rice Time of Harvesting

  1. Aman June-July to November-December (winter crop)

  2. Aus or Kar May-June to September-October (Autumn Crop)

  3. Boro or Dalua November-December to Marach-April (Summer Crop)

  • Pusa Sugandha-5 is an aromatic variety of rice.

  • Barani deep, Narendra Sankar, Narendra Shuska Samrat, Lalmati etc are varieties of rice.

  • Pusa RH-10 is a hybrid variety of Basmati Rice. Other varieties are PHB-71, Ganga, Suruchi, KRH- 2, Sahyadri-4 etc.

  • The proper seed rate for transplanting of Basmati Rice is 15-20 Kg per hectare.

  • West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh account for more than half of the total rice production in India.

  • Blue-green algae, Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria, azolla etc. are used as biofertilizers for rice crop.

  • The water requirement for cultivation of rice crop is comparatively higher than any other crop. Rice is cultivated in areas having over 100 cm annual rainfall.

  • State Area Hectare

Uttar Pradesh              1018000

Bihar                           450000

Punjab                         14000

Karnataka                    7000

  • Moong and Urad are the crops which are mainly grown in the irrigated areas during Zaid.



Cash Crops


  • 6% of total agricultural land is used for cultivation of cotton in India and 75% of total cotton production comes from four States (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana). Hence North Western and Western India produces largest amount of cotton. About 80-90% of the area under cotton in North-West India and eastern region of Pakistan us under the cotton-weath system.

  • Shajapur and Ujjain are known as the areas of “White Gold” because of cotton cultivation.

  • Black soil is suitable for cotton cultivation which covers maximum area in Maharashtra. Cotton crop is known as White Gold in Maharashtra.

  • Cotton is facing competition from sugarcane in the region of black soil in Maharashtra due to expansion of irrigation. This region has become more suitable for sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane cultivation is more profitable than cotton crop.

  • India is the original home of cotton. It also finds mention in Rigveda and Manusmriti. India is also the first country to develop hybrid variety of cotton which has resulted in increased production.




  • Crop Irrigated Area (Percentage)

Sugarcane          95.3

Wheat                 93.6

Rice                    59.6

Oilseed               27.3

  • Molasses is the main by product of sugar production process which is used for alcohol production. Bagasse is used as a fuel to generate steam in sugar mills. Sugar can not only be produced from sugarcane but also from beet root.

  • Sugarcane is a tropical plant. The areas having temperature of 200 to 260 C and an average rainfall of 150 cm are suitable for its cultivation. Thus if frost occurs during the period of ripening, the Sucrose content in the sugarcane decreases.

  • India is the second largest producer of sugarcane (after Brazil).

  • The first Sugar Mill was set up in India in 1903 at Pratappur in Deoria district of Uttar Pradesh.

  • Uttar Pradesh is known as the “Sugar Bowl” of India.

  • Sakkarnagar is an important sugar producing centre located in Andhra Pradesh (now in Telangana).

  • The factors which facilitated the locational shift of the sugar industry from North India to South India are per acre higher yield of sugarcane, higher sucrose content of sugarcane and longer crushing season.

  • Breeding work on sugarcane is being done in Coimbatore, India. Sugarcane Breeding Research Institute is a central research institute established in Coimbatore, India. It was established in 1912 and is affiliated to Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

  • Adsali Sugarcane planting is mainly followed in low rainfall area of Maharashtra. Planting is done in the month of July-August and it takes 18 month to get ripen.


  • The average annual rainfall required crops is as follow:

Sugarcane          –        150 cm (Approx)

Jute                     –        125-200 cm (Approx)

Wheat                 –        80 cm (Approx)

Groundnut          –        50-80 cm (Approx)

  • Main oilseed crops produced in India are Groundnut, Mustard, Coconut, Soybean, Castor seeds, Cotton seeds, Linseed and Sunflower.

  • Pegging is a useful phenomenon in groundnut. In pegging, after fertilization the pegs of faded flower come out and enter the soil which grows quite close to the taproot. Once it penetrate the soil, the peg turns horizontal and continues to grow and mature into peanut.

  • Groundnut is obtained from the root of the plant while rest crop are obtained from the flower of the plant. Oil made of Sesame, Groundnut and Mustard is used in food while caster seed oil is not used in food.

  • Mustard is an oilseed. Pusabold, Jaikisan, Varuna are main varieties of Mustard.

  • Pitambari (RYSK-05-02) is a variety of Yellow Mustard. Maturity period of Pitambari Mustard is 110-115 days while average production is 1536 kg/per hectare.

  • Large quantity of gypsum is required for groundnut cultivation.



  • Crop Varieties

Gram                  Pant-114, Gaurav, Radhe, K-4

Cotton                Suvin, Sujata, Desi  Shyamli

Groundnut          Chitra-64, Chandra, Kaushal

Wheat                 Kundan, Kalyan, Sona, Sonalika


  • India has to import pulses despite being a leading producer due to high rate of consumption. Thus, pulses are generally not exported from India whereas wheat, rice and sugar are exported at times.

  • Legumes are quite unique among the other crops as they draw their nitrogen from the air with the help of a specialized bacteria. So it is does not require the same application of nitrogen fertilizer like other crops.

  • Cobalt is known to be essential for symbolic nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium. Cobalt is also needed in the synthesis of vitamin. It is necessary for growth, photosynthesis and evaporation. Rhizobium is a bacteria found in the crops of pulses.

  • Major Legume crop-red gram (arhar) originated in India.

  • Malaviya Chamatkar is a variety of Arhr. Other main varieties of Arhar are Amar, Azad, Malaviya Vikas, Paras and Bahar.

  • Gram, Pea and Moong have the capacity of nitrogen fixation in the atmosphere. While it would not be correct to say that Rajma does not do nitrogen fixation at all. According to different researches, the nitrogen fixation capacity of Rajma varies Ref:- Scientific World Vol. 9 No. 9 July, 2011- Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus Vulgari) a king of annual leguminous crop, native to china is locally called Rajma in Nepal. It is cultivated as a crop or intercropped with other crops. It is also nitrogen fixing crop with symbiosis of Rhizobium. Ali and Lal 1992- Unlike other pulses Rajma is inefficient in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Nodulation is poor in Rajma.

  • “Aparna” is a new high-yielding, leaf-less variety of pea.




  • Karnataka is the leading producer of mulberry silk, with 48% of the total mulberry silk production of the country. This is notable that out of total raw silk production in the country 34% is produced by the State of Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh ranks second producing 17.8% of the total raw silk production of the country.

  • One of the rarest silks in the world is the Moonga silk. Assam produces 85.5% of total Moonga Silk produced in India.

  • Jharkhand is currently the leading State to produce tasar silk in India. Tasar silk is divided into two categories namely tropical tasar and Oak tasar. Tropical tasar is produced maximum in Jharkhand while Oak tasar is produced in Manipur.

  • Silk varieties and their relation with the States is as follow:

Mulberry Silk    –        Karnataka (48%)

Tussar Silk         –        Jharkhand (81%)

Eri Silk               –        Assam (62.1%)

Moonga Silk      –        Assam (85.5%)

  • Karnataka is the largest producer of silk garments in India and Assam is the second largest producer of silk garments.

Plantation Crops


  • National Horticulture Board was established in the year 1984, under Society Registration Act 1860 as an independent society. Its headquarter is located in Gurgaon (Haryana).

  • Hot and humid type of climate is needed for coffee plants in tropical regions. Whereas cultivation of tea can be done in both tropical and subtropical regions. Coffee is propagated by seeds but tea is propagated by stem cuttings.

  • Karnataka produced more than 70 percent of coffee production in India.

  • Chikmangalur district of Karnataka is famous for the production of Coffee. In India, Coffee was first time grown here. Mandya district of Karnataka is famous for Sugar.

Tea and Rubber

  • India is second largest producer of tea in the world after China. India produces tea more than its need.

  • For the cultivation of tea, sloped hills with annual rainfall of 150 to 200 cm is required. This is ideal condition for the production of tea.

  • Green Gold is a variety of tea.

  • At present main crop cultivated in Barak Valley is Rice whereas Sugarcane is the second most important crop produced here.

  • Largest producer of rubber in India is Kerala. 87.56% of total rubber production in India is produced by Kerala as per 2012-13 data. Ernakulam, Kottayam, Kozhikode and Kollam are the major rubber producing districts of Kerala. According to data for year 2016, India is fourth largest producer of rubber globally.

Other Plantation Crops

  • Coffee producing States of India are – Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and some States of North East India. Rubber is produced in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Karnataka, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur and few other states. Tobacco is produced in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and some other States. Thus, these three crops are grown in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

  • Ministry of Agriculture classifies coconut, arecanut, palm, cocoa and cashew nut under plantation crop. While according to Ministry of Commerce, tea, coffee and rubber are plantation crop.

  • Assam is the leading producer of tea Andhra Pradesh is the top producer of tobacco. Karnataka is a leading state in coffee production. Main crop of Chhattisgarh is paddy.

  • Kerala is very famous from the ancient times for its spices.

  • Clover is the flower- buds of medium sized evergreen plant of Eugenia caryophyllata family mytacease. Clove is a variety of spice which is also used in medicines.



  • Crops and their leading States

Crops                 States

Jute                     West Bengal

Tea                     Assam

Rubber               Kerala

Sugarcane          Uttar Pradesh

  • Black pepper is best grown is hot and moist climate with at least 200 cm of annual rainfall in the places with sloppy heights of 1100 to 1300 meter and with range of annual temperature from 150 to 300

  • Black pepper is also known as black diamond.

Jhuming Agriculture

  • Jhuming is a type of shifting cultivation which is done by the tribes by clearing the forests. When fertility of that place degrades they shift to other place and same procedure is followed again and again.

  • Jhuming cultivation is practiced mostly in hilly areas of north-eastern States. It is more prevalent in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya. In the hilly regions of Assam also, Jhum cultivation is practiced by the tribals.

  • Jhum cultivation is a problem in hilly areas of Assam and Bihar (now in Jharkhand).

  • Area Shifting Cultivation

Western Ghat              Kumari

South-east Rajasthan  Waltre

North-east India          Jhum

Madhya Pradesh         Dahiya

  • Shifting cultivation is a practice in which as area of ground is cleared of forests and cultivated by tribes when fertility of that area degrades they shift to other place until its fertility has been naturally restored. It is known by different names in different regions such as Jhum in north-east states, podu in Odisha, Kumari in Western Ghats etc.



Agriculture: Miscellaneous

  • National Research Centre for Banana (NRCB) was established on 21st August, 1993 at Tiruchirapalli (Trichy), Tamil Nadu. It aims to increase the production and productivity of Banana and plantation through mission mode and strategic research approaches.

  • Aphid is the creature which harms wheat as well as other cereals and fruits. In the same way Ghundi Bag harms rice crop and Top Shoot Borer Moth destroy the sugarcane crop and Bollworm is harmful for gram.

  • Name of Crop Name of Disease

Sugarcane                   Red Rot

Paddy                          Khaira

Arhar                           Wilt

Potato                          Late Blight

  • Green hair disease is found in millet.

  • Sugarcane, Beatroot, Sweat Pea, Gram, Arhar and Frasbean come under the category of three plant family.

  • As per the statistics given by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), India is one of the leading fresh fruits producing country and is placed second after China.

  • Jute is produced in loamy soil. West Bengal is the major producer of Jute in India. Other Jute producing States of the country are Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Meghalaya and Assam. Jute is called India’s golden fibre. Mesta is a variety of Jute which is produced in West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.

  • Lower Gangetic plain provides humid climatic conditions with high temperature which is suitable for production of paddy and jute crop.

  • Aman rice is sown during June-July and harvested in November-December. India is the second largest producer of rice production, after the China, in the world. There is 20% oil and 40% protein in Soybean and Dr. B.P. Pal was the first director general of Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

  • Wheat, Barley, Linseeed, Rapseed, Mustard and Gram etc. are Rabi crops. They are sown during October-December and harvested during the month of April-May. At present (2016 final) West Bengal is the second largest vegetable producing state while U.P. in largest.



Animal Husbandary

  • Stock forming is the practice of keeping livestock farm. Animal Husbandary is the scientific management of animal livestock. It includes various aspect such as feeding, breeding and disease control.

  • States and density of number of cattles in their gross cultivable land is given the following order –

Haryana              –        25/ square km

Uttar Pradesh     –        77/ square km

Madhya Pradesh –        106/ square km

Bihar                  –        183/ square km

  • Canyon is formed by the weathering and erosion activity of a river. It is V shaped valley with its depth being larger than its breadth. Moraines are accumulations of dirt and rocks that have fallen into the glacier surface as it moves. A recending glacier can leave behind moraines that are visible long after the glacier retreats. Besides these zeugen and Inselberg are formed by winds. Inselberg is an isolated hill or mountain rising abruptly from a plain. Tabular masses which have a layer of soft rocks lying beneath a surface layer of more resistant rocks, formed by wind erosion are known as Zeugen.

  • Most milk yielding goat breed in India is Jamunapari goat. This based is considered useful for milk as well as for meat. It gives up to 2.5 to 3.0 kg of milk per day.

  • Best cow breeds in India are founded in Rajasthan. Breeds of cow generally found in Rajasthan are Thajpakar, Rathi, Kankrej, Sahiwal, Lal Sindhi Gir, Nagouri, Haryanvi, Malwi and Mewati. Among these, Tharpakar breed is found in western border district of Jaisalmer, Barmer and Jodhpur. Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan is at the top in terms of percapita milk production. Apart from this it is also found in Kutchh area of Gujarat.

  • Varghese Kurien was the father of India’s White Revolution, which helped India emerged as the largest milk producer in the world.

  • National Dairy Research Institute in located in Karnal, Haryana. The institute was awarded the status of deemed University in the year 1989.



Mineral Resources

Rock System

  • Dharwar system is the most important mineralised rock system in India. These rocs are economically very important as they posses valuable minerals like high grade iron-ore, maganese, copper, lead, gold etc.

  • Vindhya Range of rocks are actually sedimentary rocks which were formed by sedimentary of water suspended particles. Among these rocks, prominent minerals are lime stone, sand, china clay etc. Lime stone is the base of cement industry.

  • Largest Minerals resources in India are found mainly in the region from South East to North Eastern belt Chhota Nagpur plateau, Dandakaranya plateau and Odisha plateau are located in this region. Largest mineral resources are located in peninsular region. This is known as heart-place of Indian minerals. Plenty of coal, iron, mica, copper and bauxite etc. are found here.

Metallic Minerals


  • Iron ore in India is found mainly in Dharwar rock system. Dharwar-rock system is the most important rock system in terms of economic value in India.

  • The States which are rich in Iron Ore in thousand tonnes (Haematite + Magnetite) are as follows: Karnataka (10269044 thousand tonnes), Odisha (7558816 thousand tonnes), Jharkhand (5297084 thousand tonnes) Chhattisgarh (4869379 thousand tonnes). The availability of Hematite in Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa etc. While Magnetite is found in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Goa etc.

  • Kudremukh is famous for iron-ore main in Karnataka. Mostly Magnetite iron-ore is found in Karnataka.

  • India has four major Iron-ore producing regions –

North-East Region      –        Jharkhand, Odisha

Central India Region  –        Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra

Peninsular Region      –        Karnataka, Goa

Other areas                  –        Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Kerala, Gujarat, Haryana, West Bengal

  • Nathra-Ki Pal area of Rajasthan is famous for Iron Ore.

  • Bailadila mines are situated at Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh. These are famous for iron-ore.

  • Bailadila mine of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh is the largest mechanized mine in India. Bailadila Mine is connected with Vizag Steel Plant of Vishakhapatanam which exports iron ore to Japan. Haematite and Magnetite Ore is largely found inside Bailadila Mine.

  • Most abundant reserves of iron-ore are found in Karnataka, Odisha, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh respectively. In terms of production, Odisha is at the first place. India is the fourth largest producer of iron ore in the world.




  • Rajasthan is the leading zinc and lead producing State of India. According to 2014-15 data, Rajasthan has near monopoly in zinc and lead production. Asia’s best zinc and lead reserves are located in Rampur Agacha region of Bhilwara district. Zinc Limited has established a super smelter machine with the help of Britain which is used to melt zinc and lead. Other reserves of zinc and lead in Rajasthan are – Zawar region (Udaipur), Rajpur Debari region (Udaipur), Dungarpur, Alwar, Banswara and Sirohi.


  • According to “Indian Mineral Year Book 2017”, silver reserves are found in Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Odisha, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Thus reserves of silver are not found in Gujarat, As per 2014-15 data, largest producer of silver are Rajasthan and Karnataka.




  • Copper ore is found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. It is a good conductor of electricity. As per Indian Mineral Year Book 2017, States with largest reserves of copper ore are –

  1. Rajasthan (813327 thousand tonnes)

  2. Madhya Pradesh (283429 thousand tonnes)

  3. Jharkhand (295389 thousand tonnes)

In terms of the production of copper concentrate Madhya Pradesh is at first place followed by Rajasthan and Jharkhand. Three important districts for copper in India are – Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan), Balaghat (M.P.) and Poorvi Singbhumi (Jharkhand). Malajkhand Balaghat is a leading centre for production of copper in Madhya Pradesh.

  • Khetri famous for copper production, is located in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan. Presently copper mining in Khetri is done by Hindustan copper limited.

  • 80% of copper reserve is found in Rajasthan 92% of natural reserves of nickel is found in Odisha. 42% of natural reserves of Tungsten in found in Karnataka.

  • Copper Fields State

Chander Pur                         Maharashtra

Hasan                                   Karnataka

Khamman                            Andhra Pradesh

Khetri                                   Rajasthan

  • Copper deposits were found out in 1999 in southern Karnataka.


  • Bauxite is an ore of aluminium. Its colour varies from white, pink or red depending on the quantity of iron. According to “Indian Mineral Year Book 2017”, three leading producers of Bauxite are –

  1. Odisha

  2. Gujarat

  3. Jharkhand

  • According to Indian Bureau of Mines, leading producer of bauxite during 2014-15 were – Odisha (42%), Gujarat (25%), Maharashtra (12%), Jharkhand (9%), Chhattisgarh (7%).


  • Chhattisgarh has immense deposits of tin ore. Notably Chhattisgarh is the only tin producing State in India. Tin ore is known as cassiterite.

  • The only tin producing State in India in Chhattisgarh. All the companies related to Tin mining (1-public sector, 4-Private sector) are located in Dantewada district.



Non-Metallic Minerals


  • According to Indian Mineral Year Book 2016, Andhra Pradesh was the only producer of mica. Total production of mica in Andhra Pradesh comes from Nellore district only.

  • According to Indian Minerals Year Book-2016, the State with maximum resources of Mica are as follow: Andhra Pradesh (41%), Rajasthan (28%), Odisha (17%).

  • According to the data of Minerals Year Book-2016, mica producing only State is Andhra Pradesh. The state with reserves/deposits of Mica are as follows:

Andhra Pradesh          –        41%

Rajasthan                    –        28%

Odisha                         –        17%

Maharashtra                –        13%

Bihar                           –        2%

  • India is at first the position in the world in production of Mica sheet. Largest Mica belt of India are found in Hazaribagh, Gaya and Munger and Koderma districts which is known as “Capital of Mica”, also come under this belt. Mica is found as veins of metamorphic rocks.


  • Makrana is located towards west of Sambhar lake where the best quality of marble is found. It is also known as Makrana marble. Taj Mahal and Victoria Memorial (Kolkata) are made of Makrana Marble.

  • Marble is a metamorphic rock that is formed when limestone is subjected to heat and pressure of Metamorphism. It is composed primarily of mineral calcite (CaCO3) and usually contains clay mineral such as micas, quartz, pyrite, iron oxides and graphic.

Energy Minerals


  • The coal deposits in India are primarily concentration in the Gondwana sediments occurring mainly in the eastern and central parts of Peninsular India, although Gondwana coal deposits also occur in Assam and Sikkim in north Eastern part of the country.

  • Indian coal has very high ash content, which varies from 35% to 45% as compared to 15% in other parts of the world. Indian coal also has ash fusion temperature of about 1500 degree Celsius. However Indian coal has low sulphur content at about 0.5%.

  • 99% of coal reserves of India are found in Gondwana Rock system.

  • According to Energy Policy report (Planning Commission), the petroleum reserves in India will be depleted in 22 years, Gas reserves in 30 years and Coal reserves in 80 years.

  • Coal, designated as “Black Diamond”, is one of the main sources of energy. It is also known as “Fuel Mineral”. Chemically it contain carbon which give it not only colour but also determine its thermal capacity.

  • Discending order in terms of coal reserves – Jharkhand>Odisha>Chhattisgarh>West Bengal>Madhya Pradesh.

  • Chhotanagpur Industrial region is extended in Jharkhand, North Odisha and West Bengal and is famous for its heavy metallurgical industry. Discovery of coal in the Damodar Valley is main reason for the development of this region.

  • Namchik- Namphuk coal fields are situated at Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh.

  • Korba coalfield is located in Korba district of Chhattisgarh in the basin of the Hasdo River. Korba Coalfield covers an area of about 530 square kilometers. Coal has been mined in Korba coalfields since 1941, but large scale production could be initiated only on completion of the Champa-Korba rail link in 1955.



  • Coal Producing Areas Coalfields

Damodar Valley                           Barakar

Son Valley                                             Umaria

Godavari Valley                           Singareni

Mahanadi Valley                          Talcher

  • Talcher is a prominent coal region in Angul district of Odisha. The management of coal region in Talcher is in the hands of Mahanadi Coal field Ltd., a subsidiary of Coal India Limited.

  • Chhota Nagpur plateau is extended over Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal. It has 80% contribution in India’s total coal production.

  • Jharia coal field is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand. Most of Coking Coal Reserves are found here. Jamshedpur is famous for Iron/Steel Industry, Lahardaga is famous for production of Bauxite and Ranchi is famous for heavy machines.

  • Lignite is an inferior variety of coal containing 35-40 percent of Carbon. Lignite coal is mainly produced in two States- Tamil Nadu and Gujarat, Neyveli is the lignite field Tamil Nadu and it is the lignite coal mine of India.

  • Bengal-Jharkhand coalfields are major source of coal supply to north-western States and the supply of inter State coals i s handled by Railway. They form a major component of handling inter State traffic.

  • Bisrampur is Surguja district of Chhattisgarh is famous for coal mining.

  • Coalfields and their respective States –

Karanpura          –        Jharkhand

Singareni            –        Andhra Pradesh (Now in Telangana)

Neyveli              –        Tamil Nadu

Korba                 –        Chhattigarh

  • Indian steel companies require a huge amount of coking coal. In order to fulfill that requirement, huge amount of good quality of coal is imported which is not available in India. Most of the electric power plants in India are coal based hence internal supply of coal is not properly fulfilled. This is one more reason that coal is imported.

  • Coal plays a vital role in meeting energy needs worldwide. Coal is an indispensable energy source in India.



Petroleum and Natural Gas

  • Digboi a town area in Tinsukia district in the north-eastern part of Assam, is the birth place of oil Industry in India. Digboi reifinery, commissioned on 11 December, 1901 is India’s oldest operating refinery and one of the oldest operating refineries in the world. The historic Digboi Refinery has been termed as “Gangotri” of the Indian Hydrocarbon Sector Digboi Refinery field is part of Brahmaputra Valley Oilfield. Other Refineries in Brahmaputra Valley are:

Naharkatiya field, Moran Hugrijan field, Rudra Sagar Lakwa and Surma Valley.

Oil-field was commissioned in 1958 in Ankleshwar located about 80 km, south of Vadodara and nearly 160 km south of Khambhat.

  • In Cambay Basin Lunej area, oil is found in sedimentary rocks of the territory period. The estimated reserves are 30 million tonnes of crude oil. The total production includes about 15 lakh tonnes of oil per year and 8-10 lakh cubic metres of natural gas per day.

  • Navgam oil field is located in Gujarat. Other oil field in Gujarat are Ankleshwar, Kalol, Bakrol, Mehsana.

  • In India, first oil well was drilled in the area of Makum in upper Assam on 26th March, 1867. The depth is 118 feet (35.5 m).

  • Oil Refinery Year of Commissioning

Digboi                                  1901

Koyali (Gujarat)                  1965

Haldia (West Bengal)          1975

Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)      1982

  • Barauni oil refinery, is an Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. refinery situated in Bihar. There is no oil refinery in Loyna. Mathura oil refinery (Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.) is in Uttar Pradesh. Vasakhapatnam Oil Refinery (Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.) is in Andhra Pradesh.

  • Haldia is a city in West Bengal.

  • Jamnagar is a city located on the Western Coast of India in Gujarat in the Gulf of Kutchh. Petroleum Company, Reliance Industries has established the world’s largest oil refinery here.

  • The Numaligarh Refinery is located at Morangi, Golaghat district, Assam, owned by Numaligarh Refinery Ltd., a joint Venture between Bharat Petroleum and Govt. of Assam.

  • Following is the list of oil refineries provided by Indian Bureau of Mines. There are 23 Oil Refineries namely Barauni, Koyali, Haldia, Mathura, Panipat, Digboi, Bongaigaon, Guwahati, Paradip, Mumbai (2), Vishakhapatnam, Bhatinda, Kochi, Bina, Manali, Narimanam, Numaligarh, Tatipaka, Mangalore, Jamnagar (2) and Vadimar.

  • First oil/energy crisis occurred during the year 1973 when oil exporting countries (OPEC) suddenly increased the oil price four times. In India, industry and transportation was developed in such as way that demand of petroleum was increasing rapidly. Hence, due to the rise in petroleum prices, there was a huge oil crisis during 1970-80.

  • Noonmati suburb of the city of Guwahati, Assam, is known for the first oil refinery to be commissioned by the then Indian Oil Company Ltd., Now Indian Oil Corporation, listed as one of the fortune 500 companies. Guwahati Refinery was started on January 1, 1962.



  • Oil Refinery and their respective States –

Haldia                –        West Bengal

Jamnagar            –        Gujarat

Kochi                 –        Kerala

Numaligarh        –        Assam

Tatipaka             –        Andhra Pradesh

Koyali                –        Gujarat

Nagapattinam     –        Tamil Nadu

Barauni              –        Bihar

Mangalore          –        Karnataka

Panipat               –        Haryana

Noonmati           –        Assam

  • Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) gas pipeline has been constructed by Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) to transport gas. It is 1750 km long and connects Hajira in Maharashtra to Bijapur in (M.P.) and Jagdishpur in (U.P.).

  • Bombay High also known as Mumbai High is an offshore oil field 160 km off the coast of Mumbai, India. The oil operations are run by oil Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC). Bombay High field was discovered by a Russian and Indian oil exploration team.

  • The Mangla Bhagyam and Aishwarya constitute key oil fields discovered in Barmer-Sanchore basin. The Mangla field considered to be the largest on shore hydrocarbon field in India in more than two decades was discovered in January 2004.

  • “Hydrogen Vision-2025” is related to warehousing of petroleum products.

  • Oil Refineries Established                Established Year

Bina (M.P.)                 B.P.C.L.                      May, 2011

Tatipaka (A.P.)           O.N.G.C.                     September, 2001

Digbor (Assam)          I.O.C.L.                       1901

Koyali (Gujarat)         I.O.C.L.                       October, 1965




  • Idukki is a hydroelectric power project which is situated across the Periyar River in Idukki district Kerla. Sabarigiri hydroelectric project is in Kerla. Ghat Prabha is an irrigation project and Ramganga is multi-purpose project.

  • Thermal projects and their Location –

Thermal Project        Location

Ukai                            Gujarat

Patratu                         Jharkhand

Pench                          Madhya Pradesh

Dabhol                        Maharashtra

  • Uran (Uran Gas Turbine Power Station) is gas-based thermal power plant located at Uran in Raigad district Maharashtra. The power plant is operated by the Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Ltd.

  • The super thermal electricity plant established by National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) in West Bengal is situated at Farakka. Farakka Super Thermal Power Plant is located at Nabarun in Murshidabad district in Indian state of West Bengal. The power plant is one of the coal based power plants of NTPC. Rajmahal Coal field is open cast project which supplies coal to the Farakka Super Thermal Power Station and the 2340 MW Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Station.

  • Ramsamundram Super Thermal Power Station, one of the biggest thermal power station in India is situated at then Andhra Pradesh (now Telangana). Its capacity is 2600 M.W.

  • Obra Thermal Power Station is located in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh established with the help of Russian engineers in 1971.

  • Power Station State

Kothagudem               Andhra Pradesh (120 MW)

Raichur                       Karnataka (coal based 7 units of 220 MW)

Mettur                         Tamil Nadu

Wanakbori                  Gujarat (coal based)

Badarpur                     Delhi

Harduaganj                 Uttar Pradesh

Utaran                         Gujarat

Paras                           Maharashtra



  • State Rank in installed thermal power capacity

Maharashtra       First (30473.48 MW)

Gujarat               Second (22168.00 MW)

Uttar Pradesh     Third (18623.21 MW)

West Bengal      Fourth (8805.77MW)

  • Bokaro Thermal Power Station is located at Bokaro district in Jharkhand. Bokaro ‘B’ Thermal Power Station has installed capacity of 630 MW. The first unit was commissioned in March 1986. The station is located on the banks of the Konar River. The now defunct Bokaro ‘A’ Thermal Power Station which was commissioned in 1952 was scrapped. In place of which, one 500 MW unit has been commissioned by BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd.) in May, 2016.

  • Integrated Steel plant in Kalinganagar Industrial Complex in Jaipur district of Odisha, is working under Tata Steel not Steel Authority of India. It was the project commissioned in October, 1997 the Essar Power –Hazira power plant is multifuel (naphtha, high-speed diesel, natural gasoline liquid and/or natural gas) combined-cycle power plant located under near the  Essar facility in Hazira, Gujarat.

Nuclear Power

  • Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) is located near Boiser in Thane district of Maharashtra. It is the first Nuclear Power Station of India which commenced its commercial operation on 28th October 1969.

  • Uranium is most significant nuclear mineral used as nuclear fuel. Thorium is second important nuclear mineral. Thorium is extracted mostly from monazite. India has estimated thorium reserves of 4.5 million tonnes. These reserves are found in monazite coastal sand of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh & Odisha. Minor occurrences of Thorium deposits have been noticed in Bihar, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh also. Hence Indian is self sufficient is supply of Thorium.

  • The year of commissioning of nuclear plants are Kota – 1973, Kakrapara- 1993, Kaiga- 2000 and Kalpakkam- 1984.

  • Kota (Rawathbhata) Atomic Power Station –         Rajasthan

Tarapur Atomic Power Station                       –         Maharashtra

Narora Nuclear Power Station                       –         Uttar Pradesh

Kakrapara Nuclear Power Station                  –         Gujarat

  • Nuclear energy is a promising source of future demand of energy supply in India. India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power programme and expects to have 14.6 GW nuclear capacity by 2024 and 63 GW by 2030. It aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050. Uranium is available in negligible quantities in India. India also signed civil nuclear deal with USA.



  • Thal –        Maharashtra

Manuguru –        Andhra Pradesh

Kakrapara –        Gujarat

Kaiga         –        Karnataka

  • An Inter-Government Agreement (IGA) on the project was signed on 20 November 1988 by the then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and the then Soviet head of State Mikhali Gorbachev, for the construction of two reactors to be installed at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in Tamil Nadu. Under this agreement, Russia is constructing 2 nuclear reactors from 2002 in India. Russia has agreed to install six units of nuclear reactors in Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant.

  • 25th Nuclear Power Plant of India is located at Rawathbhata in the State of Rajasthan where its construction began from July, 2011.

  • Anushakti Vidyut Nigam Limited is a major venture of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) which hold 51% Equity share and National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC) which hold 49% or remaining share. It was incorporated on 27 January 2011.

  • The twentieth nuclear power station of India is located in Kaiga, Krnataka. It has four units. On 27 November 2010 the Kaiga Atomic Power Station unit 4 of 220 MW capacity became operational. All of the four units are small-sized CANDU (Canadian – developed, pressurized heavy water reactor used for generating electric power) plants of 220 MW.

  • Heavy water plants for atomic energy are located in Hazira (Gujarat), Baroda (Gujarat), Kota (Rajasthan), Manuguru (Telangala), Talcher (Odisha), Thal (Maharashtra) & Tuticorin (Tamli Nadu).

  • The 172 MW capacity Rana Pratap Sagar Hydel Power Station is located in the Rawathbhata town on the left side of the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam. This place is situated around 50 km away from city of Kota. All the equipments of this power house were imported from Canada under Colombo Plan.



Energy: Miscellaneous

  • Chalkewadi wind energy project in Satara (Maharashtra) is developed for generating electricity. Five hundred wind mills are put up all along the plateau to generate electricity.

  • In the context of wind power generation, Tamil Nadu (7455 MW) is at first position, after the that Maharashtra (3645.4 MW) holds second rank.

  • India has a long coastline with the estuaries and gulfs where tides are strong enough to move turbines for electrical power generation. Total identified potential of tidal energy is about 9000 MW. West Coast Gulf of Cambay has production capacity of 7000 MW, Gulf of Kutch has 1200 MW capacity and Sundarban has the capacity of less than 100 MW.

  • India as a result of being surrounded by sea on three sides has high potential to harness tidal energy. The three most potential locations in this regard are Gulf of Cambay (west coast), Gulf of Kutchh (West coast) and Ganges Delta, Sundarbans, West Bengal (East coast).

  • NHPC is related with electricity generation. NHPC Limited (National Hydroelectric Power Corporation) it an Indian Hydropower generation company that was incorporated in the  year 1975 with an objective to plan, promote and organize an integrated and efficient development of hydroelectric power in all aspects. Later on , NHPC expanded its objects to include other sources of energy like  Geothermal, Tidal, Wind etc. The present installed capacity is approximately 40661.41 MW which is 16.36% of total electricity generation in India. National Hydroelectricity Power Corporation (NHPC) generated 39788.40 MWelectricity.

  • Gujarat stands first in installed capacity and generation of electricity. Whereas Maharashtra ranks first in Gross installed capacity of electricity. Present situation Installed capacity (in MW) of power utilities in the states (as on 31.03.2018) is as follows:

  1. Maharashtra (43074.19)

  2. Gujarat (30794.32)

  3. Tamil Nadu (29902.68)

  4. Karnataka (26697.47)

  • There are various loopholes in the functioning of State Electricity Boards in India and they have faced hardships due to administrative deficiencies, lack of financial resource, wide transmission and distribution losses, skewed tariff structure leading to unsustainable cross subsidies etc. State Governments have implemented social subsidy policies through SEBs in agrarian sector. According to 11th five year plan, India has higher transmission and distribution losses than other countries. The great deal of electricity in remote areas and less investment in distribution system etc. are prime roadblocks to these losses.

  • The power plant of Manikaran based on geothermal energy is located in the Parvati Valley on river Parvati, Northeast of Bhuntar in the Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. The area is well known as for its hot springs.  The hot springs in the valley temperature ranges between 320 C to 960 The hottest one is at Manikaran at 960 which is boiling temperature at that altitude (3000 m). The location spread over 45 km stretch from West to East with thermal springs at Kasol (760 C), Manikaran (960 C), Khirganga (490 C) and Pulga (440 C). The electricity is generated by these sources of thermal springs.

  • Coal petroleum natural gas and atomic energy are commercial sources of energy also known as non-renewable and traditional resources whereas wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, tidal and hydropower energy sources are non-commercial sources of energy, also known as renewable non-traditional resources.




Iron Steel Industry

  • Stainless steel is metal alloy, made up of steel mixed with elements such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silicon, aluminium and carbon. Iron mixed with carbon to produce steel is the main component of stainless steel.

  • TISCO (Tata Iron % Steel Company Limited) is prime steel company of India. It was established in 1907. The steel plant at Tatanagar (Jamshedpur) produces four million tonnes of hot and cold rolled flat and long products. It is fifth largest steel company of the world with an annual crude steel capacity of 28 million tonnes.

  • Rourkela Steel Plant, the first integrated steel plant in the public sector of India, was set up with collaboration of Germany not Soviet Union.

  • Bhilai Steel Plant is the collaborative project of Indian Government and Russia, located in Bhilai Durg district in Chhattisgarh. The plant was commissioned on 4 February 1959. Presently, the total requirement of iron ore of Bhilai Steel Plant is met from Dalli Rajasthan Iron Ore Complex (IOC) Korba and Kargali coal mines.

  • Bokaro steel plant is the fourth public sector steel plant is India built with Soviet (Russia) help. It was started in 1965. It was incorporated as a limited company on 29 January, 1965 and later on merged with SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited). This plant is removed as first Swadeshi Plant.

  • Lasundara hot spring is in Gujarat.

  • Centre Energy

Patratu                Thermal

Jhakri                 Hydel

Kalapakkam       Nuclear

Korba                 Thermal

  • The main raw materials used in Iron and steel industry are iron ore, coal, magnese, limestone, silica, chromite, felspar etc.



Aluminium Industry

  • Korba district is located in Chhattisgarh. Various prominent industrial units are situated here which are as follows:

Bharat Aluminium Company Ltd.  (BALCO)

Korba Super Thermal Power Plant

Minimata Bango Hasdeo Project

BALCO Captive Plant

IBP Explosive Plant

South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL)

Hasdeo Thermal Power Station

Bango Hydel Electric Plant

Bharat Aluminium Company Ltd (BALCO) is located only 10 km far from main township. That is why Korba District is significant for aluminium industry.

  • Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company, known as Tata Motors Limited now, is the largest manufacturer in India automotive industry and commercial vehicles.

  • Hindustan Aluminium Company Ltd (HINDALCO) is located in Pipari village (Renukoot) in Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh. National Aluminium Company Ltd (NALCO) has units in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. It is Asia’s largest integrated aluminium complex encompassing bauxite mining, aluminium refining, aluminium smelting and casting power generation, rail and port operations. Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL) is located at Khetri, Kolihan in Rajasthan. HCL is the only vertically integrated copper producer in India, engaged in a wide spectrum of activities ranging from mining, Beneficiation, Smelting, Refining and Continuous Cast Rod manufacturer.

  • Bharat Aluminium Co. Ltd. (BALCO) was incorporated in the year 1965 as a public Sector Undertaking (PSU) in Korba. It is the first Public Sector enterprises in India which started producing aluminium in 1974.

  • Hindalco Industries Ltd. (HINDALCO) an Aluminium & Copper manufacturing company, is a subsidiary of the Aditya Birla Group. The Hindustan Aluminium Corporation Limited was established in 1958 by the Aditya Birla Goup. In 1962, the company began production in Renukoot in Uttar Pradesh producing 20 thousand metric tons per year of Aluminium metal and 40 thousand metric tons per year of Alumina. On 15 May 2007, the acquisition was completed with Novelis share holders by HINDALOCO.

  • The Indian Aluminium Company Ltd. (INDAL) is an integrated plant having three units at different places. Its three smelting units are located at Alupuram (Kerala), Hirakud Odisha, and Belaum (Karnataka).

  • National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO) has units in Odisha at Angul and Damanjodi (Koraput). It was incorporated as a public sector enterprise by the Ministry of Mines, Government of India in 1981.

  • Aluminium Plant State

Alupuram                             Kerala

Angul                                   Odisha

Belgaum                               Karnataka

Korba                                   Chhattisgarh




  • Centre Industry

Kankinara                   Jute

Virudhnagar                Cotton Textile

Channapatna               Silk

Bhadohi                      Carpet

  • Mon is a district of Nagaland. Shangnyu village of Mon has best wooden architect among Nagas. Nalbari, Assam is located near, Guwahati and is famous for products made bamboo. Pasighat is the oldest town of Arunachal Pradesh famous for Lali wild life Sanctuary. Ponnung dance by local tribals is also famous. Tura is one of the largest towns in Meghalaya in a valley located at the foothills of the tura hills right below Tura Peak.

  • Kakinada (Andhra Pradesh) –        Bo Diesel Plant

Dundigal (Hyderabad)                  –        Indian Air Force Academy

Margao (Goa)                               –        Skybus Metro rail test-run

Bhadrachalam                      –        ITC paper board unit

  • Aonla –        Fertilizers

Modinagar         –        Rubber

Brabanki            –        Polyfibres

Kanpur               –        Explosive

Zari Batua          –        Bhopal

Bhairavgarh       –        Ujjain

Handicrafts of Bagh   Dhar

Sarees of Chanderi     Ashoknagar

  • Masuria Sari is related to Kota district of Rajasthan.

  • The Diesel Locomotive Works (DLW) is located in Varanasi. Founded in 1961, the DLW, is a production unit owned by Indian Railways, that manufactures diesel-electric locomotives and its spare parts.

  • Indian Telephone Industries Limited, commonly known as ITI Limited, is a State-owned manufacturer of telecommunication equipments in India. It was founded in 1948, and has six manufacturing units in Bangalore (Karnataka) Naini Mankapur, Raebareli (Uttar Pradesh), Palakkad (Kerala) and Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) which produce a range of switching, transmission, access and subscriber premises equipment. Its headquarter is at Bangalore.



  • Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was incorporated in 1954. Manufacturing units of Electronics Limited are in the following cities of India- Bangalore, Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Panchkula (Haryana), Kotwara (Uttarakhand), Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh), Pune, Hyderabad (Telangana) & Machilipatnam (Andhra Pradesh).

  • The Mathura Refinery owned by Indian Oil Corporation, is located in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh.

  • Cement industry mainly depends on lime stone. Due to this, cement industry is mainly located in the areas having abundance of lime stone.

  • Dalmianagar is one of the oldest and biggest industrial town of India. It is situated on the bank of Son River in Rohtas district of Bihar. It is famous for cement industry. It was founded by Ram Krishna Dalmiya of Dalmiya group of Industries.

  • Bhopal city of Madhya Pradesh is known for pesticide industry.

  • The shipyard factory was established in Vishakhapatnam, India in 1941 and was taken over by Government in 1952 and was renamed as Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. Apart from Vishakhapatnam, there are four main centres of ship building industry at Goa, Kolkata, Kochi and Mumbai in India; all are public sector undertakings. The alumina plants are located in Damanjodi (Odisha), Korba (Chhattisgarh), Renukoot (Uttar Pradesh) Metur (Tamil Nadu), Muri (Jharkhand) & Belgaum (Karnataka). At present most of the vehicles are manufactured in India. The premier units related to this industry are Hindustan Motors (Leyland) (Chennai), Tata Engineering Company Limited (Jamshedpur), Mahindra & Mahindra (Pune), Maruti Industries Limited (Gurugram) and Sunrise industries (Bangalore). India is the third largest producer of phosphorous & nitrogenous fertilzers. Panki is significant place for fertilizers industry.

  • Sindri located, in Jharkhand is known for its fertilizers factories.

  • The first fertilizer plant of India was established in Sindri (then Bihar now Jharkhand) in 1951 as public sector undertaking. After that fertilizer plant was established in Nangal (Punjab).

  • Centres and their concerned industries –

Ramagundam (Telangana)           –         Fertilizers

Chittaranjan (West Bengal)          –         Locomotives

Korba (Jharkhand)                        –         Aluminium

Pipri (Uttar Pradesh)                     –         Hydroelectricity

  • Phulpur (Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh) has largest co-operative fertilizer factory. The Phulpur unit of IFFCO (Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-operative Limited) was established in 1981. The units of IFFCO are at Kalol, Kandla, Aonla and Paradeep.



  • Industry and their States –

Amlai                 –        Madhya Pradesh

Ballarpur            –        Maharashtra

Brajrajnagar       –        Odisha

Rajahmundry     –        Andhra Pradesh

  • Units Industry

Brajraj Nagar (Odisha)        –        Paper

Kaimur                                 –        Cement

Haldia (West Bengal)          –         Petrochemical

Phulpur (Uttar Pradesh)       –        Fetilizers


  • The largest petrochemical factory is located in the State of Gujarat in India.

  • Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of mill-made cotton yarn in the country. Presence of numerous spinning mills, skilled labour force, cheap by hydroelectricity availability etc. are main factors for good production.

  • In India, cotton is mainly produced in black soils. Some of the important centres such as Ahmedabad, Solarpur, Nagpur, Coimbatore and Indore are located in the areas of large scale cotton cultivation. It is equally important to note that cotton is a pure raw material, in the sense that it does not lose its weight in the process of manufacturing and slight loss in weight is more than compensated by the use of sizing materials. Cotton textile industry is spread all over India. Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Madhya Pradesh etc. are prime centres of cotton textile centres.



  • Industry Centre

Silk textiles                 Mysore (Karnataka)

Petrochemicals            Jawahar Nagar (Gujarat)

Fertilizers                    Talcher (Odisha)

Pharmaceuticals          Rishikesh

  • The first Indian cotton cloth mill was established in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Kolkata, although this mill was a failure. The second mill which was established by KGN Daber in Mumbai, 1854 is called the true foundation of modern cotton industry in India. Its name was Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company, Bombay.

  • Steel Authority of India Limited –         Delhi

Hindustan Zinc Limited                        –         Udaipur

Heavy Engineering Corporation Limited         Ranchi

Instrumentation Limited                        –         Kota

  • Location State

Koyali                         Gujarat

Nagapattinam              Tamil Nadu

Numaligarh                 Assam

Manali                         Tamil Nadu

  • Diamond Park is the industrial zones which have been created to promote manufacturing and export of diamonds and synthetic jewelleries and ornaments.

  • Atlas Cycle Ltd. is located in Sonepat, Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. is located in Bangalore. Indian Farmers fertilizers Co-Operative Ltd. is located in Kalol and National Aluminium Company Ltd. is located in Bhubaneswar.

  • Granite Polishing Industry of Jharkhand state Minerals Development Corporation is located at Pupudana (Ranchi). Bishrampur Graphite project is located in Palamu.

  • Person Organization

V.R.S. Natrajan          Bharat Earth Movers Limited

A.K. Puri                    Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

  1. Thulasidas Air India

Jagdish Khattar           Maruti Udyog Limited

B.V. Rao                     Poultry Farming

C.K. Prahlad               Management Science

John Kurien                Fisheries Economy

Kiran Karnik               Information Technology and Software

C.P. Jain                      NTPC

  1. Ramadorai TCS

Sunil Arora                 Indian Airlines

Vivek Paul                           Wipro Technologies

  • Industry Place

Paper                           Titagarh

Cement                        Lakheri

Iron & Steel                Bhilai

Mineral Oil Refinery  Ambala Mukul

  • Ludhiana in Punjab is famous for hosiery industry. It is renowned as Industrial capital of Punjab. It is famous for ready-made garments, hosiery items, sewing machines and parts & machine tools. Approximately 10000 industrial units are located in Ludhiana and 5 lacs skilled labourers are involved in it.



  • Industry Centre

Aluminium         J.K. Nagar

Copper               Malanjkhand

Zinc                    Tundoo

Jute                     Bhatpara

Fertilizers           Sriganganagar

Glass                  Jaipur

Cement               Udaipur

Synthetic Silk    Kota

  • The largest petrochemical factory is located in Jamnagar in Gujarat.

  • A Geographical Indication (GI) is a name or sign used on certain products with specific geographical location.

  • Shivakashi centre is located in Madurai, Coimbatore, Bengaluru industrial area. It is located in Virudhnagar district of Tamil Nadu. It is famous for fireworks, match box industry, printing industry etc. It was termed “Little Japan” by Jawahar Lal Nehru.

Indian Research Centres

  • The 3rd research centre in Antarctica was established in 2015 with the name of Bharti. India’s first station in Antarctica (South Gangotri 1983) was abandoned in 1988-89 after it was submerged in ice. It was succeeded by the “Maitri” which was set up in 1988-89.

  • Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA) is a National Research Institute under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) established in Hyderabad.

  • The headquarter of Central Institute for Arid Horticulture (CIAH) is located on National Highway No- 15 (Bikaner-Sri Ganganagar Road) 10 km away from Bikaner city in Bikaner, Rajasthan.

  • National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM) is located at Hyderabad.

  • International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an International Non-Profit Organization that undertakes scientific agrarian researches for development in South Asia & Sub-Saharan Africa. ICRISAT has headquarter in Patancheru near Hyderabad.

  • National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM) is located at Jaipur.

  • University of Horticulture and Forestry is located at Solan (Himachal Pradesh).

  • National Research Centre of Agro Forestry is located at Jhunsi.

  • Central Food Technological Research Institute is situated at Mysore.

  • Central Rice Research Institute is located in Cuttack. As a result the Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) was established in 1946 near Bidhyadharpur, Cuttack, Odisha.

  • Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (CIAE) is located in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering was established on February 15, 1976 during the fifth Five Year Plan to address research related issues.



  • Centre                   Location

National Environment Engineering                         –        Nagpur

Central Food Technology Research Institute          –        Mysuru

Central Potato Research Institute                            –        Shimla

Central Tobacco Research Institute                        –        Rajamundri

National Research Centre of Agro Forestry            –        Jhansi

University of Horticulture and Forestry                  –        Solan (Himachal Pradesh)

The National Diary Research Institute (NDRI)         –        Karnal (Haryana)

The Indian Institute of Pulses Research                  –        Kanpur

National Sugar Institute                                           –        Kanpur

Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited                                 –        Hyderabad

Institute of Military Law                                         –        Kamptee

Institute of National Integration                              –        Pune

Directorate of Farming System Research               –        Meerut

Indian Institute of Soil Science                               –        Bhopal

National Centre for Agro-Forestry Research          –        Jhansi

Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI)    –        Karnal

Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI)   –        Thiruvananthapuram

International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)          –        Manila

Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI)         –        Jodhpur

Directorate of Rice Research (DRR)                      –        Hyderabad

Directorate of Wheat Research (DWR)                   –        Karnal

Directorate of Maize Research (DMR)                   –        New Delhi

Directorate of Pulses Research (DPR)                    –        Kanpur

Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR)         –        Lucknow

National Bureau of Plant Genetics Research –         New Delhi

National Plant Protection Training Institute  –         Hyderabad

  • National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF) is situated at Ghaziabad, with 6 regional centres at Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Panchkula, Imphal, Jabalpur and Nagpur.

  • The National Museum of Natural History established in New Delhi on 5th June, 1978. The NMNH has extended its geographical range by establishing Regional Museums of Natural History (RMNH) in many parts of the Country such as Southern Region (Mysore), Central Region (Bhopal) and Eastern Region (Bhubaneswar). Two more museums are being established in Western Region (Sawai Madhopur) and North-Eastern Region  (Gangtok).

  • Vegetable Research was given impetus through the establishment of AICRP on vegetable crops in 1971 at IARI, New Delhi. To give a fillip to vegetable research, the status of AICRP on vegetable crop was elevated to level of Project Directorate of Vegetable Research (PDVR) during 1986, further during 1992 the headquarter of AICRP on vegetables was shifted to Varanasi from IARI, New Delhi. ICAR also approved establishment of independent research institute named as Indian Institution of Vegetable Research (IIVR) in 1999.

  • The Central Institute of Sub-tropical Horticulture (Formerly Known as Central Mango Research Institute) is located at Lucknow.

  • The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research (IISR) is located at Lucknow. The Institute was established in 1952.

  • The Indian Diamond Institute is a Government of India sponsored autonomous higher school of learning in the fields of diamonds, germs and jewellery in India. It was established in 1978. The Institute is located in Surat, Gujarat.

  • The National Diary Development Board is located in Anand, Gujarat with regional offices throughout the country.

  • The Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage is located at Faridabad (Haryana).




Road Transport

  • India has 52 lakh km of road network, which is the second largest road network in the world. In field of transport, roadways has leading position. About 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic is carried by the roads.

  • NH-37 is the longest National Highway is India. It covers the North-South Corridor (Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu) and it is officially listed as running over 2369 km from Varanasi to Kanyakumari while 1375 km long highway NH-8 connects Indian capital Delhi to Mumbai. The Delhi-Kolkata Road is known as National Highway 3. It is one of the most busiest road networks in India. NH-1 expands from Delhi to Amritsar.

  • NH-4 links Mumbai to Chennai. NH -4 passes through Thane, Pune, Kolhapur, Bangalore, Chttore etc. NH-6 passes though the cities of Surat, Dhule, Jalgaon, Bhusaval, Ashoka, Amravati, Nagpur, Bhandra, Durg, Raipur, Mahasamund, Sambhalpur, Kolkata.

  • NH-15 connects Samakhiali in Gujarat with Pathankot in Punjab and passes through Pathankot, Amritsar, Kotkapura, Bhatinda, Ganganagar, Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Barmer.

  • The Golden Quadrilateral Project relates to the highway. Under this project 4 metropolitan cities of the country were be connected by road.

  • Golden Quadrilateral is a National Highway project which was started in 2001 connecting India’s four top metropolitan cities, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. Its total length is 5846 km.

  • Pradhanmantri Bharat Jodo Pariyojna is ambitious scheme of Indian Government which is related to the development of highways. Under this project, tourist places and economically important places will be connected by corridors built on (BOT- Build, Operate, Transfer) principle. This project envisages construction of 4376 km road.

  • The North-South corridor is the largest ongoing highway project in India. It is second phase of National Highway Development Project (NHDP). It is 4000 km connecting NH-1A (Srinagar to Jalandhar), NH-1 (Jalandhar to Delhi), NH-2 Delhi to Agra, NH-3 Agra to Gwalior, NH-75 Gwalior To Jhansi, NH-26 Jhansi to Lakhnadon, NH-7 Lakhnadon-Nagpur-Hyderabad-Bangalore-Madurai-Kanyakumari), NH-47 Salem-Coimbatore-Kochi).

  • The Mumbai Pune Expressway is India’s first six-lane concrete, high speed, access controlled, tolled expressway. It spans over a distance of 93 km connecting Mumbai with Pune. This six lane project was completed under the stewardship of the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC) at a cost 16.3 billion (US$ 362 million). The first section opened in 2000, and the entire route was completed, opened to traffic and made fully operational from April, 2002. It has five illuminated, ventilated tunnels. These tunnels were built by the Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd.

  • National Highway No-4 is a major Indian National Highway that runs through the States of Uttar Pradesh (26 km), Rajasthan (32), Madhya Pradesh (712 km) and Maharashtra (391 km) in India. Shivpuri, Guna, Biaora, Maksi, Dewas, Indore & Julwania in Madhya Pradesh, and Dhule,  Nashik, Thane in Maharashtra are along the NH-3. NH-3 runs for a distance of 1161 km. It does not pass through Bhopal.



  • Indian Railway is largest in Asia and fourth largest in the world. Through National Highways are just 2% of the total length of Indian roadways, they cater to 40 to 45% of the total transport demand. Among the state Maharashtra has the highest density of surface road and National Highway No- 7 is the longest in the country connecting Varanasi to Kanyakumari.

  • NH-1 –        Delhi, Ambala, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Indo-Pak Border.

  • NH-2 –       Delhi, Mathura, Agra, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mohania, Barhi, Barthanam, Kolkata.

  • NH-4 –        Thane, Pune, Belgaum, Hubli, Bangalore, Ranipettai, Chennai.

  • NH-8 –        Delhi, Jaipur, Ajmer, Udaipur, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Mumbai.

  • Indian road network of 33 lakh km, is the second largest in the world. National Highways are important road system of the country which is constructed and maintained by Public Works Department (PWD) and national highways authority of India (NHAI). NH Network consists of 100475 km length which in only 2% of total length of roads in India. National Highways constitute only about 1.7% of the road network but carry about 40% of the total road traffic. India has more thatn 250 National Highways in which NH 7 is longest. It goes from Varanasi to Kanyakumari. NH 1 & NH 2 are collectively known as Grand Trunk Road. Maharashtra has highest density of surface road (2.45 lakh km) followed by Uttar Pradesh.

  • National Highway Number             Length (in km)

Agra-Mumbai                      3                         1161

Chennai                                4                         1235

Kolkata-Thane                     6                         1949

Pune-Machilipatnam           9                         841

  • National Waterway (NW 1) is expanded from Haldia to Allahabad. NH-50 is located between Nasik & Pune. Durgapur- Kolkata is interlinked with Express Highway-2. The Headquarter of South Central Railway is situated in Secunderabad.

  • Jawahar Tunnel or Banihal Tunnel is a road tunnel in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. It is maintained by Border Road Organisation (BRO).



Railways Transport

  • In the tenure of Lord Dalhousie, country’s first railway was built by the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR), opened on 16 April, 1853 between Bombay to Thane. The train travelled a distance of 34 km from Boribandar station (Mumbai) to Thane.

  • Indian Railway uses three types of gauges:

  1. Meter Gauge – The distance between two bars is 1 meter or 1000 mm.

  2. Broad Gauge – The distance between two bars is 1.676 meter or 1676 mm.

  3. Narrow Gauge – The distance between two bars is 610 mm.


  • After the observation of Indian railway map it is clear that the shortest rail route of Mumbai from Gorakhpur runs through Allahabad.

  • The headquarter of South-Eastern Railways is located in Kolkata while the headquarter of Eastern Coastal Railway is located in Bhubaneswar.

  • The headquarter of North-Western Railway is located in Jaipur.

  • Rail transport in Bihar started in the year 1860-62 when East India Company laid the main lines of Railway going from banks of the Ganges to Kolkata. Currently Indian Railway has been divided among 17 zones (Headquarters). Among these only one headquarter of Indian Railway in Bihar is East Central Railway located at Hajipur. Hajipur Headquarters started functioning since 1 October, 2002. Of the 17 railway zones in India, the lines of 5 Headquarter’s passing through Bihar are as follow:

  1. North East Railway

  2. Eastern Railway

  3. South-Eastern Railway

  4. North-Eastern Railway

  5. East Central Railway.

  • Sikkim is the only State and Andaman and Nicobar is only Union Territory where there are no Railway.

  • The headquarter of the North Central Railway is situated in Allahabad. The North Central Railway, in present form came into existence on 1 April, 2003. The headquarter of the North Railway Zone is located at New Delhi while the headquarter of the Western Central Railway zones is situated in Jabalpur.

  • Rail Coach Factory –        Kapurthala

Wheel and Axle Plant          –        Bangalore

Diesel Locomotive Works   –        Varanasi

Integral Coach Factory        –        Perambur

  • First CNG train was launched on Rewari-Rohtak section of Northern Zone. It is based on the dual fuel system- diesel and CNG. Introduction of CNG train will reduce greenhouse gas emission by Railways and also the consumption of diesel.

  • Gujarat is the first State where the Railway track was made on PPP (Public-Private-Partnership) model. The Gandhidham- Tura – Tekra rail line, built under PPP model was commissioned on 14 July, 2015. It was built by Kandla Port Trust.

  • The Konkan Railway beings from Roha Station of Maharashtra and ends at Mangaore, Karnataka passing through Madgaon, Goa. Currently, the 760.1 km route connects the entire Arabian Sea coastline featuring major States including Maharashtra, Goa & Karnataka. This rail does not run to Kolkata but provides an ease to move gateway from Kerala to Maharashtra, Karnataka & Goa which is beneficial for Kerala in all aspects.

  • In November, 2014 Meghalaya came on the country’s rail map, when PM Narendra Modi flagged off the first train from Mendipathar, Meghalaya to Guwahati. Prime Minister Narendra Modi flagged-offf the first train from Mendipathar, Meghalaya to Guwahati. He also unveiled the plaque for a new rail line from Bhairabi to Sairang. Now, except for Sikkim, the network of railway has expanded to all the states of India.

  • The Thiruvanathapuram Rajdhani Train (12431/32) covers the longest distance. It runs from Thiruvanathapuram Central to Hazari Nizamuddin which covers about 3149 km. Dibrugarh Town travels 2459 km , the Bengaluru Rajdhani Express covers 2365 km and the Chennai Rajdhani Express covers 2175 km.



  • Tunnels and their length –

Pir Panjal rail tunnel            –        11 km

Karbude rail tunnel              –        6.5 km

Nathuwadi rial tunnel          –        4.3 km

Berdewadi rail tunnel          –        4 km

  • The Mountain Railways of India are outstanding examples of hill railways. The Mountain Railway of India consists of three railways: the Darjeeling Himalayan  Railway located in the foothills of the Himalayas in West Bengal (Northeast India), the Nilgiri Mountain  Railways located in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu (South India) and the Kalka Shimla Railway located in the Himalayan foothills of Himachal Pradesh (Northeast India). The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway and the Kalka- Shimla Railway have collectively been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999.





  • Kochi-Sea Port (Kerala) is a graceful natural harbour located at Malabar Coast which is used for the whole year.

  • Tides are helpful in navigation and fishing High tides enables big ships to enter or leave the harbour safely. Tides prevents situation in the harbours. Kandla and Diamond harbours are tidal ports.

  • Shipyards and dockyards are places where ships are required and built. Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) is one of the major shipbuilding and maintenance facilities in India. This shipyard was incorporated on 29 March, 1972 as a company fully owned by the Government. It started commercial production in 1976.

  • Ports State

Kolkata              West Bengal

Paradeep            Odisha

Kochi                 Kerla

Kandla                Gujarat

  • Kandla port is located in the Kandla Creek and is 90 km from the mouth of the Gulf of Kutchh. It is a protected natural harbour.

  • Vishakhapatnam is the deepest land-locked and protected port. Chennai has an artificial harbour which is one of the oldest port of India and the second largest port in the country.

  • The Kandla Port is situated at the Gulf of Kutchh near the Gandhidham city in Kutchh district of Gujarat. The port of Kandla is the First Special Economic zone in India. Kandla Port is a hub for major imports like petroleum, chemical and iron and also exports like grains, salt and textiles. It is natural port and one of the highest earning ports of India.

  • Paradip port is situated 210 nautical miles south of Kolkata and 260 nautical miles North of Vishakhapatnam. It can accommodate vessels up to 60000 DWT. The port started as a mono commodity port intended mainly to cater to export of iron ore from Odisha to Japan. Paradip port is developed for reducing the traffic of Kolkata & Vishakhaptanam ports.

  • Marmugao Sea port is an important port of Goa located at the entrance of Zuari estuary and occupies fifth position in handling the traffic. This is a major export port from where 40% of the total iron is exported from the country.

  • Chennai is the oldest and biggest artificial harbour of India. It mainly handles petroleum products, fertilizers, iron-ore and general cargo.

  • Mundra port is in Gujarat.

  • Daman, Janjira and Ratangiri are located on the Western Coast of India while Karaikal is located on Eastern Coast of India.

  • With a coastline of more than 7500 km, India forms one of the biggest peninsula in the world. The Country has 12 major sea port and about 187 non-major sea ports and intermediate ports.

  • Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) port was created to relive pressure of Mumbai Port in 1989.

  • Alang is the town in Bhavnagar district in Gujarat. In the past three decades, its beaches have become largest ship breaking yard which recycle approximately half of the ship salvaged around the world.

  • Chabahar is a city in Sistan and Balochistan province of Iran. Chabahar is a free port on the coast of Gulf of Oman. India signed bilateral agreement for the development of Chabahar port in May, 2015. The port opened new strategic transit route between India, Iran and Afghanistan that by passed Pakistan. Earlier India was depend on Pakistan to reach central Asia and Afghanistan.



  • Raja Sansi International Airport (Sri Guru Ram Das Ji International Airport) named after Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh Guru and the founder of Amritsar city, is an International Airport of the city of Amritsar, India. It is located on the Amritsar-Ajnala Road, near the village of Raja Sansi while Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is located in Hyderabad; Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur and Chennai International Airport is in Chennai.

  • Cochin Airport in India is the first to be owned by a public limited company. The facility was inaugurated by the then President of India. K.R. Narayanan on 20 May, 1999 and the first commercial service began on 10 June 1999. Located at Nedumbassery, about 26 km North-East of Kochi (Commercial capital of Kerala) it is the busiest and largest airport in the State of Kerala.

  • Shipyard States

Garden Reach                      West Bengal

Hindustan Shipyard             Andhra Pradesh

Mazgaon Docks                   Maharashtra

Cochin Shipyard                  Kerala

  • The open sea port is a place in the sea where ships coast in open sea. In India, Chennai is the open sea port where Quays are made parallel to the coast.

  • The National Inland Navigation Institute (NINI) has been set up by Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) at Patna, Bihar in February 2004.

  • Mumbai Port is a Natural deep-water harbour and biggest port which lies on the west coast of India. This port has played a significant role in Industrial Development of India.

  • The West Coast Canal or Kerla coastal Canal from Kottapuram to Kollam was declared as National Waterway by (Kollam-Kottapuram stretch of West coast canal and champakara and Udyogmadal Canal) Act, 1992. Its navigable length is 205 km.

  • Twelfth major port coal operator in India is built in Ennore near Chennai. Ennore is the first incorporated port of the country.



  • Sea Port State

Alleppey            Kerala

Ennore               Tamil Nadu

Paradip               Odisha

Kakinada            Andhra Pradesh

  • India has five Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) terminals which are –

  1. Dahej (Gujarat)

  2. Hazira (Gujarat)

  3. Kochi (Kerala)

  4. Dabhol (Maharashtra)

  5. Paradip (Odisha)

  • Kanyakumari is located at the southernmost tip of India where the three water bodies, Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean meet. Kanyakumari is famous for its spectacular sunrise and sunset. Kanyakumari is located in Tamil Nadu.

Tourist Place

  • Important Tourists Place –

Udvada              –        Udvada is a town in Gujarat, renowned for its Zoroastrian Fire Temple.

Point Calimere-         Point Calimere, also called Cape Calimere is located in the Nagapattinam district of the State of Tamil Nadu, India. It is the apex of the Coromandel Coast.

Gulmarg           –        Gulmarg is a hill station in Jammu and Kashmir.

Kasauli              –        Kasauli is a town, located in Solan district Himachal Pradesh.

Chakrata           –        Chakrata is a cantonment town in Dehradun district in the State of Uttarakhand. Tiger fall is one of the highest direct Water fall in Uttarakhand.

Haflong             –        Halflong is a town and headquarters of Dima Hasao in the State of Assam. It is the only hill station in Assam.

Kalimpong        –        Kalimpong is a hill station Darjeeling district, West Bengal.

Kurfi                 –        Kurfi is a small hill station in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh. It is located 16 km from the State capital Shimla. It has an average elevation of 2510 meters.



  • Kyelang is a tourist site of Himachal Pradesh; Auli is located in Uttarakhand; Chikmangalur in Karnataka and Ooty is a tourist site of Tamil Nadu.

  • Jaipur popularly known as the “Pink City” and “Paris of India” is the capital of Rajasthan.

  • Udaipur is known as the City of Lakes not Jaisalmer.

  • South Indian temple of Lord Ranganath (also known as lord Venkateswara) is located on Biligiriranga hills situated in South-eastern Karnataka. The Ranganatha deity at this temple is possibly the only standing form of Ranganatha.

  • To promote tourism in India, the Ministry of Tourism has adopted concept of “Incredible India” to popularize India.



  • Sabarimala Temple, dedicated to Lord Ayyappa is the most famous and prominent among all the Sastha temples in Kerala. The temple is situated on a hilltop (about 3000 feet above sea level) in Pothanamthitta district of Kerala. It serves as a great bridge between the followers of Shaiva and Vaishnav sects.

  • A ghost town is a town that has been abandoned for member of reason-natural calamity, drought, rumors etc.

  • Srisailam is in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. The Shrine of Lord Mallikarjuna and Bramaramba Ammavaru is picturesquely situated on flat top Nallamalai Hill. It comes in 12 jyotirlings of Lord Shiva. Omkareswar is also one on 12 Jyotirlings of Lord Shiva in Khandwa district of Madhya Pradesh on an island called Mandhata in the Narmada River. Puskhar is also a religious place in Ajmer district on Aravalli Hills where only temple of Lord Brahma is situated.


  • Biogas refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw material such as agriculture waste, manure, sewage, green waste etc. It provides both power and manures.

  • The Indian Postal Department started the Speed post Service on 1 August 1986. This Service provides time-bound and express delivery of letters and parcels between specified stations in India. If the speed post is not delivered within time then the postal department refunds postal charges to the customers.

  • India was the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers in the world. India was similarly the second largest producer of Cotton. India is the third largest producer of coal after China and the USA. India is presently the second largest producer and consumer of nitrogenous fertilizer and third largest producer of steel.

  • Alibag –        is famous for Holiday resort.

Balapur    –        Petro Chemical complex

Nhava  Sheva    Fully mechanized port

Ratnagiri           Fishing Centre

  • Locusts enter Indian from Pakistan. In order to control locusts, 5 circle offices and 23 locust outpost has been established. These outposts perform the task of surveillance and control of locusts in the 2 lakh sq meter desert area of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana.

  • Sriharikota –        Andhra Pradesh

Thumba                                –        Kerala

Bhabha Atomic Research    –        Maharashtra Centre

Pokhran                                –        Rajasthan

  • Thumba is a suburb of Thiruvanathapuram city, capital of Kerala. Under the leadership of Dr. Vikram A Sarabai, the Indian National Committee on Space Research (INCOSPAR) decided to established Thumba Equatorial Rocket launch station (TERLS) at Thumba in 1962. Thumba was a unique choice because of its proximity to the geomagnetic equator.

  • Rameshwaram is situated in Madurai district of Tamil Nadu, Dwarka is situated Gujarat; Sarnath is situated in Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh; Mahakal Temple is situated in Ujjain district of Madhya Pradesh.



  • The Himalayan Mountaineering Institute (HMI) is located at Darjeeling (West Bengl).

  • Indira Gandhi Agriculture University (IGAU) is an agriculture University located in Raipur, Chhattigarh.

  • In 1850, experimental Electric Telegraph started for the first time in India between Calcutta (Kolkata) and Diamond Harbour. In early 1881, Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England opened telephone exchange at Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay (Mumbai), Madras (Chennai) and Ahmedabad. On 28th January 1882 the first formal telephone service was established.

  • M.S. Swaminathan, known as the “Father of Green Revolution” is related to agriculture.

  • Diamond Harbour and Salt Lake city is situated in Kolkata (West Bengal).

  • Dindigul is a district of Tamil Nadu. Haider Ali established a modern arsenal in Dindigul with the help of France.

  • Kolkata metro is the first underground metro railway in India. Ratangiri is famous for mangoes, Aligarh is famous for locks and Dehradun is famous for rice.

  • Aish Bagh Statdium –        Bhopal

Brabourne Stadium     –        Mumbai

Green Park                  –        Kanpur

Eden Gardens              –        Kolkata











General Concept

  • The “Big Bang Theory” is related to the origin of the Universe, Milky Way and Solar system. This theory was propounded by Georges Lamaitre (1894-96). Later in 1967, Robert Wagoner explained this theory. According to this theory, whole universe was concentrated on a hot and dense point some 15 billion years ago. Due to high concentration, there was a sudden explosion which was termed as Big-Bang.

  • According to the theory propounded by Georges Lamaitre, 15 billion years ago the total cosmic substance was in the form of dense mass which spread to form a number galaxy. Infinite group of these swirling galaxies are visible to us collectively in the form of Universe. Every Galaxy is estimated to contain 100 billion stars. The galaxy in which our solar system is situated is known as “Milky-Way”. There are various shape of galaxies, for example elliptical, spiral, irregular etc. Spitzer space telescope in 2005, produced clear proof against the preconception about the shape of Milky Way and made it clear that the shape of our Milky Way is Barred spiral.

  • Sun is one of the billion stars of our galaxy (Milky Way). Every star of the galaxy revolves around the galactic centre and the time taken by a star in revolving around this centre depends upon the distance between the galactic centre and the star. Sun is relatively far from the centre, so it takes more time to revolve around. Sun is at a 7.9 KPC or 30 thousand light years away from the centre and with a speed of 220 km/sec, it takes 22.5 to 25 crore years, to revolve around the centre of the Milky Way galaxy. This period is called “Cosmic Year or Galactic Year”.

  • The colour of a star indicates it’s temperature. The temperature of stars of different colours is as follows –

Colours             Temperature range

Blue                   –        50,000-28,000 K

Blue-White        –        28,000-10,000 K

White                 –        10,000-7500 K

White Yellow    –        7500-6000 K

Yellow               –        6000-4900 K

Orange               –        4900-3500 K

Red                     –        3500-2000 K

  • Small Stars Like Sun – If after Novae explosion the remaining Mass is within 1.44 times of solar masses, the star will become white dwarf and shall reach to death in the form Black dwarf.

  • Stars of Medium Size – If after Supernovae explosion the remaining mass of star is within the limit of 1.44 times to 3 times of solar masses it will become Neutron Star.

  • Stars of Large Size –        If after Supernovae explosion the remaining mass is more than 3 times of the Solar masses, star will become Black hole.

  • Subhramanyam Chandra Sekhar was a great scientist and Noble Prize winner who first gave details on Black Hole theory. He is known for Chandrashekhar limit which showed that there is a maximum mass which is supported against gravity by pressure made up of electrons and atomic nuclei (The value of this limit is about 1.44 times of solar Mass) which was derived by Chandrashekhar in 1930. He was awarded Noble Prize jointly with W.A. Fowla in Physics in 1983.

  • Information about “Black Hole” was first presented by Dr. S. Chandrashekhar. On 11 January, 1935 he presented a research paper in Royal Astronomical society of London and propounded that a white dwarf star turns into a Black Hole after attaining certain mass. He was jointly awarded Nobel Prize for Physician in 1983 with W.A. Fowler.



  • According to International Astronomical Union there are 88 constellations in the sky. Most of these imaginary patterns can be seen from the southern hemisphere. It will take a full year to get a glimpse of all of the constellations.

  • Brittle stars are echinoderms in the class ophiuroidea closely related to starfish. These are aquatic creatures and crawl on the sea surface, while Pulsar is celestial body emitting very regular pulses of radio waves. Quasar is and astronomical object of very high luminasity, found in the centres of some galaxies at distance of billion of light-years. Black hole is also a cosmic body of extremely intense gravity from which nothing, even light cannot escape and formed by death of massive star.

  • Due to absence of atmosphere in space, the sky appears black and stars do not twinkle. Twinkling of stars is caused by the passing of light through different layers of turbulent atmosphere similarly it is due to atmosphere that light scatters to let us see the blue sky.

  • Pulsar, Black hole and Quasar are found in space while Brittle Star are echinoderms closely related to starfish. They crawl across the sea floor using their flexible arms for locomotion.

  • Constellation is a group of stars forming a recognizable pattern. It is traditionally named after its apparent form or identified with a mythological figure.

  • Betelgeuse is second-brightest star in the Constellation of orion. It is at a distance of 427 light year from the Earth. It was first seen by Sir John Herschel in 1836, but in 1995, Hubble Space Telescope captured its images. It was the second star after Sun, whose image had seen captured.

  • Stars move parallel to celestial equator around North and South celestial poles. Celestial North and South poles are straight overhead to Geographical North and South Poles and celestial Equator is almost at overhead to geographical Equator and at 900 to Poles. It creates occlusion from the point of East and West at Horizon. The degrees of celestial poles is equal in number to latitude of Equator for horizon. If an observer see the stars perpendicular to the horizon then he is located at the equator.

  • Byte is a group of binary digits or bits operated on as a unit in computer terminology.

  • Saptarishi is a group of stars that indicate the direction of pole.



Solar System

  • The solar system was formed around 4.568 billion years ago, solar system consists Sun (star), cosmic dust or masses attached with each other by gravitational force, planets, dwarf Planets, natural planetoid, asteroids, comets, meteoroid and cosmic dust.

  • Nicolaus Copernicus was an astronomer, scientist, mathematician of Poland. In 1514, Copernicus propounded the Heliocentric Theory of the solar system in his work “Commen Tariolus” (in latin small commentary). Notably Indian astronomes Varahmihira propounded the same theory around a thousand year before Copernicus is sixth century. He mentioned that the moon revolves around the earth and the Earth Rotate around the sun.

  • The average density of Earth is highest among all the other eight planets of our Solar System. It is 5.515 gm/cm3. The density of other planets is as follows (Unit-gm/cm3) Mercury (5.50), Venus (5.27), Mars (3.95), Jupiter (1.33), Saturn (0.69) Uranus (1.70), Neptune (1.60). The largest constituent element of earth is Iron (35%). Oxygen (30%) is the second and Silica (15%) is the third largest element in the composition of Earth. The Sun comparises of 99.8% mass of the solar system. The diameter of the Sun is about 109 times of the Earth’s diameter.

  • According to old recognition, there are total 9 planets, which are in increasing order of distance from Sun, as follows –

  1. Mercury –        9 million km

  2. Venus –        2 million km

  3. Earth –        6 million km

  4. Mars –        9 million km

  5. Jupiter –        3 million km

  6. Saturn –        0 million km

  7. Uranus –        0 million km

  8. Neptune –        1 million km

  9. Pluto –        0 million km

Note: In the 26th meeting of International Astronomical Union held at Prague in 2006 an official definition of planet was given and a resolution was  passed by which Pluto has been removed from the group of 9 Planets and now it is a dwarf planet. Hence total number of planets is 8 now.



  • Planets are non-luminous body but they shine because they reflect the light of the Sun.

Special Characteristics

Name of Planets

Smallest planet of the

Pluto (After it was removed from the group of planets Mercury is the smallest)

Largest planet of the solar system


Planet second to the Sun in the solar system


Planet nearest to the Sun



  • Size of planets in decreasing order is as follow: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury.

  • Hydrogen, Helium and Methane gages are present on Jupiter, Saturn and Mars.

  • Mercury, Venus and Saturn are the planets of solar system, while Florida is a place in America for launching space-crafts.

  • In Astronomy, the circumstellar habitual zone is called “Goldilock Zone”. It refers to the habitable zone around a star where the temperature is just right- not too hot and not too cold-for liquid water to exist on a planet. Earth is the only planet inhabiting like in the entire solar system. It is the only planet situated in the Goldilocks zone of the solar system.

  • Uranus is a planet, Moon is a satellite (Natural), Halley is a comet and Mariner is planetoid or artificial satellite.


  • A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon falls between Earth and the Sun, and the Moon casts a shadow over the Earth. A solar Eclipse can only take place at the phase of New Moon (Amavasya), when it passes directly between the Sun and the Earth and its shadow falls upon the Earth surface.

  • The temperature of centre of Sun is very High (nearly 150000000 C) and because of such a high temperature all the substance present at the Centre of the Sun are in the form of Gas and Plasma. Plasma is the fourth state of a matter.

  • Nuclear reaction may be divided into two categories namely, Nuclear Fusion and Nuclear Fission. In Nuclear Fission, one heavy nucleous divides into two or more nuclei while in Fusion process, two or more small nuclei combine together to form a heavy nuclei. Energy, Heat and light released by stars is due to the nuclear fusion.

  • The diamond-ring effect occurs at the beginning and end of totality during a total solar eclipse. As the last bits of sunlight pass through the valley on the moon’s limb and the faint corona around the sun is just becoming visible, it looks like a ring with glittering diamond on it. Notably, a total solar eclipse cannot last for more than 8 minutes.

  • Solar eclipse occurs when Moon comes between Earth and Sun. In this situation, the part of earth which is towards the Sun receives the shadow of Moon and also the Moon’s shadow falling on the Earth is smaller than the cross-section of the Earth. This is the reason that the total or full Solar eclipse in not visible on every part of the Earth together, but visible only to limited portion of the Earth.

  • According to NASA, size of the Sun is 109.2 times the diameter of Earth. The diameter of Sun is 1392000 km while the equatorial diameter of the earth is 12756 km.

  • The Sun’s halo is a circle which appears around Sun. Whenever Sun rays pass through the ice crystal present at the upper level of cirrus clouds, Sun’s halo become visible due to refraction of rays.




  • The closer a planet is to the Sun, the stronger the Sun’s gravitational pull on it. Thus the planet moves faster.

  • Planet Mercury takes the least time to complete one rotation around the Sun. The time taken by all eight planets to complete one rotation around the Sun is as follows –

Mercury             –        87.96 Days

Venus                 –        224.68 Days

Earth                  –        365.26 Days

Mars                   –        686.98 Days

Jupiter                –        11.862 Years

Saturn                 –        29.456 Years

Uranus               –        84.07 Years

Neptune              –        164.81 Years


  • There are only two planet in our solar system having no natural satellite which are: –

  1. Mercury

  2. Venus

  • The planet having satellite are as follows –

Earth         –        1

Mars          –        2

Jupiter       –        67

Saturn        –        62

Uranus      –        27

Neptune     –        14



  • The term albedo is commonly used to determine the brightness of planet. Planet Mercury receive greater sunlight in comparison to Earth but its albedo is less than that of Earth. The albedo of Mercury is 0.138 while of Earth, it is 0.367.


  • Average temperature of all Planet in our Solar System is as follows –

Mercury    –        452 K (Day+3500 C, Night – 1700 C)

Venus        –        726 K        = 4750 C

Earth         –        260-310 K = 150 c

Mars          –        150-310 K = (-220 C)

Jupiter       –        120 K        = (-1230 C)

Saturn        –        88 K          = (-1800 C)

Uranus      –        59 K          = (-2180 C)

Neptune     –        48 K          = (-2280 C)



  • Venus is known as the Evening Star and also as the Morning Star while Mars is called the Red Planet, and Saturn is one which has rings known as Saturn’s Rings. Venus is also called “twin sister” of earth.

  • There is evidence of atmosphere at Venus. 90% of its atmosphere is up to height of 1 km. The atmosphere of Venus mainly contains Carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition to this, the surface temperature of Venus is more than 4000


  • Aristotle (384-322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist. In chapter- 14, Volume-2 (Pages- 297-98) of his book “On the Heavens” he described Earth as a spherical body. This book translated into English by J.L. Stock. The Geographer and Philosopher Ptolemy belonged to the 1st century, Strabo to the 2nd century and Copernicus to the 15th Thus Aristotle was the first philosopher who argued that the Earth is spherical in shape.

  • The life of on Earth is possible due to ecology present on it. Earth is known as Green Planet for the presence of ecology.

  • The equatorial diameter of Earth is 12756 km. and polar diameter is 12714 km.

  • The centrifugal force generated by the Earth’s axis rotation is maximum at equator. As the result of this force the weight of any object is minimum at Equator and maximum at poles and also increases towards high latitude.

  • The shape of Earth is nearest to oblate spheroid. This shape is also known as Geoid and Earth is not perfectly spherical in shape.

  • Like the fluid core of the Earth, Moon too has a fluid core.

  • Oxygen is the chemical element found in abundance in the Earth’s crust. The percentage of various chemical elements in Earth’s crust is as follows –


Element                      Percentage

Oxygen (O)        –        46.71

Silicon (Si)         –        27.69

Aluminium (Al) –        8.07

Iron (Fe)             –        5.05

Calcium (Ca)     –        3.65

Sodium (Na)      –        2.75

Potassium (K)    –        2.58

Magnesium (Mg)        2.08

  • Radiation from Sun which is popularly known as Sunlight, is a mixture of electromagnetic waves. Sunlight takes an average of 8 minutes and 17 seconds to travel from the Sun to the Earth. These electromagnetic energy waves travel with a speed of 186000 miles/sec.

  • The list of planets in increasing order of distance from Earth is –

Venus                 –        41.4 million km

Mars                   –        78.3 million km

Mercury             –        91.7 million km

Jupiter                –        628.7 million km

Saturn                 –        1277.4 million km

Uranus               –        1634.4 million km

Neptune              –        4347.5 million km

  • Earth revolve around the Sun with an average speed (orbital Velocity) of 29.8 km/second (30 km/sec). The orbital velocity in 29.km/sec. This speed is comparative to the speed of light. The orbital Velocity of other planets is as follows –

  1. Mercury –        9 km/sec

  2. Venus –        35 km/sec

  3. Earth –        8 km/sec

  4. Mars –        1 km/sec

  5. Jupiter –        1 km/sec

  6. Saturn –        6 km/sec

  7. Uranus –        9 km/sec

  8. Neptune –        4 km/sec

  • The Earth rotates about an imaginary line that passes through the North and South poles of the planet. This line is called axis of the rotation. The Earth axis of rotation is always inclined at an angle of 23.50 from the elliptic axis.

  • Earth’s equatorial perimeter is about 40075 km. This distance is covered by Earth in 24 hour and this indicates that cruising speed of Earth on its axis per hour is 40075 km/24 hour = 1670 km/hour (approx). According to this calculation the cruising speed per minute is = 1670 km/60 min = 27.83 km/min.

  • The Earth experiences day and night as result of Earth rotation on its axis. Earth takes around 25 hour to complete one rotation. When a place on Earth faces Sun it has Day time, when it faces away from Sun it has night.

  • The sunrays fall perpendicular at Equator twice in a year (on 21 March and on 23 September). On these dates the duration of day and night becomes equal i.e. 12-12 hour, in both of the hemisphere.

  • Earth Day is celebrated on 2nd April every year to mark the birth Anniversary of Modern Environment movement in 1970. It was first time celebrated in the year 1970.

  • There is an outer core and inner core below the mantle in the structure of our Earth. The outer core is about 2260 km thick, and mostly composed of liquid iron and nickel. The Inner core is hot dense ball of (mostly) Iron. It has a radius of about 1220 km and temperature about 52000

  • The sunrays fall perpendicular at Equator twice in a year (on 21 March and on 23 September). On these dates the duration of day and night becomes equal i.e. 12-12 hour, in both of the hemisphere.



  • Interior of the Earth

  1. Crust

  • Uppermost layers

  • Thinnest of all layers

  • About 35km→ continental masses 5km→ ocean floors

  • Minerals:

  • Silica and Alumina on continental mass (Sial)

  • Silica and Magnesium on oceanic crust (Sima)

  1. Mantle

  • Just beneath crust

  • Extends upto depth of 2900km below crust.

  1. Inner most Layer – Core

  • Radius: About 3500km

  • Mode of : Nickel and Iron (Nife)

  • Very high temp and pressure.

Note –

  • Crust forms: Only  5% Volume of earth,

  • Mantle→ 16%

  • Core → 83%




  • The duration of day on Earth is 23 hours, 56 minutes 23 second and tilt of its axis is 23027’. The Planet Mars has nearly the same value as of Earth for it day duration is 24 hours, 37 minute 23 second and Mars tilt of axis is 23059”. The duration of day and tilt of axis of other planet is as follow:-

Uranus     –        duration of its day – 11 hours tilt of its axis- 8205”

Neptune    –        duration of its day – 16 hour tilt of its axis- 28048”

Saturn      –        duration of its day- 10 hours 40 minute tilt of its axis – 26044”

  • Phoenix Mars Lander was launched on 4 August, 2007 and landed on 25 May, 2008 at North Pole on Mars. On 11 November, 2008 the mission officially ended. Phoenix had given the information about the presence of ice on the Mars.

  • Europa is one the moons of Jupiter. Voyagers mission was launched by Europa to research whether life is possible of it.  Europa is frozen and covered with a layer of ice. It’s surface seems like the frozen Ocean on Earth. Depth of these frozen ocean are approx 50 km. If  it is true, the Europa will be a place in solar system besides Earth, where such amount of water is available.

  • In beginning, Mars was treated equivalent to Earth because of its atmosphere composition. In Mars atmosphere, it has 95.3%, Carbon dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon, 0.15% Oxygen and 0.03% water. Mars polar ice caps and frozen water is most relevant for the presence of life on Mars. The average temperature of Mars (150-310K) is quite similar to Earth (260-310 K).

  • The time taken by any planet to orbit around Sun depends on the distance between Sun and the planet. The distance between Sun and Mars is 227940000 km, while the Earth is at distance of 149600000 km, from Sun and orbital period of Earth is 356.256 days and that of Mars is 686.98 days.


  • Jupiter is the largest planet of the solar system. The four largest moons (LO, Europa, Callisto, Ganymede) are known as Galilean moons as these were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610.

  • Planets diameters –

Jupiter      –        Diameter 142, 796 km

Saturn      –        Diameter 120, 660 km

Uranus     –        Diameter 51,118 km

Neptune    –        Diameter 48, 600 km

Earth        –        Diameter 12,756 km

Venus       –        Diameter 12,104 km

Mars         –        Diameter 6,787 km

Mercury   –        Diameter 4878 km



  • Name of Planet Total Moon

Mercury                      0

Venus                          0

Earth                           1

Mars                            2

Jupiter                         67

Saturn                          62

Uranus                        27

Neptune                       14

  • The heaviest planet of our Solar System is Jupiter. It’s diameter is 142800 km and average density is 1.33 gm/cm3. It is also notable that Jupiter is the planet of Solar system which rotates on its axis with maximum speed.

  • Jupiter is the largest planet of our Solar System and also has maximum number of natural satellites or moons. At present total 67 moons or satellite of Jupiter have been discovered.


  • Saturn takes 29.456 years to complete one revolution around the Sun.

  • On October 15, 1997 the Cassini spacecraft was launched to the Saturn and began its revolution around this planet in June 2004.

  • Titan is the largest moon (satellite) of Saturn. Diameter of Titan is 5150 km.

Uranus, Neptune and Pluto

  • Uranus’s period of revolution around the Sun is 84.07 years. A day on Uranus is approximately 17 hours and 9 minutes.

  • The year is largest on Pluto because it is farthest among the other celestial objects from the Sun. Pluto takes the period of 247.7 earth year to complete one revolution around the Sun.

  • Neptune takes the longest period to makes a revolution around the Sun. As we know that planet Pluto has been removed from the category of planets since 2006. Now starting from the Mercury up to Neptune only 8 planets come into the category of true planets.

  • Generally Pluto is considered as the farthest planet from the Sun. As its orbit lies inside the orbit of Neptune, sometimes Neptune becomes the farthest planet from Sun. Neptune was farthest since 1979 to 1999 but from 11th February, 1999. Pluto will be the farthest planet for next 228 years. Hence it can be seen that sometime Pluto and sometime Neptune becomes the furthest planet from Sun. As in 2006, Pluto was declared a dwarf planet.

  • Pluto is a dwarf planet of the Solar System, it has five satellites (moons). According to the distance from the Pluto (from inner to outer side) their names are Charon, Styn, Nix, Kerbers and Hydra. Charon is biggest satellite. There are approximately 67 known satellites of Jupiter and till now there is no information about existence of any satellite of Venus and Mercury.



The Moon

  • On 20th July 1969 for the first time, man landed on Moon. Three Astronauts sent with Apollo-11 mission to the moon were Neil Armstrong, Michel Collins and Advin Aldrin. Among these astronauts only Neil Armstrong and Advin Aldrin walked on the surface of the moon. On 16 July 1969, initiating its flight from Florida (USA) Apollo-11 landed on the “Sea of Tranquility” upon the Moon on 20 July 1969. On 21 July 1969 it started return journey from the Moon towards the Earth and finally landed in Pacific Ocean on 24 July, 1969.

  • Area of large black patch as seen from the Earth is called Lunar Mare of the “Sea of Tranquility” which is found on the large area of the Moon where spacecraft Apollo-11 landed in 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first person to touch the surface of the Moon, followed by Advin Aldrin.

  • Orbit of the Moon around the Earth is elliptical and titled and therefore we can see only 59% of the Moon’s surface at a time. Moon takes 27 days, 7 hour, 43 minutes to rotate on its axis. This is also the time of one revolution of the Moon around the Earth. This is the reason why we see always the same face of the Moon.

  • SELENE also known as “Kaguya” is an orbiter spacecraft sent to the orbit of the moon by Japan on 14 September, 2007. It revolved around the moon for 1 year 8 months successfully and after that it fell upon the surface of the Moon at Gill crater voluntarily.

  • The Moon is the only satellite of the Earth. The Uranus is a planet, which in terms of distance with the Sun is at 7th place, Mariner-9 is an artificial spacecraft launched to explore the planet Mars, on 30 May 1971 by NASA of USA. Halley is a comet which was seen from the Earth in 1835, 1910, 1984 and 1985.

  • Average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384400 km. Minimum distance between the Moon and the Earth is 363300 km and maximum distance is 405500 km while average distance is 384400 km.

  • A blue moon is a phenomenon involving appearance of an additional full moon within a given period. Since full moon occurs roughly after every 29.5 days. Therefore after every 2.7154 year, an additional duration of 29.5 days accumulates in the calendar giving way to an additional full moon. It is called blue moon.

  • When the Moon size is half of the full Moon, the angle between the Sun, the earth and the Moon is 900.

  • For Communication of sound waves a material medium is needed and the atmosphere is such a medium. At the moon the atmosphere is absent. That is only two people cannot listen to each other on the Moon.

  • The main condition responsible for greater brightness of the moon on the full moon day of 22nd December 99 was perigee. Perigee is the closest point to the Earth.

  • When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun, the Moon gets into the dark due to obstruction if light rays coming from the Sun by the Earth. Type of the Lunar eclipse and its length depends upon the relative position of the Moon and its orbital path. Lunar eclipse only occurs on the full moon day.



  • The group of small pieces of rock revolving around the Sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter are called asteroid Asteroids vary in size and some could be of 1000 km diameter. According to position of these asteroids in space these are categorized in the following way –

  1. Main Belt – In this belt, there are some prominent asteroids named as Hungarias, Floras, Phocaca, Karonis

  2. Near Earth Asteroids (NEAS) – Among these Atesn, Apollos and Amors are prominent one.

  3. Trojans – Near the Lagrange point at the planet Jupiter hundreds of asteroids have been recognized.

  • Asteroids are generally considered to be made up of metals and rocky material, while Comets are made up of ice, dust and rocky material. Asteroids are found much closer to the Sun. Comets are formed farther from the Sun in “Kuiper Belt” and Oort cloud. Comets sprout tails when they approach towards the Sun. Asteroids typically remain much more solid and self contained even when near the sun.



Comets and Meteor

  • In the solar system, comets remain frozen and are extremely difficult or impossible to detect from Earth due to their small size. As a comet approaches the inner solar system, solar radiation causes of the volatile material within the comet to vaporize the steam out the nucleus, carrying dust away with them. The steams of dust and gas thus released from a huge, extremely tenuous atmosphere around the comet called Comet and the Force exerted on the Coma by the Sun’s radiation pressure causes an enormous tail to form, which points away from the Sun.

  • Hale-Bopp is a long period comet that was discovered in 1995. It was shining near the orbit of Jupiter around 23 July, 1995. This comet was discovered by Alan Hale (New Maxico) and Thomas Bopp (Arizona) so it was named by joining the last names of the two astronomers. This comet looked 1000 times brighter than that of Halley Comet although distance of both were nearly the same.

  • Comet Shoemaker-Levy-9 was discovered on 24th March 1993 when astronomers Carolyn Shoemaker and David Levy captured its glimpse in their Schmidt telescope. During 16-22 July, 1994 it collided with the massive planet Jupiter. In this collision no harm was done to the Jupiter. It was first event of collision of two components of the solar system seen from the Earth.

  • A meteor is a bright streak of light in the sky also called a shooting star or a falling star but actually it is not a star but just a small piece of rocks and minerals. It starts glowing because when it enters into the Earth’s atmosphere with a very high velocity it burns due to heat caused by air friction. Most of the meteors burn to ashes before reaching upon the surface of the Earth.





  • Latitudes in the Greek language are generally denoted by the letter f. It shows the places towards North and South of Equator. 900 Northern latitude is called North Pole while 900 Southern latitude is called South Pole which are just points not the circle, but other latitudes on both sides of Equator are imaginary circles. East and West of Prime Meridian are 3600.

  • Great circle is that line which divides a Sphere into two hemisphere. Upon the Earth all the meridians longitudes and the Equator are great circles. Except equator no other latitude is a great circle because they are similar in comparison to the Equator.

  • The point at which Equator (00 latitude) and the Prime Meridian (00 longitude) interests has no real significance but it is the Gulf of Guinea in the atlantic Ocean.

  • As the plane moves towards opposite hemisphere of the Earth, it will move in the same hemisphere but in the West line of longitude opposite to line of longitude 500 E will be 500 W and latitude will remain same as 300 So the landing place just opposite to start point will have the parameters of 300 Northern latitude, 500 western longitude.

  • On the globe the Northernmost and Southernmost position of a place, city and the country is decided by latitudes. The more the angle of latitude of a places in southern or northern hemisphere will be the more Southernmost or Northernmost point, Position of the following cities are –

Cities                          Latitude

Beijing (China)           39055’ N

New Delhi (India)      28038’N
New York (USA)       40045’ N

Rome (Italy)               41054’ N

  • By measuring angle of pole star from our place, we scan know the latitude of our place.



Heat Zones of the Earth

  1. Torrid Zone→ Mid – day sun exactly overheat at least once between Tropic of cancer and Capricorn, area-receives maximum heat.

  2. Temperate Zone→ Between Tropics of cancer and Capricorn and arctic and Antarctic circles respective-moderate temperature angle of sun’s rays decreases towards poles.

  3. Frigid Zones→ Very cold, between arctic and North Pole, Antarctic and Southern pole, sun does not raise much above horizon.

Measuring time by   Movement of Sun     

By shadow cast by sun          Noon →shortest Sunrise and sunset → longest

  • Axis → angle of 661/2degree with its orbital plane

Spherical shape→ only half of earth gets light from sun at a time

  • Circle of illumination→Circle that divides day from night on globe. Does not coincide with axis

  • Rotation→movement on its axis

  • Revolution→ movement around sun in fixed path or orbit.

  • Earth takes 24 hours to complete one rotation. The period of rotation is known as earth day.

  • Revolution→3651/4 days


  1. Summer Solstice

  • Northern Hemisphere tilted towards sun.

  • Rays of sun directly of tropic of cancer.

  • Northern pole inclined towards sun and places beyond arctic circle→ continuous day light for 6 months

  • Northern Hemisphere→ Summer

 June 21→longest day and shortest night

  • Southern Hemisphere => Opposite→ winter

  1. Winter Solstice

  • December 22→ Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of sun as Southern pole is tilted towards sun.

  • Southern Hemisphere→ summer

  • Northern Hemisphere→ winter

  1. Equinox

  • March 21 and September 23rd

  • Direct rays of sun on equator,

  • Neither of poles tilted towards sun

  • Whole earth experience equal days and equal nights called equinox.

                * March 21st →  Spring: Northern Hemisphere Autumn: Southern   Hemisphere

               * September 23rd → Autumn: Northern Hemisphere Spring: Southern Hemisphere

               Days & nights => Due to rotation of earth.

           →Changes in Seasons =>

  • Revolution of earth

  • Inclination of earth’s axis in fixed position



  • Cairo (Egypt) is located at 3003’ N latitude and 31014’ E longitude. Time of Cairo is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich. Therefore its position approximately falls near the 300 East longitude. The Earth being spherical in shape rotates on its axis by 3600 in 24 hours. Therefore its movements for 1st of longitude takes the time of 4 minutes. So it can easily calculated that in 120 minutes (2 hours) angle for longitude will be 300.

  • When there is mid day at 82030’ E longitude then 6.30 in the morning means there is difference of 5:30 hrs in time. As in one hour; change in longitude is 150 therefore 82030’ difference in 5:30 hours is 82030’ – 82030’=00

  • Generally 10 longitude is equal to difference of 4 minutes. 900 longitude means 90×4=360 minutes or 6 hours.

  • The Prime Meridian is the Zero degree line of longitude that passes near London. The Prime Meridian was accepted as Zero degrees longitude at an International conference in 1884. It is also known as Greenwich meridian. Just opposite to 00 longitude there is an Imaginary line located at about 1800 E or Was International Date Line which forms great Circle with Prime meridian along the Globe.

  • Greenwich meantime (GMT) is calculated from Royal Greenwich Observatory (London) (at 00 meridian). Some other countries which are away from it also uses time of GMT as given here –

Iceland               –        Sierra-Leone

Ireland                –        Liberia

Portugal             –        Ivory Coast

Kannari Islands  –        Burkina-Faso

Mauritania         –        Tonga

Mali                   –        Ghana

Senegal              –        Guinea



  • The Equator usually refers to an imaginary line, on the Earth surface at equal distance from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The total length of the Equator is 40,075 km length (approximately 24,901 miles). 78.7% of the line passes through water while 21.3% passes through land.

  • Equator line passes through 13 countries which are as follows –

  1. Brazil

  2. Colombia

  3. Democratic Republic of the Congo

  4. Equator

  5. Gabon

  6. Indonesia

  7. Kenya

  8. Kiribati

  9. Republic of the Congo

  10. Sao Tome and Principle

  11. Somalia

  12. Uganda

  • Annual temperature difference at Equator is minimum throughout the year. Since sun rays fall perpendicular, there is little temperature fluctuation throughout the year. There is no winter season in equator region.

  • Colombo is situated at 6055’30” latitude, Jakarta at 6008’ South latitude, Manila at 14035’30” latitude and Singapore lies at 1018’30’’ latitude. Therefore, Singapore lies closest to the Equator (00latitude). Singapore is situated only at distance of 137 km from the Equator.

  • Equator, Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn all the three lines pass though the African Continent. Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass through the South American continent.



Tropic of Cancer

  • The winter solstice falls around 22 December when rays of the Sun fall perpendicular upon the Tropic of Capricorn because the Earth is titled at its axis by 23030’. Therefore when at the Tropic of Capricorn elevation of the sun is 900, elevation of the Sun at Tropic of Cancer will be 900-470=430 at the same time. Difference between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn is 23.5+23.5=470.

  • Tropic of Cancer passes through the following countries of the world-

United States (Hawalii)       –        Egypt

Mexico                                 –        Saudi Arabia

Bahamas                              –        United Arab Emirates

Mauritania                           –        Oman

Mali                                     –        India

Algeria                                 –        Bangaladesh

Niger                                    –        Myanmar

Chad                                     –        People’s Republic of China

Libya                                    –        Taiwan

Tropic of Capricorn

  • Tropic of Capricorn passes through the following countries of the world –

Brazil                 –        Australia

Paraguay            –        Medagascar

Argentina           –        Mozambique

Chile                  –        South Africa

French Polynesia (France)   Tonta

Botswana           –        Namibia

  • When sun shines vertically over Tropic of Capricorn, the north western part of India becomes colder than Arabian sea and high pressure develops over north west India.


  • Day and Night are of equal duration on the day of Equinox. Equinox literally means “equal day and equal night”. An equinox is an astronomical event in which Sun is vertically overhead of the equator, which occurs twice each year, i.e., 21st March and 23rd

  • Day and night are of equal duration of Equator (12 hours each). Duration of day and night varies in the direction of north or south to the equator. There is no winter season on equator. It only experienced wet and dry weather.

  • Two types of solstices occur in a year 1. Summer Solstice 2. Winter Solstice. The Sun reaches at tropic of Cancer in the month of June in Northern Hemisphere and the Summer solstice takes place and just opposite to it in Southern Hemisphere Winter Solstice takes place. At the time of Summer solstice longest day and shortest night occur in Northern Hemisphere, but in the Southern Hemisphere shortest day and largest night occur. At the same time there is no much difference in days and nights at the Equator.

  • The shortest day of the year in Northern Hemisphere occurs during Winter solstice on 21/22 December. Contrary to it on 20/21 June longest day occurs in Northern Hemisphere during the Summer solstice. Opposite to it, in Southern Hemisphere, shortest day occurs on 20/21 June and longest day on 21/22 December.

Origin of the Earth

  • James Jeans is related to the tidal hypothesis of the origin of Earth. F. Hoyal and Littleton presented Nova hypothesis and Otto Schmidt gave the hypothesis of gas and dust for the genesis of Earth. According to this hypothesis large quantities of gas and dust particles captured b y gravitational force of the sun formed the Earth.

  • Uranium dating method is used for determining the age of Earth.

Geological History

  • The Pleistocene Epoch was the time during which extensive ice sheets and other glaciers formed on the landmass. This time period has been informally referred to as the “Great Ice Age” and began about one million years ago or more.

  • Little Ice Age is period between 1650 A.D. to 1870 A.D. during which Europe and North America were subjected to much colder winter than during the 20th

  • The time of existence of dinosaurs is estimated 6 Crore 70 lakh yeas ago. It’s remainants were found at Rahioli in Kheda district of Gujarat and Barashimla hills of Jabalpur M.P.

  • Continents rest on massive slabs of rocks called tectonic plates. These plates are always moving and interacting in a process called Plate tectonic activity. Through these tectonic activities, continents shift position on Earth’s surface. By about 175 million year ago the Pangea (the Supercontinent) landmass began breaking up due to continent drift, theory. Slowly-slowly it separated in pieces and assumed their position as the continent we recognize today.

  • The first fossil evidence of existence of life on Earth dates back to Archean Age approx 3.5 billion ago.

  • According to book “Bhautik Bhugol Ka Swaroop” written by Savindra Singh, the continental drift and glacial cycle both the phenomenon have influenced the revolution of organisms.

  • In carboniferous period, the whole land mass on the Earth was unified and was named as Pangea. This Pangea Supercontinent was surrounded by a super ocean which was named “Panthalassa” by Wegener. Due to the process of continental drift, the Pangea splited into northern most and southern most supercontinent. The northernmost supercontinent was known as Gondwana land which split into South-America, Australia, Africa, Medagascar, Antarctica and Peninsular India.

  • Originally the huge landmass on earth was unified and known as “Pangea”. Pangea was a supercontinent.

  • The dynamic changes on the Earth’s surface are caused by endgenic forces. In general, the origin of endogenic force is due to thermal asymmetry in the inner part of the Earth and compression and expansion of rocks. In addition to these electro-magnetic radiation, gravitational force, rotation of Earth and its revolution functions are also liable for changes on the Earth’s surface.


  • Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of sediments. These sediment or debris accumulates in low laying areas like-lakes. Ocean is largely responsible for transporting sediment to locations where it accumulates. These sedimentary materials may be formed from eroded fragments of other or pre-existing rocks or even from the remains of plants or animals and fossils, most frequently found in sedimentary rocks, which comes in layers, called Strata.

  • The origin of igneous rocks is mainly related with the process of volcanic eruption. These types of rocks are formal by the cooling and solidification of material called Magma. Igneous rocks have both, crystalline and non-crystalline structure.

  • “Metamorphic” is a Greek word which mass means “changing form”. Metamorphic rock is a rock that has changed from one type of rock into another. As a result of intense heat from magma and pressure from tectonic shifting, these metamorphic rocks are produced from either Igneous rocks or Sedimentary rock.

  • Granite is an Igneous rock. The examples of Metamorphic rocks formed through Igneous rocks are as follows –

Granite      –        Gneiss

Basalt        –        Amphibalite

Basalt        –        Schist

  • Marble is an example of metamorphic rock formed by sedimentary rock. The other examples of Metamorphic rocks formed through Sedimentary rock are as follows –

Shale                           –        Slate

Limestone                   –        Marble

Chalk and dolomite    –        Marble

Sandstone                    –        Quartzite


  • The most abundant volcanic gas is water vapour (H2O). Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Sulphur dioxide (SO2) are two other important gases present in volcanic eruption. A significant amount of Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), Hydrogen (H2), Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrogen chloride (HCL), Hydrogen fluoride (HF) and Helium (He) gas is also found in it.

  • Height of the Mountain Cotopaxi is 5911 m. The height of Mount Pinatubo is (1460 m) and Mount Kilimanjaro (5895 m). There is no volcanic mountain with the name of Mount Tall.

  • Mount Etna is an active volcano on the East-coast of Sicilly, Italy. It has an elliptical base of 1190 sq km and its maximum height is about 3350 meter.

  • The volcanic eruption is related to Plate’s edges in convergence and divergence area.

  • Magma is a molten and semi-molten rock mixture found under the surface of Earth. Magma is a very fluid and dynamic substance having a temperature between 6000 C to 12000 When Magma is ejected by a volcano, the material is called Lava. Magma on cooling coverts into a solid known as igneous rocks. On the basis of silica’s concentration lava is of two types – 1. Acidic lava – It contains large amount of Silica, highly viscous. 2. Basic Lave – It contains small amount of silica and is highly fluid.

  • Igneous rocks are formed by cooling and solidification of erupted magma. Internal Igneous rocks are of basically two types – 1. Plutonic Rock 2. Hypabyssal (intermediary) Rock. When Magma cools and solidifies below the Earth’s surface at a great depth the “Plutonic Rocks” are formed. As plutonic rocks are situated deep inside the ground, it takes much time to cool and hence their crystals are of larger size.

  • Mount Saint Helens is an active strato volcano located in skamania country. Washington in the Pacific North West Region of United States of America. It is also known as the “Fuji of America”.

  • Volcano Country

Sabankaya                   Peru

Mount Etna                 Italy

Colima                        Mexico

Mount Merapi             Indonesia

Mount Kinabalu          Malaysia

Elburz                         Irna

Aconcagua                  Argentina

Kilimanjaro                 Tanzania

Paricutin                      Mexico

Mount Rainier            USA

Mount Taal                 Philippines

  • The most active volcano in the world is Kilauea on Hawaii Island, America. Kilauea is followed by Etna in Italy and Piton de la fournaise and Nyamuragira volcanos on the basis of eruptions.

  • Cotopaxi, Etna and Fujiyama are active volcanoes while Aconcagua is a non-volcanic mountain. Cotapaxi is situated in Ecuador, Etna in Italy and Fujiyama in Japan.

  • Strombly is one of the most active volcano on the earth located at the island of strombly, north to sicily, southern Itally. Due to continuous gaseous eruption, it enlightens nearby area. Therefore it is known as “light house of the Mediterranean.”

  • Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa. It is situated in the North-Eastern part of Tanzania. Previously it was known as Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze. It is an igneous mountain which forms igneous rocks through erupted lava.




  • The seismic waves are generated in three forms –

  1. P – Primary Waves – These waves travel fastest.

  2. S – Secondary Waves – These waves cause particles to oscillate. Bothe P and S waves are called “Body waves” because they can travel through the interior of the Earth

  3. L – Love or surface Waves – These waves arrive after P and S waves, are confined to surface and cause horizontal shifting of the Earth during an

  • “Rings of fire” is a region in the Pacific Ocean influenced by volcanic activities and Earthquake. Approximately 68% of the world’s earthquakes occur along the “Ring of Fire”. The region of “Rings of fire” includes the vast seismic zone of Chilli, California, Alaska, Japan, Philippines, New Zealand and part of Central Ocean. There are three main regions in the Ring of fire –

  1. Inter section point of Ocean and Land

  2. New twisted mountainous terrain

  3. Volcanic field

  • The intensity of earthquake is measured on Richter scale and Mercalli Scale. In 1935, seismologist Charls Francis Richter magnitude scale. It is based on logarithmic scale which is mentioned as 1-10 on scale. Each number of Seismograph represents 10 times amplitude, 32 times energy. Seismic wave of intensity 1 releases energy of 6 ounces of TNT.

  • Tsunami is a Japanese word “tsu” which means “Harbor” and “nami” means “wave”. Thus Tsunami means “harbor wave” arising as a result of earthquake. These ruptured high waves may cause substantial damage to coastal areas.

  • Northern-Western region of Indian Subcontinent is susceptible to earthquake activities because it is situated at the border of plates. This area is convergence region of Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate. Coral formation activities and volcanic activities do not occur here.




  • The number of countries in the continents –

Africa                 –        54

Europe               –        51

Asia                    –        48

North America   –        23

  • Plains largely constitute Europe and South America however in terms of percentage Europe has largest percentage of plains compared to it’s total area.

  • Mountain Atlas is situated in north-west of African continent. Below is the correct location of other geographical areas –

Abyssinian Plateau     –        East Africa

Guiana Hilands           –        North western Africa

Okavango Basin         –        South-Western Africa

  • There are 7 continents in the world –

  1. Asia

  2. Africa

  3. North America

  4. South America

  5. Antarctica

  6. Europe

  7. Australia



  • Asia is the largest continent having as area of 44,579000 sq km. The area of other continents  is as follows –

Africa                 –        30,065,000 sq km

North America   –        24,256,000 sq km

South America   –        17,819,000 sq km

Antarctica          –        13,209,000 sq km

Europe               –        9,938,000 sq km

Australia            –        7,687,000 sq km

  • According to Phillip’s Atlas the percentage of land area of continent in respect of their total land area of earth is as follows –

Asia                    –        29.8%

Africa                 –        20.3%

North America   –        16.2%

South America   –        11.9%

Antarctica          –        9.4%

Europe               –        6.7%

Australia            –        5.7%

  • Antarctica is the continent with highest mean elevation in the world. It is situated around South Pole.

Average Elevation of continents is as follows –

Antarctica          –        1846 m

North America   –        720 m

South America   –        554 m

Asia                    –        923 m

 Europe              –        302 m

Australia            –        308 m





  1. Asia

  • Largest continent, 1/3rd of total land of earth

  • Tropic of cancer, eastern hem

  • Separated from Europe by Ural Mountains on the West

  • Combined land mass of Europe and Asia => Eurasia.

  1. Europe

  • Arctic Circle passes through it

  • Bound by water on 3 sides

  1. Africa

  • 2nd largest

  • Equator → through middle of continent

  • Only continent through which the tropic of cancer, equator and tropic of Capricorn pass

  1. North America

  • 3rd largest

  • Linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama.

  • 3 oceans surround this.

  1. South America

  • Lies mostly in South Hemisphere.

  • Andes → world’s longest mountain range.

  • Amazon-World’s largest river north to south

  1. Australia

  • Smallest continent

  • Surrounded by oceans and seas on all sides=>Island continent.

  1. Antarctica

  • South Pole lies at the centre of this continent.

  • No permanent human settlements.

  • India’s research stations in Antarctica→ Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.


World Mountain Ranges

  • Sea of mountains is an account of Lord Dufferin’s tour through British Columbia in 1876.

  • World’s 10 highest peaks including the highest peak Mount Everest are situated in the Himalayas. Himalaya is a young folded mountain. Thus, it is clear that world’s highest peaks are situated in the young folded mountains.

  • The Andes is the longest mountain range in the world, located along the entire western coast of South America. The Andes mountain range is 7200 km long. Rocky mountain is the major mountain system of North America extending over 4800 km. Himalayas is a prominent mountain range in South Asia situated at the northern end of India having the length of approximately 2400 km

  • Southern Alps Mountain Range is situated in South Island, New Zealand along its western coast. It rises to 3754 meters at Aoraki/Mount Cook, the highest peak of New Zealand.

  • White Mountains are situated in California State of United States of America. These mountains are extended between 370 Northern latitude and 1180 Western meridian.

  • The Alps is a mountain range located in South-Central Europe immediately North of the Mediterranean Sea. This range is extended in France, Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Highest peak of Alps Mountain Range is Mon Blanc (4810 m high). Alps mountain is an example of young folded mountain in the world. The Alps Mountain range in not a part of England.

  • Volcanic cone is a basic landform. It is conical hill produced by volcanic eruption of ash, clinders of lava. It is formed by fragments (called eject) thrown up (ejected) from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. Resudual mountain are originally a mountain but due to erosion work they become residual mountain. In the same way erosional waterfall and Monadnock are also formed after erosional work.

  • Golan Heights is located in Middle East. It is a rock plateau in south west Syria. Israel occupied Golan Height from Syria in the war of 1967. Israel fully captured it in 1981.

  • The Pyrenees is a chain of mountains that forms a natural boundary between France and Spain. They extended from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea.



  • Drakensberg is a mountain range extended through South Africa and Lesotho. Its highest peak is Thabana Ntlenyana (3482 m) located in Lesotho whereas another peak Mafadi (3450 m), he second highest peak of this range is the highest peak of South Africa.

  • The Black Mountains are located in Carolina state of United State of America. These Mountains are part of Appalachian Mountains.

  • Appennine Mountain Range is in Italy. Its total length is approximately 1350 km. Mount Corno (2914 m) is the highest peak of Appenine mountain range, whereas Pyrenees decides the boundary of France and Spain. Dinaric Alps is expanded through Aebania, Bosnia, Croatia and Zura Mountain is expanded in the area of France and Switzerland.

  • Mountain and their countries –

Allegheny          –        U.S.A.

Cantabrian         –        Spain

Elburz                –        Iran

Mackenzie          –        Canada

  • Mountain peaks and their continents –

Kosciuszko        –        Australia

Mckinley            –        North America

Kilimanjaro        –        Africa


  • Tibetan Plateau or Chang Tang is also known as Quinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It’s total area is about 2.5 million square km and average elevation is more than 4500 m.

  • Patagonia Plateau is called as the store house of minerals, in South America.

  • Madrid the capital of European country Spain is situated on Meseta Plateau in Iberian Peninsula. The elevation of t his plateau is between 610-760 m.

Bukharest (At the Bank of Dambovita River)      –  55.8 m (about sea level)

Jamngar (Gujarat)       –        20 m (about sea level)

Singapore (South East India)       –        15 m (about sea level).

  • The Pamir Plateau or the “Pamir” is called the roof of the world because of it’s high altitude. Southern border of Central Asia is determined by Pamir Plateau. It is convergence of many mountains.

  • Plateau Area

Coconino  –        5812 sq mile

Aquarius   –        900 sq. mile

Colorada   –        130000 sq. mile

Columbia  –        100000 sq. mile



  • A rift valley is formed on a divergent plate, deepened by the forces of erosion. A rift valley is a linear shaped low land between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geological rift or fault. Death Valley in California, USA is an example of such a rift valley.

  • The Death Valley popularly known as “Devil’s Golf Course” is located in Death Vaelley National Park of the Majave Desert of United States of America. This Park is situated in eastern California. The Devil’s Golf Course is a large salt pan on the floor of Death Valley. In the Holocene Period, it contained 30 feet deep water.

  • Silicon Valley is located in the southern portion of the Sun Francisco Bay in California, USA. It is famous for large scale manufacturing of computer chips.

  • Panjshir Valley is located in North Central Afghanistan about 150 km north of Kabul, near the Hindu Kush Mountain Range, in the Ranjshir province of Afghanistan. This Valley was one of the main battle grounds at the time of Soviet War.

  • Death Valley is located in the State of California (USA). This is the lowest place of North America (-86 meter below the sea level) and second lowest to Laguna Del Carbon (-150 meter) of Argentina in Western hemisphere. During summer maximum temperature reaches up to 1300 F (540 C) in this region. This is the hottest and most arid valley of the USA.

  • Great Basin, is located in North America (USA). It is bordered by the Sierra Nevada Range, the Colombia Plateau on the North and Majave Desert and Souoran desert on the South.

  • A steephead Valley, or Blind valley is a deep, narrow, flat bottomed valley with an abrupt ending. Such valleies arise in limestone of Karst landscape.

  • Valley of the King or Wadi-el muluk is located in Egypt. Its location is at 25044’ Northern latitude and 32036’ East meridian on the Western side of river Nile.



Arid Regions/Deserts

  • Gerhard Knies, a German Particle Physicist, arrived at the remarkable conclusion that in just six hours, the world’s deserts receive more energy from the sun than human consume in a year. In this way, deserts can be a source of perennial energy.

  • Desert is a region where annual precipitation is less than 25cm.

  • The biggest (non-polar) desert of the world is the Sahara Desert. It’s situated in North Africa and has an area measured at roughly 3.5 million square miles.

  • The Thar Desert is the most densely populated desert in the world with a population density of 83 people per square km where as other deserts have population density of 7 people per square km.

  • Gobi Desert streaches into northern China and southern Mongolia. This desert is surrounded by Altai Mountain.

  • Takla Makan Desert is situated in Xinjiang province of China.

  • Great Victorian desert is located in South-west Australia. It is the largest desert of Australia. It is spread over 424,400 sq km of area.

  • Gibson Desert, an interim Australian bioregion is a large desert that covers a large dry area in the State of Western Australia.

  • Dasht-e-Lut is a large salt desert in Kerman province of Iran. NASA’s tests have revealed that it is world’s warmest desert. It’s temperature was measured 70.70 C by NASA’s Agua satellite in 2005.

  • Thar Desert which is also known as “Great Indian Desert”. It is the largest desert of South Asia. It stretches across western India to South-East Pakistan. Location of deserts is as follows –

Atacama Desert          –        Chile

Colorado Desert          –        California (USA)

Kalahari Desert           –        Botswana, Namibia and South Africa

  • Most desert regions are the result of large climatic patterns. The sub-tropical high pressure belts are adiabatic in nature hence they bring little rainfall to the African and Eurasian desert region. Warm Ocean currents are not a necessary condition for the desert belt. For instance the Gobi cold desert doesn’t come under the influence of any warm current.

  • Kalahari is large desert spreading over 900000 sq km in the interior of Southern Africa. It occupies Botswana, parts of Namibia and South Africa.


Grass Fields

  • Grasslands Continents

Prairies                        North America

Pampas                        South America

Steppes                        Europe

Veld                            South Africa

Lianos                         South Africa




  • Grass fields their Respective countries –

Campos              –        Brazilian, Highland

Pampas               –        Argentina and Uruguay

Savanna              –        Eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania)

Steppes               –        Western Russia and Central Asia

  • Pampas are the grass lands of South America extended across the area of 7 lakh 77 thousand square km. These plains are very fertile. These grass fields spread from Atlantic Ocean to Andes Mountains up to Argentina and Uruguay.

  • Savanna is a rolling Grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome. The savannas are mainly spread over East Africa. Savannas are also found in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela and southern parts of India.

  • Liamos grasslands are found in Venezuela while Campos and Selvas grass field are found in South East Brazil, Argentina and Amazon Basin respectively.

  • The temperature grassland in Eurasia region is Steppes.

World’s Countries and their Borders

  • China is the largest country of the world in terms of population. India is at second place. Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area. These figures are based on the data of U.S. Census Bureau International.

  • The aquatic, terrestrial and total area of the some countries –

Country             Terrestrial Area              Aquatic Area                Total Area

Canada               9093507                            891163                           9984670

China                 9569901                            137060                           9706961

America             9161966                            664709                           9526468

Brazil                 8460415                            55352                    8526468


  • Country Total Area (in sq km)

Argentina           2780400

India                   3287263

Australia            7692024

Brazil                 8515767

Maldives            300 sq km

Bhutan               38394 sq km

Pakistan             796095 sq km

Sri Lanka           65610 sq km


  • India is the seventh largest country of the world in terms of area. In this context, the six larger countries than India are- Russia, Canada, China, America, Brazil and Australia.

  • South Asia consists of Bangaldesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Almost 22% of the world’s population live in South Asia in just 3% of the world’s area.

  • The longest coastline in the world’s is of Canada with (202080 km) followed by Indonesia (54717), Greenland (44087 km) Russia (37653 km) and Philippines (32289 km).

  • Bangladesh share the longest territorial border with India (4096.7 km) followed by China (3488 km), Pakistan (3323 km), Nepal (1751 km), Myanmar (1643 km) and Bangladesh (106 km).

  • Myanmar formerly known as Burma with the total area of 678500 sq km is situated in South East Asia It’s total border is 5879 km long. Bangladesh (193 km), China (2185 km), India (1463 km), Laos (235 km) and Thailand (1800 km) are it’s bordering countries. It’s marine border is extended to Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal.

  • The bordering countries of Afghanistan are Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in North, China and India in North-East, Pakistan in East and Iran in the west.

  • Country Bordering Regions (in Km)

Belarus               502 km

Latvia                 453 km

Poland                91 km

Russia                227 km

  • Zambia is landlocked country located in the African continent. Democratic Republic of Congo is located to it’s north, Tanzania in north-east, Mail in east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia in south and Angola in the west.

  • The countries having boundaries with Adriatic Sea are- Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina (only 1.4% of its border is connected with Sea), Montenegro and Albania. Apart from these, the boundary of Italy is also connected with Adriatic Sea. Serbia and Macedonia are landlocked countries.

  • There are 14 countries located in the geographical group of countries designated the name Oceania, which are divided into three sub –groups Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Australia is the biggest country of this region.

  • Great Britain comprises of England, Wales and Scotland. The name of United Kingdom has been given after the inclusion of Northern Ireland in Great Britain. The total area of United Kingdom is 244820 km 2, almost 54% part of it is England.



Dependent Territory

  • Martinique Island having an area of 1128 sq km is located in East of Caribbean Sea under the possession of France. It is one of the 26 administrative regions of France.

  • Santa Cruz de Tenerife is a port city in Spain’s Canary Islands.

  • Green is the world’s largest Island. It is an autonomous region of Denmark. Geographically despite being close to North America, ethnically it is quite closer to the countries of Arctic Island.

  • Christians Island is a territory of Australia located in the Indian Ocean 2360 km North West of Perth in Western Australia.

  • Erik Thorvaldsson known as Eric the Red discovered Greenland. Denmark captured this territory in 1380, since then it is politically a part of Europe. Greenland is geographically considered a part of North American continent. It is world’s largest Island (not continent). Almost 85% of its area is covered with snow.

  • World Islands Owner Country

Aleutian Island           –        U.S.A.

Bear Island                  –        Norway

Greenland                   –        Denmark

Franz Josef Island       –        Russia



Land-Locked Countries

  • Land-Locked Countries are those which do not have a coastline. There are total 45 land-locked countries in the world which are as follow –

  1. Afghanistan

  2. Austria

  3. Bhutan

  4. Burkina Faso

  5. Andorra

  6. Azerbaijan

  7. Bolivia

  8. Burundi

  9. Armenia

  10. Belarus

  11. Botswana

  12. Central African Republic

  13. Chad

  14. Check Republic

  15. Ethiopia

  16. Hungry

  17. Laos

  18. Luxembourg

  19. Mali

  20. Nepal

  21. Rwanda

  22. Serbia

  23. Kazakhstan

  24. Lesotho

  25. Macedonia

  26. Moldova

  27. Niger

  28. San Marino

  29. Slovakia

  30. Kirgizstan

  31. Lichtenstein

  32. Malawi

  33. Mongolia

  34. Paraguay

  35. South Sudan

  36. Swaziland

  37. Serbia

  38. Switzerland

  39. Tajikstan

  40. Turkmenistan

  41. Uganda

  42. Uzbekistan

  43. Vatican City

  44. Zambia

  45. Zimbabwe

  46. Kosovo

  47. Rwanda

  • Laos is the only landlocked country in South East Asia bordered by Myanmar, China Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand.

  • Bolivia is a land locked country of South America.

  • Radcliffe line is boundary between India and Pakistan made by Sir Syril Radcliffe who was commissioned to equitably divide the territory. Maginot line is international boundary between France and Germany, and Hindenburg line is between Belgium and Germany line is an international border between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

  • There is no landlocked country in North American continent. United States of America, Canada and Mexico have sea coastlines. There counties like Luxembourg and Switzerland in Europe, Afghanistan, Nepal, Mongolia and Laos in Asia, Nigeria and Mail in Africa are landlocked countries.

  • South Sudan is a landlocked country surrounded by Sudan, Ethiopia, Central African Republic, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda. The main river in South Sudan is White Nile and its present capital is Juba. Its main religion is Christianity.


Old Names of Countries

  • New Name Old Name

Taiwan               –        Formosa

Myanmar           –        Burma or (Union of Burma)

Thailand             –        Siam

Iraq                     –        Mesopotamia

  • Zimbabwe was earlier known as Southern Rhodesia. It was a British colony. Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, was earlier known as Salisbury.



International Border Lines

  • Rio Grande River separates southern border of United States of America from Mexico. It was identified in 1845. The basin of this river is spread in United States of America and Mexico. Rhine river forms the border of France and Germany.

  • Victoria Lake is also known as Victoria Nyanza. It is world’s second largest fresh water lake by surface area. Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya have administrative authority over this lake. Victoria lake forms an international borders between Uganda- Tanzania, Uganda- Kenya and Kenya – Tanzania.

  • The McMahon line define boundary between Indi and China. It was agreed on under Shimla Accord, a treaty signed in 1914 (Agreed between Britain and Tibet). The line is named after Sir Henry McMahon, foreign secretary of the British-run Government of India and the Chief negotiator of the convention at Shimla. The line was drawn 500 miles east of Bhutan. India considers this line as permanent national border while China consider the line as temporary line of control. China even does not consider the Shimla pact.

  • The 38th parallel or Northern latitude line defines boundary between North Korea and South Korea. The Oder Neisse line separates Poland from Germany. Durand line separate Pakistan from Afghanistan while the Radcliffe line separate India from Pakistan and McMahon line India from China.

  • The Maginot line was formed by France during first World War. It separates the border of France from Germany and Italy. The border of France and Italy is also known as Alpine line. The international border made of concrete was built in 1930-35.

The Capitals of Countries

  • The former capital of Australia was Melbourne. Presently Canberra is the capital of Australia. The former and present capitals of some other countries –

Country             Former Capital       Present Capital

Pakistan             Karachi                    Islamabad

New Zealand      Auckland                  Wellington

Japan                  Kyoto                          Tokyo

  • Slovenia is a coastal alpine country located in south-central Europe. Officially it is known as Republic of Slovenia. The capital if Slovenia is Ljubljana. Slovenia is bordered with Italy in the west, Adriatic Sea in south-west, Croatia in south and east, Hungary in north-east and Austria in the north.

  • Vienna is the capital of Austria. The headquarter of International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A) is in Vienna, Austria.

  • On November 6, 2005 the administrative capital of Myanmar was moved to a green field near Pyinmana (3.2 km in west), which is located 320 km in the north from its former capital Yangon. It was officially named “Nay Pyi Taw” on March 27, 2006.



  • Country Capital

Peru                    –        Lima

Portugal             –        Lisbon

Spain                  –        Madrid

Venezuela          –        Caracas

Austria               –        Vienna

North Korea       –        Pyongyang

South Korea       –        Seoul

Japan                  –        Tokyo

Ghana                 –        Accra

Kenya                 –        Nairobi

Namibia             –        Windhoek

Nigeria               –        Abuja

Uganda               –        Kampala

Uzbekistan         –        Tashkent

Ukraine              –        Kiev

Zambia               –        Lusaka

Jordon                –        Amman

Kyrgyzstan         –        Bishkek

Mongolia           –        Ulaanbaatar

Yemen                –        Sana’s

Bulgaria             –        Sofia

Georgia              –        Tbilisi

Iceland               –        Reykjavik

Norway              –        Oslo

Burundi              –        Bujumbura

Kazakhstan        –        Astana

Laos          –        Vientiane

Mali          –        Bamako

Cyprus      –        Nicosia

Turkey      –        Ankara

Turkmenistan     Ashkhabad

Ethiopia    –        Addis Ababa

China        –        Beijing

Canada      –        Ottawa

Australia   –        Canberra

Russia       –        Moscow

Azerbaijan –        Baku

Gambia     –        Banjul

Latvia        –        Riga

Hungry      –        Budapest

Brazil        –        Brasilia

Germany   –        Berlin

Costa Rica –        San Jose

Maldives   –        Male



Geographical Nickname

  • The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle. Between these circles and the poles, the sun is visible for the full 24 hours. Accordingly in countries like Norway, situated to the Arctic Circle, sun is visible even during night. This is why, Norway is known as country of midnight sun. Parts of other countries like Canada, Finland, Russia and Iceland also fall north to the Arctic Circle. Whereas, no country falls between Antarctic circle and south pole.

  • 40% of approximately 9000 species of birds worldwide are found in South American continent. That is why South America is often called as “Continent of Birds”.

  • Niagara Falls is located in North America on the Niagara River on the border of the United States of America and Canada.

  • Finland is often called the land of a thousand lakes.

  • Eiffel Tower is situated in Paris, Gustave Eiffel, French civil engineer, is credited with designing the tower that bears his name. The Eiffel Tower is 324 meters tall, including the antenna of 24 meter at the top.

  • Pamir plateau is also known as the Roof of the World it it the meeting point of several mountains. The southern border of Central Asia is determined by the Pamir plateau.

  • Geographical Name          Country

Dark Continent                    –        Africa

Roof of the World               –        Pamir Plateau

City of thousand lakes         –        Finland

Pearls Island                        –        Bahrain



  • Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. It is also known as “the Paris of South America”.

  • Kentucky, situated in east central USA is also known as the “Blue Grass State”.

  • Istanbul is located in peninsular area of Turkey whose three sides are surrounded by Marmara Sea, Bosphorus Straits and Golden Horn. It is also known as the Gateway to the West.

  • Thailand is also known as the land of white elephants. The white elephant is considered holy in Thailand.

  • The Mistress of Eastern Sea “title is given to Sri Lanka”. Sri Lanka is an Island situated in the Indian Ocean, at the base of the Indian Sub-Continent, 880 km North to the Equator. It is also known as “The pearl of Indian Ocean” and “The Gateway to Asia”.

  • Japanese also called their country as Nippon which means the land of rising sun. Japan is also known as the land of rising sun.

  • South Korea is called “Land of Morning calm” because of its spell binding natural beauty, high mountains, clear waters, and its splendid tranquility particularly in the morning.

  • Venice is known as the city of cities. It is one of the most beautiful cities of the world. It is also known as city of dreams.

  • Golden Gate Bridge is located in San Francisco city and connects both ends of San Francisco bay. Therefore, San Francisco is known as the city of Golden Gate.

  • Osaka (Japan) is called “Manchester of the East”. Osaka city is located in Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka province. Historically the trade city Osaka is also famous by the name of “Nation’s Kitchen”.

  • Lake Baikal is the world’s oldest and deepest freshwater lake. Lake Baikal is called “Pearl of Siberia”.


  • South China Sea is part of Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Karimata and Malacca strait to the strait of Taiwan. It is 5016 m deep while Being Sea is 4773 m deep, Mediterranean Sea is 4632 m deep and Japan Sea is 3742 m deep.

  • Around 30% of the total surface Area of the Earth is Land (about 148300000 sq km) and 70% part (about 361800000 sq km) is covered by water (including all oceans, seas rivers and other water bodies). Hence surface of earth covered with water is approximately two-third of the total surface area.

  • Nearest point to the centre of the Earth lie near Artic Ocean (at the depth of 4 km from the surface), which is at the 6353 km far from the centre of the Earth.

  • Most extensive part of the oceanic floor is “Deep Sea plain”. Characteristic by flat and rolling submarine plain it is the most extensive relief zone of the ocean basins. These deep-Sea plains having the depth of 3000 m to 6000 m cover more than 76% of the total area of the Ocean basins. These plains have an extension of up to 9000,000 square km in the Atlantic Ocean.

  • 97% of the total water available on Earth is salt water found in Ocean. Out of remaining 3% non-salty water, 2.4% is in the form of glaciers and polar ice, which is unusable for us. So in this way total available non-salty water to use is less than 1% of the total water available on earth. Out of total amount of non-salty water (3%), 68.7% is found in the form of glaciers and polar ice, 30.1% in the form of underground water, 0.3% in the form of surface water and remaining 0.9% is found in other forms.

  • Gravitational water occupies the larger soil pores (macro pores) and moves down readily under the force of gravity Gravitational water under the surface of soil remain in state of zero or less than 1/3 of the atmosphere.



  • The area of oceans is as follows –

Pacific Ocean     –        165.2 million square km

Atlantic Ocean   –        106.4 million square km

Indian Ocean      –        73.6 million square km

Antarctica Ocean        2.6-18.8 million square km

  • The Datum line is horizontal line from where all the elevations and depths are measured.

  • Ninety East Ridge (900 E Ridge) is the name of a ridge located in the Indian Ocean. Located near 900 east longitude (meridian), this ridge is 5000 km long parallel to it and stretched across 330 south latitude to 170 northern latitude with an average width of 200 km

  • Hydrosphere

  • More than 71% → Water

29% → Land

  • More than 97% of Water-oceans, too salty for human use.

  • 03% => Fresh Water

  • 77%→ Stored in ice sheets and ground water 97.2%→ Oceans    100%

Major Oceans of the World

  • Black Sea lies to the north of Turkey. Turkey borders with 8 countries and 4 seas, given as follows –

In the North-West       –        Bulgaria

In the West                  –        Greece

In the West-East         –        Georgia

In the East                   –        Iran and Armenia

In the South-East        –        Iraq and Syria

  • Seas bordering with Turkey are –

In the North                –        Black Sea

Towards West             –        Aegean and the Sea of Marmara

In South                      –        The Mediterranean Sea

  • Turkey is located in Eurasia. Some of its part is located in South-East Europe. The major part of this country is located in the West Asia. In the north of Turkey is the Black Sea, towards south is the Mediterranean Sea and towards the west is the location of Aegean Sea. Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea decide the political boundary of Turkey in the north and south respectively.



  • Mediterranean Sea –        It is the largest sea encircled by land. It is surrounded by Africa in South, Europe in north and Asia in the east.

  • Black Sea –        It is a continental sea surrounded by South-east Europe, Caucasus and Anatoliya Peninsula.

  • Caspian Sea          –        It is the largest salt water lake. River volga merges in Caspian Sea. This sea is surrounded by Kazakhstan, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran.

  • Aral Sea                   –        It is located in central Asia and is surrounded by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

  • Caspian Sea is world’s largest inland sea. It is world’s largest lake with total area of approximately 37100 sq km. It is bordered by –

Russia       –        North West

Azerbaijan –        West

Iran            –        South

South east and East – Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan Sea of Azov is connected with Caspian Sea through Manych canal and volga-don-canal.

  • Sargasso Sea is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents which form an ocean gyre. It has been named after sargassum seaweed abundantly found in this region.

  • Aral Sea is lake in Central Asia. It is bordered by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

  • The Tyrrhenian Sea is situated in the region of Mediterranean Sea bounded by the Island of Corsica and Sardania, the Italian peninsula and the island of Sicily.

  • Red Sea is an example of axial through which is located between Africa and Arab. This region is associated with magnetic anomalies. It plays a pivotal role in trade between North Africa, Europe and Asian Nations after the opening of Suez Canal.

  • African countries namely Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt border with the Mediterranean Sea but “Chad” is a land locked country.

  • Jordan is an Arabian country of South West Asia which does not open out to the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to East and South, Iraq to north-east, Syria to north, Israel, Palestine and Dead Sea to the west, and Red sea to south west. The capital of Jordan is Amman.

  • Mediterranean Sea is connected to Atlantic Ocean and almost completely enclosed by land. It is surrounded b Africa continent in South, Europe in north and Asia in the east. This sea is connected to Atlantic Ocean by Gibraltar strait, black sea by Boshporus strait and red sea by Suez canal. The countries bordering Mediterranean Sea are – Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Ciprus, Greece, France, Egypt, Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Italy. Libya, Malta, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey.

  • Oceans

  • All Oceans are interconnected.

  • Ocean waters are always moving.

  • 3 movements of ocean water:

  1. Waves

  2. Tides

  3. Ocean currents



4 Major oceans (From largest to smallest)

  1. Pacific Ocean (largest)

  2. Atlantic Ocean (2nd)

  3. Indian Ocean

  4. Arctic Ocean (smallest)

Pacific Ocean

  1. Spread over 1/3rd of earth

  2. Mariana trench

  3. Circular in shape

  4. Asia, Aus, Northern and Southern Americas surround it.

Atlantic Ocean

  • ‘S’ shape

  • Northern and Southern America on West and Europe and Africa on East

  • The coastline of Atlantic Ocean is highly indented. This irregular and Indented Coastline provides ideal location for Natural Harbours and Ports. Commerce→ It is busiest ocean.

Arctic Ocean

  1. Located within arctic circle and surrounds North Pole

  2. It is connected with Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water known as Berring Strait.

  3. Bound by northern coasts of Northern America and Eurasia.


Oceanic Currents

  • Ocean Current is a continuous, directed movement of sea water generated by forces such as rotation of earth, wind, temperature and salinity difference air pressure, sea water density difference etc. Revolution of the earth does not influence the ocean currents.

  • The ocean currents of Indian Ocean are slightly different from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Land and monsoon winds have a major impact on the Indian Oceanic current. The direction of current flow changes twice in the Northern Indian Ocean due to the North-East and South-West monsoon winds whereas Southern Indian Ocean currents have definite pattern.

  • Agulhas current is the warm water current which flows in South Indian Ocean. It generates in such a way that branch of South Equatorial Indian Oceanic current flows towards south through the southeast coast of Mozambique and is known as Mozambique current which flows 300 South and meets with the branch of South Equatorial current flowing along the East of Madagascar. So the combined current of these two branches of currents is known as Agulhas current. It flows up to southern most end of Africa and alter it mixes with west wind drift by turning to East.

  • Northern Atlantic currents generate near 450 north latitude and 450 West Meridian. It takes away the water of warm Gulf Stream towards, Europe, where Norway, situated in sub-polar region is benefited most by this current. This benefit is in such a way that when at the onset of winter chances of most of the countries of Europe coming under the expansion of ice-covering  becomes greater than warm north Atlantic current block the expansion of ice-cover and therefore this current is also known as “Blanket of  Europe”.

  • Only cold current of South Atlantic Ocean is the “Benguela current”. It flows along the west coast of South Africa towards the North direction. Moving ahead, it merges with South Equatorial current.

  • Brazil Current – It is a warm water current which flows along the East coast of Brazil from north to south.

  • Canary Current – It is a cold water current which flows in North Atlantic Ocean along the west coast of north-west Africa from north to south direction.

  • Agulhas Current – It is a warm water current which flows in South-Indian Ocean form north to south direction.

  • In the South Atlantic Ocean, there exists a fixed order of complete circular currents. This order emerges from South Equatorial current. After Brazil coast, it moves towards south where it is called Brazil current. The disturbance is developed due to the rotation of the Earth.

  • Gulf Stream               –        Warm Current

West Wind Drift         –        A slow eastward movement of water over the zone of westerly wind

Peru Current               –        Pacific Ocean

West Australian Current      Indian Ocean

  • Gulf Stream is a powerful warm current in the North Atlantic Ocean. It originates at Gulf of Mexico as the Florida current which merges in Antilles current and flows through the Cape Hatteras and then flows along the east coast of United State of America. Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de leon first discovered the Gulf Stream in 1513.




  • Halocline is a zone in the oceanic water in which salinity changes rapidly with depth. So, Halocline denotes water salinity gradient.

  • Main source of the salinity of sea water is the land. When rivers bring various types of salt contents towards the sea, other factors which regulate the salinity of the sea are vaporisation, wind, river water, rain, oceanic currents and the volcanos etc. Average salinity of the sea is about 35%.

  • In 1884, during Challenger expedition, William Dittmar produced a report about the chemistry of sea water. He revealed in the report that there are 47 types of salts present in the sea water among which 7 are most prominent. These are  follows –


Salt                                      Salinity           Percentage

Sodium Chloride                 27.213%          77.8%

Magnesium Chloride           3.807%            10.9%

Magnesium Sulphate           1.658%            4.7%

Calcium Sulphate                1.260%            3.6%

Potassium Sulphate              0.863%            2.5%

Calcium Carbonate              0.123%            0.3%

Magnesium Bromide           0.076%            0.2%


  • Salinity in Van lake –        330%

Salinity in Dead Sea            –        238%

Salinity in Red Sea              –        36-41%

Salinity in Great Salt Lake  –        220%

  • Red Sea has the highest salinity (37 to 41%). The salinity of Dead Sea is more than that of Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea but it is considered as a lake. Caspian Sea is also a lake.

  • The Great Salt Lake located in Utah province of the United States of America. Salinity of this lake is 220%.

  • Between 00-100 latitudes in the Indian Ocean, the salinity is 35.14% but in the Bay of Bengal, it decreases to 30%. At the same time salinity of Arabian Sea is found to be 36% because of comparatively dry weather, more vaporization takes place and water brought by rivers is also less.

High Tide, Low Tide

  • High Tide/low tide occur as a result of force of gravitational pull between the Earth and the Moon and the two forces viz centripetal force and centrifugal force produced upon the Earth. Ocean water is kept at equal levels around the planet by the Earth’s gravity pulling inward, but Moon’s gravitational force is strong enough to disrupt this balance by accelerating the water in that hemisphere which faces the Moon. When the Moon’s force of attraction is stronger that centrifugal force of the Earth, high tides occur. On the other hand when the centrifugal force is stronger than the Moon’s force attraction tides (Indirect high tide) occur. Earth experience high and low tides twice in 24 hours.

  • Spring-tide occurs in the ocean on the day of Full Moon, while at 7th and 8th day after the Full Moon or the New Moon neap-tide occurs. Since the Moon is more near to the Earth in comparison to other stars, so its gravitational force has greater effect upon the Earth. Due to this effect, high sea waves are produced in oceans. Tide producing power of the moon is 2.17 times more than the Sun.

Oceanic Trench

  • Trenches and Deeps found in the Oceans are as follows –

Indian Ocean                      –        Sunda Deep and Dementia Trench

North Pacific Ocean          –        Marina Trench, Kuril trench, aleutian trench and Japan trench

South Pacific Ocean          –        Tonga trench, Kermadec trench, Atacama trench

North Atlantic Ocean        –        Puerto-Rico trench

South Atlantic Ocean        –        South Sandwich trench



  • The Mariana Trench or Challenger Trench is located in the Pacific Ocean, east of Mariana Island in a shape of an arc. It has the deepest part of the Earth’s Oceans known as Challengers-Deep, named after the British exploration vessel HMS challenger-II.

  • Diamantina Trench is the deepest trench in the Indian Ocean. It is located about 1125 km south west from the Perth Basin. Its maximum depth is about 8047 meters.

Rivers of the World

  • South America’s Amazon River is the largest River in terms of its volume of flow in the world. Its area of drainage is about 6915000 square km and the length is approximately 6400 km.

  • In terms of length, largest river of the world is Nile which flows in East Africa up to the distance of 6650 km.

  • Congo River flows in Central Africa and covers distance about of 4700 km and it crosses equator twice during its flow. Its drainage area is about 3680000 square km.

  • Mississippi-Missouri River system is located in North America and it is the largest River system of North-America.

  • Congo River also known as “Zaire River” is the second longest River after Nile in African continent. It crosses the equator twice. Amazon and Congo are two river that flow out of equatorial zone.

  • World’s five longest Rivers and their respective length –

River Name                        Length

Nile                                      6650 km

Amazon                                6400 km

Yangtze                                6300 km

Mississippi                          6275 km

Yenisei-Angora-Selenge     5539 km

  • Most of the Population of Egypt benefits from fertile land and water sources of the Nile River. Therefore, Egypt is called the gift of Nile. The region through which river Nile flows is like an oasis in the desert.

  • The Blue Nile River originate from lake Tana in Euthopia. The upper course of river is called the Abbay in Ethopia.

  • Lake Itasca is the main source of river Mississippi. Ohio Arkansas and Red Rive are tributaries of Mississippi. Mississippi flows into the Gulf of Mexico.

  • The southern central region of Sri Lanka is tallest highland which rises to 1500 meters above sea-level. The altitude decreases towards plains from this highland gradually. This plain is narrow in south west and widest in north. The rivers of Sri Lanka rise in the central highlands and flow in a radial pattern towards the sea. Most of these rivers are short. Mahaweli is the largest river of Sri Lanka. Flowing towards north east, it merges into Bay of Bengal.

  • The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia. From the Tibetan Plateau, the river flows through China’s Yunnan province, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam and falls into South China Sea. The Mekong River does not flow through Malaysia.



  • Lop Nor                   –        Lop Nor is saline lake in China.

Amur River               –        The length of the Amur River is 2900 km. The Amur forms a border between Russia and China.

Niger River                –        The Niger rises in the Fouta Djallon Plateau of Western Africa and empties into the Gulf of Guinea. It is related to Africa.

Tigris River               –        It rises in Taurus Mountains of eastern Turkey. It meets Euphrates River in Iraq and merges into the Persian Gulf.

Dnieper River            –        This River rises in the west of Moscow and flows to the Black Sea.

Danube River            –        It is the second longest River of Europe after the Volga. It rises in Germany and flows for 1770 mile to its mouth on the Black Sea.

Volga River               –        This is the longest River of Europe. It rises in the Valdai Hills north west of Moscow and merges into the Caspian Sea.

Ural River                  –        It rises in the Ural Mountains near Mount Kruglaya and flows into the Caspian Sea.

Yukon River              –        It is major North American River that flows through the central Yukon Territory of north western Canada and the central region of Alaska State of the U.S.

Mackenzie River       –        Rising out of Great Slave Lake, the Mackenzie River flows generally northeast of Canada. It finally empties into the Beaufort Sea, part of the Arctic Ocean, through the vast Mackenzie Delta. 1738 km long Mackenzie River is the longest River of Canada.

Saint Lawrence River-      This River connects Great lakes to Atlantic Ocean. It forms international boundary between United States of America and Canada.

Orinoco River           –        Approximately 76.3 percent of this river flows in Venezuela and remaining in Columbia. It’s is 2410 km long.


  • Rivers Emptying into

Lena                   Arctic Ocean

Amur                  Pacific Ocean

Tigris                 Persian Gulf

Mahi                   Arabian Ocean

  • Amu Darya and Syr Dary a are prominent rivers of Central Asia which fall into the Aral Sea.

  • The Rhine River emerges at the Rhein Vorderrhien glacier and flowing through rift valley empties into the North Sea. Famous German city Bonn is located on the banks of the River Rhine.



Towns and Cities along the Banks of Rivers

  • City River

Khartoum (Sudan)               Nile

Brazzaville (Congo)            Zaire (Congo River)

Rotterdam (Netherlands)     Rhine

Paris (France)                      Seine

New York                            Hudson

Berlin                                   Spree

Lahore (Pakistan)                Ravi River

Rome (Italy)                        Tiber

London (Britain)                  Thames

Vienna (Austria)                  Danube

Bonn (Germany)                  Rhine

Cairo (Egypt)                       Nile

Perth (Australia)                  Danube River

Hamburg                              Elbe

Belgrade                               Danube

Kiev                                     Dnieper

U.S.A.                                  Potomac

Sudan                                   Nile

Iraq                                       Tigris

Antwerp                               Scheldt

Rotterdam                            Rhine

Budapest                              Danube

Washington                          Potomac

  • Tiber is the third longest River of Italy. If flows through the city of Rome and enters the Tyrrhenian Sea.

  • Passing through Geneva city of Switzerland Rhine River falls into Bay of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea. Dnieper- Ukraine, Po- Italy and Rhine- Germany.

  • The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia. From the Tibetan Plateau, the river flows through China’s Yunnan province, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam and falls into South China Sea.



  • Spree River –        It is a tributary of the Havel River and its length is 403 km. The Spree flows through Saxony, Brandenburg and Berlin cities of Germany.

  • Potomac River –        This River flows through south west Maryland and Washington DC and falls into Chesapeake Bay.

  • Seine River –        Seine is the second largest River of France after Lori River. If flows in northern France through Paris.

  • Manzanares River –        The Manzanares in one of the main rivers in Central Spain which passes through Madrid.


  • Bangkok –        Bangkok is the capital of Thailand which is situated on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River (Menam River).

  • Phnom Penh –        Phnom Penh is the capital of Cambodia. It is located on the banks of Mekong River.

  • Hanoi –        Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam and the city lies on the right bank of the Red River.

  • Yangon –        Yangon was formerly the capital of Myanmar (Burma) and lies on the banks of Irrawaddy River the longest river of Myanmar.




  • Faroe Island is also known as “Sheep Island”. It is self governing archipelago part of Denmark. It comprises of 18 rocky and volcanic Islands.

  • New Zealand South Island 151215 sq km is the largest in area whereas Java has an area of 138794 sq km. New Zealand North Island 113729 sq km and New found land has an area of 108860 sq km accordingly.

  • The largest Island of the world is Greenland. The area of Islands is as follows –

Greenland (Denmark)          –        2130800 sq km

New Guinea                         –        785753 sq km

Borneo                                 –        748168 sq km

Malagasy or Madagascar     –        587713 sq km

  • Borneo is the third largest island in the world and the largest Island in Asia. The Island is divided among three countries –

Malaysia (26%)

Brunei (1%)

Indonesia (73%)

  • Kalimantan is the Indonesia portion of the Island of Borneo. It comprises of 73% of the island area.

  • Madagascar is an island located in the south west of Indian Ocean. Mauritius is located to it’s east and Mozambique to it’s west.

  • Melanesia is a sub region of Oceania extending from the western end of the Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea and eastward to Fiji. The following islands and groups of island are traditionally considered as part of Melanesia:

  1. Bismarck Archipelago

  2. Fiji

  3. New Caledonia

  4. Solomon Islands

  5. Vanuatu

  6. Santacruz

  • Diego Garcia is located in the Indian Ocean. Portuguese adventurer Diego Garcia first spotted it in year 1500. Thus it was named after him. It was administered by Mauritius from 1814 to 1965. Later it came under the control of Britain and was leased to USA. Currently, it serves as a strategic base for both the countries.



  • Australian Continent is an island continent. It is the smallest continent of the world.

  • Grenada is an island country consisting of Grenada itself and six smaller islands in the South eastern Caribbean Sea. Grenada is also known as the “Island of Spice” because of the excess production of spices. It is located approx 100 km North from Venezuela.

  • Majuli is river island in the Brahmaputra River (Assam). It is the largest river island in the world. Majuli became first riverine island to be made a district in India.

  • The Falkland archipelago is in South Atlantic. The main island is around 483 km east of South American continent.

  • Fiji is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, Tonga to the east and Tuvalu to the north. Fiji is an archipelago of 322 islands, of which the two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, are inhabited by 87% of the total population.



Lakes and Water Falls

  • Lake Tanganyika is the second deepest lake (1436 m) after lake Baikal and longest fresh water lake in the world (660 m).

  • The Great Lakes is a rises of interconnected freshwater lakes located in North Eastern America. It consists of Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario.

  • Lake Area (sq km)

Superior             82100

Victoria              69484

Baikal                 31500

Great Bear         31153

  • The largest fresh water lake in the world is Superior Lake which is one of the continent lake of the Great Lakes on the Canada – United border.

  • The deepest lake in the world is Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia. It is a natural lake that is 5387 feet (1642 m) deep.

  • Lake Titicaca is located in Peru. It’s depth is 370 m (1214 feet).

  • Lake Victoria is located between Tanzania, Uganda & Kenya. It has a maximum depth of 84 m and an average depth of 40 m.

  • The Dead Sea is a lake lying on the border Israel, Palestine and Jordan. Its average depth is 120 m.

  • Finland is called land of thousand lakes. There are nearly 188000 lakes and 179000 islands in Finland. The largest lake Saimaa is the fourth largest lake in Europe.

  • Finger lake region refers to a series of small lakes in north west of Newyork, USA.

  • Lakes                   Countries

Titicaca Lake              Bolvia-Peru

Lake Urmia                 Iran

Lake Reindeer             Canada

Lake Athabasca          Canada

Boiling Lake               Dominica

Five Flower Lake       Sichuan, China

Great Salve Lake        Canada

Red Lagoon                Bolivia

  • The highest waterfall of the world is Salto Angel also known as “Angel Fall” which is 979 meters high. It is located at Rio Caroni River in Canaima National Park of Venezuela.

  • Tugela Falls is located at Tugela River in South Africa. It is 948 meter high.

  • Ribbon Falls is located in Yosemite National Park in California at Ribbon River. It is 491 meter high.

  • Niagara Falls is located at the international border between Canada and the United States on the banks of Niagara River. It has vertical drop of 55-57 meter.

  • The waterfall “Victoria” is associated with the River Zambezi located at the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe in Southern-central Africa. The waterfall “Victoria” was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1989.

  • Plitvice Lake National Lake was granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1979. The beauty of the National Park lies in it’s sixteen lakes, interconnected by a series of waterfalls, and set in deep woodland populated by rare bird species.

  • Angel falls located in Guayan highlands is the highest waterfall in the world. Its height is 979 m. Whereas Tugela Fall is the second highest waterfall with height of 948 m.



  • Strait of Malacca runs between Indonesia and Malaysia. The Strait of Malacca connects Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean.

  • Between India and East Asia, the navigation time and distance could be greatly reduced by opening a new canal between the Gulf of Siam and Andaman Sea.

  • The Strait of Gibraltar separates Europe from Africa. It connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea.

  • The Strait of Hormuz is located between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

  • Bering Strait separates Asia from North America. It is located at eastern most point of Russia at 1690 43’ east latitude and western end (Alaska) of USA at 168005’ west latitude. 92 km wide strait connects the Chukchi Sea (part of the Arctic Ocean) in the north with the Bering Sea (part of the Pacific Ocean) in the south.

  • The Ten Degree Channel separates the Andaman and Nicobar islands in the Bay of Bengal. The two sets of islands together form the Indian Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. This channel is 150 km wide. It is so named as it lies on the 100 northern latitude.

  • Dover Strait marks the boundary between English Channel and North Sea. There are three marine tunnels through Dove Strait on the eastern part of England channel which connect England and France. These tunnels connect Falke Stone of England with Calois of France.

  • Bab el-Mandeb Strait connects the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean. The Strait of Hormuz links the Persian Gulf with the Gulf of Oman. The Strait of Malacca connects Indian Ocean to South China Sea. The Bosphorus Strait (or Bosphorus) connects the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara.

  • The Palk Strait lies between Sri Lanka an d Tami Nadu in India. It connects the Bay of Bengal to the Gulf of Mannar. The Strait is 64 to 137 km wide. The Strait is named after Robert Palk, who was a Governor of Madras Presidency (1755-1763) during British rule.

  • The Gulf of Bothnia is situated between Finland and Sweden and Baffin Bay is located between Canada and Greenland. The Gulf of Carpentaria is a large, shallow sea enclosed on three sides by Northern Australia while the Gulf of Tonkin is located between Vietnam and China.




  • The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway located in Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. It is 164 km long and 300 m wide. This canal connects Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea. It was made operational in 1869. Tewfik port (Suez port) is located to the south of Suez Canal and port Said is located to it’s north. It is the largest artificial canal of the world.

  • One will not have to pass through the Suez Canal while going from Mumbai to Suez because the Suez port is located at the southern end of the Suez Canal.

  • The Kiel Canal connects the North Sea to the Baltic Sea. Located in Germany, Kiel Canal is the busiest artificial waterway of the world.

  • The Panama Canal is major ship canal of Central America. It was constructed by cutting across the Isthmus of Panama. It connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. This canal has significantly reduced the distance between San Francisco (on the western coast) and Newyork (on the eastern coast).

  • Soo Canal connects two of the five great lakes of North America-superior and Huron.

  • Ludwings Canal is used as an inland waterway in Southern Germany. The sault-Sainte Marie Canal which was a part of the shipping route from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Superior until 1987 is located in Canada. Volga-Don Canal connects two important rivers of Russia i.e., Volga River and Don River. White Sea Canal is located in Russia. It connects White Sea with Lake Onega.

  • A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercrafts between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. Locks are used to make a river more easily navigable, or to allow a canal to lake a reasonably direct line across land that is not level.

World’s Major Dams

  • Itaipu Dam is a joint venture between Brazil and Paraguay (both South American counties) at Itaipu of Brazil on the Parana River. The dam is 196 meter high and 7919 meter long.

  • The world’s longest cross sea bridge is built over Tiaozhan Bay. The bridge spans 42.4 km and connects the eastern coastal city of Oingdao to the suburb of Huangdo. It was opened to traffic on 30 June, 2011.

  • River Dam

Colorado            Hoover

Damodar            Panchet Hill

Nile                    Aswan

Zambezi             Kariba

  • Kariba dam one of the largest dams of the world, is located on Zambezi River on Zambia-Zimbabwe border.

  • The Aswan dam is located in Egypt of African continent. It is built on the River Nile. Its water is used for irrigation of crops, and to generate hydroelectric power. Its construction was started in 1960. The dam is approximately 364 feet high and 3220 feet wide.

  • The Zangmu Dam is gravity dam on the Yarlung/Zangbo/Brahmaputra River in Tibet. The dam is apprehended to reduce the flow of Brahmaputra River.

  • However dam also known as Boulder dam is a concrete arch gravity dam in the black canyon of Colorado River on the border of U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona.



Coral Reefs

  • Most of the world’s coral reefs are found at eastern and western coastal areas between the tropic of cancer and tropic of capricorn. Australia’s Great Barrier Reef is world’s largest coral reef. Coral reefs cover less than 0.1% of our Oceans but they contain 25% of the world’s marine species.

  • The Great Barrier Reef is the world’s largest coral reef. The reef is located in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of Queensland in North East Australia. Total 1600 km long coral reef lies between 90 south to 220 There are over 1500 species of fish, about 400 species of corals, and approximate 4000 species of molluscs.


  • Atmosphere is a mixture of different gases, of which 99% are mainly Nitrogen (78.08%) and Oxygen (20.95%). Remaining approximately 1% are Argon, Carbon dioxide, Neon, Helium, Methane, Hydrogen, Nitrous Oxide, Ozone, Krypton, Xenon etc. Heavy gases are found at the bottom of atmosphere and light gases are found at the top. Carbon dioxide is found up to 20 km above Earth, Oxygen and nitrogen up to 100 km, Hydrogen up to 125 km and except Ozone other gases are found at much higher elevation.

  • On the basis of temperature and air pressure atmosphere is divided into five layers starting from the earth’s surface which are as follows –

Troposphere       –        12 km from the surface of the earth

Stratosphere       –        12-50 km

Mesosphere        –        50-80 km

Ionosphere         –        80-640 km

Exosphere          –        above more than 640 km


  • Almost all the weather phenomena like rainfall, fog and hailstorm etc. occur in troposphere. The temperature in this layer decreases at the rate of 6.50 C for every 1000 meter (1 km) height. This is the most important layer for all biological activity.

  • The ozone layer protects us from harmful radiations of the Sun. In atmosphere it is mainly found in the lower portion of the Stratosphere from 15-35 km above Earth. Ozone is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms. its colour is blue.

  • Ionosphere is composed of electrically charged particles that are called “ions”. These particles reflect radio waves back to the Earth surface and enable us to have wireless communities.

  • Radio waves are reflected by the Ionosphere. Other major events that occur in this region are as follows –

Identification of cosmic rays and observation of Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis

  • Geostationary satellites are positioned at approximately 36000 km height above the Earth. Exosphere is outer limit of atmosphere above 640 km from the Earth. Therefore the communication satellite located in outer most layer of atmosphere are in Exosphere

  • Almost all the weather phenomena like rainfall, fog and hailstorm etc. occur in troposphere.

Stratosphere       –        contains a layer of ozone gas.

Radio waves transmitted from the earth are reflected back to the Earth by Ionosphere.  Aurous are also related to this layer.

  • Atmosphere

  • Extends up to 1600km.

  • Nitrogen → 78%-growth of living organisms

  • O2 → 21% → Breathe of life

  • Co2 → Absorbs heat radiated by earth, keeps it warm, growth of plants

  • Density of atmosphere is max at the sea level and decreases rapidly as we go up. [Mountaineer-carry cylinder (O2)]

  • Composition of Atmosphere

  1. Nitrogen → 78%

  2. Oxygen → 21%

  3. Argon → 0.93%

  4. CO2 → 0.03%

  5. Others → 0.04%



  • The principal source of atmospheric and Earth’s surface energy is the Sun. Insolation is the incoming solar Energy intercepted by the Earth. The energy radiated from Sun is known as short-wave solar radiation whereas the energy radiated from Earth is known as long wave radiation. The long wave radiation is absorbed by the atmospheric gases particularly by carbon dioxide and the other green house gases. Thus, the atmosphere is indirectly heated by the Earth’s radiation. Increasing concentration of green house gases such as carbon dioxide and methane increases the temperature of the lower atmosphere by restricting the outward passage of emitted radiation, resulting in global warming.

  • Gloabally inslolation is the main factor behind the distribution of temperature. By absorbing Sun rays, the surface of Earth gets warmer. This is the reason why temperature decreases as height increases. At high altitude air density is less with little humidity.

  • Albedo is the fraction of solar energy (short wave radiation) reflected from the Earth back into space. It is a measure of the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface. Land covered with fresh snow has a high albedo (75-95%), most sunlight hitting the surface bounces back towards space. The average albedo of Earth is 30-35%. Sand desert has albedo 20-30%. Paddy crop land has albedo 3-15% and Prairie land has albedo 10-20%.

  • More the size of the ocean, less the variation in the annual temperature. Therefore more temperature variation is found at Atlantic Ocean as compared to Pacific Ocean.

  • Cloudy night contains more water vapour than clear night. The heat emitted from the Earth’s surface is trapped by the clouds and emitted back towards the earth. As a result cloudy night seems warmer than clear night. If sky is clear, heat emitted from the Earth’s surface freely escape into space, resulting in colder temperature.


  • A cyclone is a large air mass that rotates around a strong centre of low atmospheric pressure. They are usually characterized by in ward spiraling winds upon the centre of cyclone. A cyclone centre is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure. Air descend at the centre of cyclone.

  • In great plains USA when polar cold air mass meets with warm humid tropics air mass then a frightful cyclone develops known as “Tornado”. Tornado Alley is an area in plains of the mid-USA that has a very high number of destructive Tornadoes. Tornado Alley mainly includes states of Mississippi and Missouri Valley that it Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska.

  • Tornadoes are tropical cyclones. They are small in size but are immediately powerful and destructive. A tornado is a dark funnel shaped cloud that reached from the sky to the ground. Normally tornado comes in all tropical and subtropical regions, but Caribbean Sea and American region are most prone to it.

  • The Fujita-Pearson Scale or more popularly known as the F-scale, is used to measure the intensity of a tornado. The scale was named after Ted Fujita.

  • A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops in the mid northern hemisphere of China Sea between 1000 and 1800 E longitude.

  • A tropical cyclone is known by different names in different parts of the world. It is called a “Hurricane” in the USA, “typhoon” in China. In North and North-West Australia it is called Willy-Willy and in India it is called Cyclones.

  • A sudden fall of the Barometer indicates westerly winds followed by a violent storm.

  • The Saffir Simpson Scale measure the intensity of hurricane. Wind speed is measured on a scale of 1-5 to give an estimate of potential property damage and flooding along the coast.

  • Willy-Willy –        Australia

Hurricane                    –        USA

Typhoons                    –        China

Baguio                        –        Philippines

  • The tropical cyclones Aila, Thane and Neelam affected India but Nargis cyclone did not affected India. Nargis cyclones mainly affected the region of Myanmar.

  • The most proximate reason for absence of cyclone in South Atlantic and South Eastern Pacific region in tropical latitude is the low temperature of sea surface.



  • Water vapour present in the air is known as humidity. Humidity in atmosphere is mainly related to temperature. Moisture content decreases wit increases latitude, that is in tropical region humidity is 2.6%, at 500 latitude it is 0.9% and at 700 latitude it is 0.2% only. Atmosphere contains 90% moisture up to 5 km height from the ground. Humidity is directly proportional to temperature, that is at higher temperature air can hold more water vapour than the same amount of air at lower temperatures.

  • Humidity is the amount of water vapour in the air. The energy in form of heat required to convert water into vapour or gas, is known as humid heat. In summer, humidity is very high therefore weather is muggy. Absolute humidity is the weight of water vapour per unit volume, usually expressed in grains per cubic foot.

  • Moisture

  • Moisture in air at any time is known as humidity.

  • Warmer air→ More capacity to hold moisture.

  • When water Vapour rises, it starts cooling and condenses causing formation of droplets of water. Clouds are just masses of such water droplets. When these droplets become too heavy to float, they come down as Precipitation.


Air Pressure

  • The sub-polar low pressure belt lies between 600-650 latitude in both the hemisphere throughout the year as there is low temperature and low atmospheric pressure. Although this belt has nothing to do with temperature. Low atmospheric pressure generally built upon land whereas high atmospheric pressure mostly over oceans.

  • The horse latitudes are located at about 300 to 350 north and south the Equator. In the northern hemisphere it is called as the north sub-tropical high pressure belt and in the southern hemisphere it is known as the south-tropical high pressure belt. The existence of these pressure belts is due to the fact that the rising air of the equatorial region is deflected towards pole due to the earth’s rotation.

  • Air pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the weight of air on the earth’s surface. The distribution of air pressure is influenced by temperature of air at a given place. Temperature is reversely related with pressure. Due to highest temperature in summer, pressure is lowest on earth. As altitude increases the temperature and air pressure decreases. Distribution of air pressure is influenced by temperature and other kinetic factor (i.e. earth rotation, water vapour, altitude) etc.

  • Air Pressure

  • Pressure exerted by weight of air on earth surface.

  • Highest at sea level and decreases with height.

  • High temp→ low pressure→ cloudy skies and wet weather

  • Low temp→ High pressure→ clear and sunny skies

  • Note → On moon there is no air and hence no air pressure.

Astronauts have to wear special protective space suits filled with air when they go to moon.  If they did not wear these suits, the counter pressure exerted by body of astronauts would make blood vessels burst.  The astronauts would bleed.

  • Air presses our body with great force, but we don’t feel it because our body exerts counter pressure in earth.



  • Clouds are formed as a result of the process of condensation. Conversion of water in gaseous state to liquid of solid state is called condensation. Clouds are collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystal formed by condensation of water vapour in atmosphere.

  • Nimbostratus clouds are found very near to the surface or the Earth. They are dark grey with a ragged base. Nimbostratus clouds are associated with continuous rain.

  • Cirrostratus is highest altitude clouds. These are mainly formed at an altitude of over 18000 feet.

  • Thunder cloud is a process of thunderstorm. In fact thunderstorms are local lightning storm that develop in hot, humid tropical areas like India very frequently. The rising temperature produces strong upward rising winds. These winds carry water droplets upwards, where they freeze (condense), and fall down again. The swift movement of the falling water droplets along with the rising air creates lightning and sound.

  • During thunderstorm, thunder is the sound caused by a lighting discharge. Lightning hearts the air in its path and causes a large over-pressure of the air within its channel. The channel expands supersonically into the surrounding air as a shockwave and creates an acoustic signal that is heard as thunder.



  • The horizontal winds near the earth surface respond to the combined effect of three forces – The pressure gradient force, Frictional Force and the Coriolis force. The rotation of the Earth on its axis affects the direction of the wind. This force is called the coriolis force after the French physicist G-G Coriolis who described this force. It deflects the wind to the right (clockwise) direction in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left (anti-clock) in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • The westerlies are prevailing wind from the west towards the east between sub tropical high pressure zone (300-350) and sub polar low pressure (600-650). These winds are more complicated in the northern hemisphere due to larger expansion of land. These are less active during summer and more active in winter. As these pass over the sea, these carry moisture and cause rain. Due to lesser expansion of land is the southern hemisphere, these winds become extremely powerful and turn into storm. Due to it’s intensity in southern hemisphere, it is called “Roaring Fourties” at 400 latitude, “Furious fifties” at 500 latitude and “Shrieking sixties” at 600

  • The Roaring Forties are strong westerly winds that blow in the southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 400-500. Roaring Forties are stormy in nature. The strong north-west to east air currents are caused by the combination of air being displaced from the Equator towards the South Pole and the Earth’s rotation. The Roaring Forties bring overcast skies, rains and cold temperature.

  • Chinook means “snow-eater”. Chinook winds are most common during winter and early spring along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains from Colorado (USA) into British Columbia (Canada) in north. Chinook is a hot wind that blows in winter and therefore raises the temperature within a short time.

  • Deflection of winds to the right direction in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere is due to coriolis force. Coriolis force arises due to the rotation of the earth on it’s axis.

  • Mediterranean Sea is located between 300-400 This area is under subtropical high pressure dynamic belt. Summer trade wind and westerly (anti trade) winter wind blows from these latitude. It means Westerly, blows from these latitudes toward the north-east and trade Wind flows from these latitude toward north-west.

  • Monsoon are those seasonal winds whose direction reserves as per the season. For six months during summer, these winds flow from ocean to land and during winter season, these winds flow from land to sea. According to Dr. Rama Shastry, “Monsoonal winds blow on a large scale over an expanded region. Their direction reserves as per the changes in season. According to Dr. H.G. Dobby, “Reversal of wind system is the keynote of monsoonal climate.

  • Wind

  1. Permanent Winds

  • Trade winds, westerlies and Easterlies.

  • Blow constantly throughout year in a particular direction.


  1. Seasonal Winds

  • Change their direction in different seasons

  • Example: Monsoon in India.


Local Winds

  • Foehn- A warm dry wind blowing down the northern slopes of the Alps. It most influences the weather of Switzerland.

  • Simoom – Strong, dry wind that blows in the desert of Arabian, Kurdistan.

  • Santa Ana – The local wind of southern California.

  • Zonda – The local wind blows on the eastern slope of the Andes in Argentina.

  • Bora is a dry, cold and fast blowing wind on the eastern coast of Adriatic Sea. The northern part of Italy is particularly influenced by this wind.

  • Chinook – It is local wind that blows in the east of Rockies mountain, USA.

  • Sirocco – wind blows from the Sahara desert toward north east direction of Mediterranean Sea and enters Sicily (Italy), Spain and other European countries.

  • Blizzard – A blizzard is a long-lasting snowstorm with very strong winds and intense snowfall. It flows through South Pole, Siberia, Canada, and USA.

  • Norwester – It is a local wind of Indian also called “Kalbaisakhi”.

  • Sirocco is a warm dry and dusty wind blowing from Sahara desert to the Mediterranean Sea. This wind carries red sand with it. This wind sometimes causes rain in Italy. When the red sand falls on earth with the rain drops, it s called Blood rain.

  • Sirocco is Mediterranean wind that blows from the Sahara desert. Sirocco carries dust from Libya to the Mediterranean, Malta, Italy, Croatia, Montenegro, Albania and Greece.

  • Local Winds

  • Blow during particular period of day or year in small area.

  • Example :- Land and sea breezes, Loo



  • Temperate coniferous forests cover the highest percentage of forest area in the world. Temperate Coniferous forests are mainly found in high latitudes.

  • Bhutan has made constitutional provision for maintaining forest over 60% of it’s total geographical area. Presently, about 72 percent of Bhutan’s total area is under forest cover.

  • Tropical evergreen forests grow in the regions near the Equator (10°N-10°S) and close to the tropics. These regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year. As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen. Three major regions of evergreen forest in the world are-

Amazon River Basin- Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname.

Congo basin- Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Equatorial Ginny, Congo Republic.

Southeast Asia- Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

  • Taiga forests are characteristic of temperate region. Taiga Biome is also known for coniferous forest is boreal forest. It is the northern most biome among the temperate biomes. It is expanded over North America and Eurasia to the sub polar climate regions. Summer, in this region, is comparatively shorter.

  • The Amazon River Basin is the largest rainforest on Earth. The basin covers 40 percent of the South American continent and includes parts of eight South American countries: Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Surinam.

  • Coniferous forest are found in 50° N to 60°N latitudes that lies between the Tundra to the north and the deciduous forest to the south. These forests are found in Canada, Europe, Asia, and the United States. So it is clear that coniferous forests are not found in Amazonia (Brazil). Rather, tropical evergreen forests are found in Amazonia (Brazil).

  • Coniferous forests mainly found in the temperate regions of the world.

  • Instead of the tropical rain forests, if temperate forests are cleared, they can yield productive farmland. Land for agriculture is being fastly developed in mid latitude area by clearing these forests. So Assertion (A) is wrong. Primary productivity of tropical rainforest (2200 gram biomass per square meter/year) is greater than all other types of forests. It is greater than temperate forests (1320 gram biomass/square meter/year) also.

  • If tropical rain forest is removed, it does not regenerate quickly as compared to a tropical deciduous forest. The main reason is the deficiency of nutrients in the soil of rain forest.

  • Countries and their Timber –

Timber                                         Country

Cedar                          –                 Canada

Douglas Fir                 –                 Mexico

Mahogany                   –                 Honduras

Teak                            –                 Myanmar

  • Monsoon Forest –                 Teak and Sal

Equatorial Forest        –                 Mahogany and Rosewood

Mediterranean Forest –                 Plum and Olive

Coniferous Forest       –                 Pine and Spruce

  • Dalbergia species is a large group which has 600 species. Dalbergia is a large genus of small to medium-size trees, these trees are mainly found in North and South America, Africa, Madagascar and Tropical region of South Asia. Some important species of Dalbergia are Sesame (Rosewood), Kingwood, tulipwood, money bush etc. The smell of sesame of Rose wood is like rose, so it is called Rosewood.


Word Climate

  • Earth is tilted on its axis. If Earth would not have been tilted on its axis, then days and nights would have been equal everywhere. In the same way, if Earth would not have been revolving around the sun, then there would been always longer days and shorter nights in one hemisphere and longer nights and shorter days in the other hemisphere. But except the equatorial line, difference is seen in the length of the days and nights in different seasons. On equatorial line, days and nights are always equal.

  • The reason behind the high annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is the thermal difference between the land and water. The land gets heated rapidly through the insolation of the sun whereas water gets heated very slowly. Due to this the weather of the coastal areas remains cold as compared to the terrestrial regions.

  • Latitude is the main factor which determines the climate of any area. The major belts of the climate have been divided according to the different latitudes.

  • About one third area on Earth is covered by arid region which is greater than all other geographical regions.

  • The climatic region of equatorial line spreads between 5° – 10°latitudes in both the hemispheres. There are two important features of this climatic region :

(1) Constant high temperature throughout the year.

(2) Constant high rainfall throughout the year.

Due to high temperature throughout the year, there is high humidity which results in conventional rains mostly in noon. As the day progresses, the intensity of rain gets reduced.

  • Earth is divided into three types of climatic zones – Tropical, temperate and cold. These spread from the equatorial line to the poles. Asia is expanded from the Equator to the North Pole, hence it is home to all types of climatic zones.

  • Ethiopia does not come under the category of equatorial climate. Congo, Gabon and Zaire are situated on equatorial line.



  • Characteristics of warm and dry climate, mild and wet winter and evergreen Oak trees are related to Mediterranean region.

  • Tropical Savannah region’s climatic features are – clear dry and wet season, high temperature throughout the year and high insolation. Average annual rain in this region is between 500 mm to 2000 mm and no month of the year has temperature less than 20°C.

  • Region between 5° to 10° latitude on north and south of the Equator is known as equatorial region. In this region, there is constant high temperature and heavy rainfall occurs throughout the year. The climate of this region is not conducive for humans but it is conductive for vegetation. Evergreen forests are found here. Humidity persists all the day and hence the area becomes prone to disease.

  • Mediterranean climate extends 30° – 40° latitudes around the Mediterranean Sea and is experienced in the western parts of continents besides Rome.

These areas are –

South California, Los Angeles in North America, Central Chile in South America, Cape Town in South Africa & South Australia..

Thus, it is clear that New York, located on the east coast of USA does not fall under Mediterranean climate.

  • In Central Asian Steppes, the climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty and the people used to be nomadic herder.

  • The Mediterranean Sea climatic region receive rainfall in winters.

In Equatorial regions, convectional rain occurs with thunder in noon almost throughout the year. In Monsoon regions, the major rainfall is received by Monsoon winds. In Desert regions, rainfall is either negligible or indefinite.

  • Norway comes under the western European type of climate (Western climate of both the hemispheres in continents between 40° – 65° latitudes). In this climatic region rainfall occurs in sufficient and equal quantity throughout the year. Whereas China comes under China type climate although here also rains occur throughout the year but winter season is relatively dry.

  • Most of Italy has Mediterranean type of climate, which has, rainy winters and hot, dry summer. Sudan has a tropical climate. Summer temperature often exceeds 43°C in the desert zones, and rainfall is negligible. Iran has a hot, dry climate characterized by long, hot, dry summers and short winters. Chile, situated in desert zone, is very hot and humid during summer and very cold and dry during winters.



  • (Region) (Type of  Climate)

California (U.S.A.)                       –         Mediterranean

West Australia                              –        Hot Desert

Bangladesh                                   –         Tropical Monsoon

Siberia (Russia)                            –        Cold Temperate

  • Congo is situated in Central Africa. Hence the climate is equatorial as the Equatorial line passes through it.

California is situated on the eastern part of United States of America. This is among the Mediterranean climatic regions. Bangladesh is situated in South Asia and comes under the area of monsoon type of climate.

Savannah Type of climate is found in Sudan,

Savannah type climate is also known as Sudan type climate.

  • In Equatorial regions, there are mainly two seasons –

  • Summer and winter.

In Mediterranean region, winter receives more rains. China type of climate is extended between 25° – 40° latitudes on the eastern part of the continent. Here rainfall occours throughout the year. Tropical highlands exhibit vertical zonation of different climates.

  • Mediterranean climate is caused by seasonal reversal. During summer, as Sun is in summer solistice position, all pressure belts shift towards north. This results in expansion of sub tropical high pressure over this region. In the winter, when the sun’s position is in winter solistice, westerly winds extend over this region which bring cyclones from mid latitudes causing rain.

  • Oceanic streams and prevalent winds have considerable impact over the temperature of western European climatic regions. The expansion of Europe is in the belt of westerly winds. Most of the time winds blow from south west. In Europe, none of the mountain is spread from north to south Because of no hurdle in the path these winds make the temperature mild. The hot waters of nearby oceans of Western Europe to freeze. Due to this, the ports are open throughout the year. There is good rainfall in these regions due to Westerly wines.

  • Data mentioned above is related to Mediterranean region. In this region total rain fall is received during winter and summer is mostly dry as shown in above data by negligible rains during the month of June and July. In such type of region, temperature is constant throughout the year.

  • Mediterranean climate and monsoon climate are associated with the transfer of pressure belts. The Mediterranean climate regions are found in the western parts of continents between 30° – 40° latitude in both the hemispheres. Sub- tropical high pressure belts are found in the middle of 30° – 35° latitudes. Trade winds blow during summers in these latitudes where as in winters these high pressure belts shift towards the equatorial line. There is an emergence of monsoon winds due to the shifting of atmospheric pressure belts.

  • Zaire is a central African country whereas Netherland is a Western European country. The sequence of climatic regions while going from Zaire to Netherland are as follows:

  • Zaire falls in the equatorial region so firstly equatorial type of climate.

  1. Hot desert climate in Sahara Western region.

  2. Mediterranean type of climate in the Mediterranean Sea region.

  3. Finally enters Netherland where there is Western European type of climate.

  • Mawsynran (Meghalaya) is the wettest place on earth.

  • The coldest places of the world are –

Vostok (Eastern Antarctika) (-89.2)°C (recorded on 21 July, 1985 Apart from polar areas –

Verkhoyansk (Siberia) (-68)°C (recorded on 6 February, 1933) As per the latest record –

Eastem Antarctica (-93.2)°C (recorded on 10 Aug, 2010)

Eastem Antarctica (-93.2)°C (recorded on 31July, 2013)

  • The hottest –        Sahara desert

The coldest        –        Antarctica

The wettest        –        Cherrapunji

The driest           –        Chile

  • According to NASA’s satellite data (2003 – 09) Lut desert in Iran (highest temperature 70.7°C recorded in 2005) is the hottest place. According to Guinness World Record, the wettest place on earth is Mawsynram (11873 mm annual rain).

  • Originally the term El Nino applied to an annual weak warm ocean current that ran southwards along the coast of Peru. It affects the Indian monsoon rains and causes drought like situation. La Nina is cooling of water in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which is opposite to the El Nino.

  • El-Nino is related to eastern part of the Pacific Ocean which increases the temperature of the surface water while La Nine is related to the large pool of warm water in western Pacific Ocean. Al Nino has an adverse effect on south-west Indian monsoon whereas due to La Nina, on the western side of Pacific Ocean, rainfall heavier which activates the Indian summer monsoon also.



  • The above mentioned data is related to the western European type of climate (Northern Hemisphere). Its average temperature remains between 15°-21°C. Rainfall is in sufficient quantity in every season of the year but as compared to winters, scanty rainfall is received during summer season. In the above mentioned data less rainfall is shown in the month of May, June and July. Features of rest of the climates are as follows.

St. Lawrence type – Rainfall throughout the year. Comparatively less in winters, average temperature 24-26. 6°C

Mediterranean Climate – Maximum rainfall in winters, summers usually dry.

  • Normally rainfall occurs throughout the year in China type of climate region but it occurs more during the summer season. The average temperature of this climatic region during the summer season is between 24° – 26.6°C.

  • Hekistotherms are plants which grow in very low temperature areas like mountains and Alpine forests.


  • Smaller the pore of the soil, more effective is the cell activity and bigger the pore of any soil, less effective will be its cell activity. In clay soil, the cell activity is most effective and it is least in sandy soil. The effectiveness of the cell activity in these four soils are as follows:

Clayey > silt soil > loamy soil > sandy soil

  • In broad sense, the meaning of soil conservation is not only controlling erosion, rather it aims at maintaining high level fertility of the land. The improvement in the land use is called soil conservation.

  • Terrarrossa is a type of red clay soil produced by the weathering of lime stone rocks.

  • Tropical rain forest regions of the world are facing the soil leaching problem due to heavy rainfall throughout the year.

  • Halophytes grow well in saline soil. Cryophytes grow well in cold soil. Plants growing in strong rocks are called Lithophyte and xerophytes grow in tropical desert areas. Hydrophytes grow well in water logged areas.

  • Excretion of urea by animals and dead vegetation are decomposed by decomposers. This process helps plants getting nutrients from them. In this way continuous process of nitrogen cycle goes on and soil gets the required amount of nitrogen.

  • Contour bunding method of soil conservation is used in mountain regions. Slowing the flow of water during rain it checks soil erosion. In this process, farming on mountain slopes is done by contour bunding. Contours facilitate easy flow of water thus reducing soil erosion.



Soils                                              Climate region

Podzol                         –                 Cold temperate

Chernozem                  –                 Temperate cold steppe

Spodosols                   –                 Humid cold temperate

Laterite                        –                 Hot and humid

  • Earthworms give special contribution in the formation of soil and increase its productivity. They are called the ‘ecosystem engineer’. They construct pores in the soil through which water and oxygen enters and carbon dioxide come out. The wastes of the earthworms are important for the productivity of the soil. They converts the soil into fine particles and make it soft. They act as decomposers.

  • Babar

  • Rivers, after descending from mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16km in width lying parallel to slopes of Shivaliks, knows as Babar.

  • All streams disappear in this Babar belt.

  • Terai

  • South of Babar belt, the streams & rivers re-emerge & create a Wet, Swampy & Marshy region known as Terai.

  • Thickly forested region full of wildlife.

  • Forests => Cleared to create agricultural land & to settle migrants from Pakistan after partition. Examples:- Dudhwa National Park

Uttar Pradesh

Tiger Reserve

Kishanpur  & Katarighat wildlife sanctuary

Swamp deer, Hispid hare, Barasingha

  • Bhangar

  • Largest part of northern plain formed of older alluvium. They lie above flood plains of rivers & present a terrace like feature → Bhangar

  • The soil in this region contains Calcareous Deposits locally Known as “Kankar”

  • Khadar

  • The newer, younger deposits of flood plains.

  • They are renewed almost every year & so are fertile, →Ideal for intensive agriculture



  • Nomadic herding is a practice of moving from one place to another with cattle in search of pasture. Nomadic pastoralism is commonly practiced in regions with arid land over the world, especially in the steppe lands of the agricultural zone of Eurasia. Nomadic herding still exists in the world in the areas of Central Asia, Africa and South America.

  • Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people with their livestock from one grazing ground to another, as from lowlands to highlands, with the change of seasons. Pastoral communities in the Himalayas, such as the Bhotiya, Bakarwal, Gaddi, etc have traditionally been practicing livestock herding by migrating to more suitable pastures on seasonal basis in

  • Cro-Magnon humans is considered to be most recent in above mentioned Homo sapiens species. It is immediate ancestor of modem Homo sapiens. The first specimen of Cro-Magnon humans remains was found in 1868 in Dordogne, France. Cro-Magnon man, an early Homo sapiens (the species to which modem humans belong) is considered to have lived about 40,000 years ago. The evolution period of human species is as follows :

Neanderthal humans    – 50,000-350,000 years ago

Pilt magnon humans    – 500,000 years ago

Heidelberg humans      – 400,000-700,000 years ago

  • Archaeopteryx is considered to be the first bird to have appeared on the earth. It is estimated to have developed 150 million years ago.

  • Africa continent is known as ‘the Cradle of Mankind’.

  • Presently, the Caucasoids are considered as the largest racial group in the world. The colour of eyes, among the Caucasoids, is light blue to dark brown and hair straight to wavy. The skull index is obtained more than 80. Howell & Smith classified the race in three classes: Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean. The Caucasoid race has the largest number of members in the world.

  • Original home of the Gypsies was India. They are believed to have originated from ‘Don Caste’.

  • Pygmy tribes live in equatorial rain forests of Congo River basin in Africa. It is hunter- gatherer tribe. The Pygmy tribe traditionally live in single family huts called mongulus, made of branches and leaves on the tree.

  • The pygmy tribe, inhabitant of Congo basin in Central Africa is mainly hunters and Gatherers.

  • Keystone species arc pioneer or basic species. Since community life is their way of living, they decide the ability of other species to persist in the community.

  • The Eskimos have traditionally inhabited in the Northern Russia, Alaska , Canada and Greenland. There are 2 groups of Eskimos which are:

(1) Inuit : These are inhabitants of Canada, Eastern Alaska and Greenland.

(2) Yupik : These are inhabitants of Eastern Russia and Western Alaska.

Oraon – Oraon is one of the tribal communities found in Chhotanagpur region and Andaman Nicobar Island in India.

Lapps – These are inhabitants of European Tundra region.

Gond – This tribe is inhabitant of India.

  • Eskimos are found at high latitude ice land i.e., (Canada, Alaska, Greenland). The Pygmy tribes live in Central Africa, the Bundu tribe lives in Western African regions while the Bushmen peoples of South Africa live in the Kalahari Desert.

  • Eskimos tribe lives in Tundra region of Canada & Greenland, the Maasai live in Kenya, the Bedouin tribe lives in Saudi Arabia and the Bushmen tribe lives in Kalahari desert (Botswana some parts of South Africa and Namibia).



 (Tribes)                              (Area)

Khirghiz             –                 Central Asia

Bushman            –                 Kalahari

Ainu                   –                 Japan

Bedouin             –                 Arab

 (Means in polar areas)     (Function)

Kayak                 –                 Narrow hunting boat

Inuit                   –                 Snow house

Umiak                –                 Boat for Transport

Sledge                –                 Dog pulled vehicle

Note – Inuit is a local name for Eskimos. Snow houses built by them are called Igloo.

  • The tribes and related countries are as follows:

(Country)                             (Tribe)

Congo                –                 Pigmies

Namibia             –                 Bushman

Saudi Arabia      –                 Bedouins

Kenya                 –                 Maasai

  • The Semang tribes are inhabitants of the forests of the Malay Peninsula (Malaysia). They belong to the Negrito species.

  • The Semang tribe belongs to Malaysia not Indonesia. Rest other tribes and their countries are correctly matched.

  • The zulu is a tribe of South Africa. The zulus are known for their culture and traditions. The famous war of Isandlwana was fought between the British and the Zulus in 1879.

  • The Bushmen tribe lives in the Kalahari Desert not in Union of South Africa.

  • The Bushmen are members of various indigenous hunter-gatherer tribe of Southern Africa, found in Botswana, Namibia,Zimbabwe, Swaziland and South Africa etc.

 (Region)                                                                          (Tribal community)

Central/Eastern Europe & Western/Central Asia           Alpine

Congo Basin                                                                     Pygmy

Kalahari                                                                            Bushmen

Scandinavia                                                                       Nordic

Southeast Asia                                                                  Negrito

  • The Maasai tribes live in Kenya, Northern Tanzania and Eastern Uganda in Eastern Africa. They are pastoral nomads and livestock is basic occupation for them.

  • The Maasai tribe lives in Kenya, Northern Tanzania not in .

  • Armenia became a new country after dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, where Kurdish population is spread.



  • Inuit are groups of culturally similar indigenous people inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, Russia and Alaska.

Tribes                                  Habitat

Fulani                 –                 West Africa

Bantu                 –                 East, Central and Southern Africa

Maasai               –                 East Africa

Nuba                  –                 Sudan

  • The Sami (Lapps) tribe of Arctic Europe lives Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Russian Kola Peninsula. This region is known as Scandinavian region.

  • The native of North America are related to Mongoloid Race.


  • Esperanto is an International auxiliary language devised by Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof. Though it is not official language of any country, but it is estimated to have 10,00000 to 20,00000 users worldwide.

  • Mandarin was the language spoken by the largest number of people when this question was asked. Census related to language has two important component, (A) L – 1 – People using a language as primary language or mother tongue. (B) L – 2 People using language as second language besides primary language or mother tongue. The total number of L – 1 and L – 2 is considered as the total number of users of a language. According to Ethnologue (2012, 20th edition) most spoken languages of the world are –

Language           L – 1                   L – 2                   Total users

English               378.2 million     743.3 million         1.12 billion

Mandarin           908.7 million     198.4 million         1.10 billion Chinese

Hindustani         329.1 million     368.3 million         697.4 million (Hindi/Urdu)

Spanish              442.3 million     70.6 million         512.9 million

Arabic                290 million        132 million         422 million

French                76.7 million       208.1 million         284.9 million

Malay                 77 million          204 million         281 million Indonesian

Russian              153.9 million     110.4 million         264.3 million

Bengali               242.6 million     19.2 million         261.8 million

  • Spanish is an official language of Chile, Colombia & Cuba while it is not spoken in Republic of Congo.

 (Country)                           (Dialects)

Myanmar           –                 Burmese

Indonesia           –                 Indonesian (official language), English, Dutch, Javanese etc

Mauritius           –                 English, French (official languages), Hindi Urdu, Hakka, Bhojpuri and


Singapore           –                 Malay (National language), English, Mandarin and Tamil (all official



Economic Geography

Agriculture & Live Stocks

  • According to Food and Agriculture Organizations report for 2016, largest producer of wheat and rice in the world is China –

Wheat –

(1) China – 131689.03 thousand ton

(2) India – 93500.00 thousand ton

(3) Russia – 73294.57 thousand ton

(4) USA – 62859.05 thousand ton

Rice –

(1) China – 209503.03 thousand ton

(2) India – 158756.87 thousand ton

(3) Indonesia – 77297.51 thousand ton

(4) Bangladesh – 52590.00 thousand ton

  • India has the largest area under rice cultivation with 43 mn hectare rice harvested area more than China is harvested area of 30.40 mn hectare. Eng sentences China stand first in the production of rice. The reason for India’s less rice production is that only 50 percent of its total rice cultivated area is irrigated.

  • The highest productivity of Rice was in China when this question was asked. According to FAO- 2016 data, the production of Rice per hectare in Australia was 102889 hg followed by Egypt (93669 hg/ha), Uruguye (85690 hg/ha), United States (81121 hg/ha) and Turkey (78272 hg/ha).

  • The cultivation of hybrid rice is most popular in China. In China, hybrid rice is estimated to be cultivated on more 50% of rice-growing land.

  • The rice Gene Bank is situated in the International Rice Research Institute in Los Banos, Philippines.

  • Country Total export value (in thousand Doller)        Export price of rice     Rice share in total export

Japan                               2987602                                               18153                              0.60%

Myanmar                        1338761                                               157910                            11.79%

Thailand                          31426858                                             4429582                          14.09%

Indonesia                         34455718                                             1193                                 0.00%

India > Thailand > USA > Pakistan > Vietnam.

Top 5 country according to export quantity of rice in 2013 (FAO) –

India > Thailand > Vietnam > Pakistan > USA.

  • India is the second largest producer of sugarcane and the largest consumer of it world wide. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane.

According to FAO data 2016, the leading producer of sugarcane are –

  1. Brazil 768678382 ton

  2. India 348448000 ton

iii.     China                          123059739 ton

  1. Thailand 87468496 ton



  • According to 2016 food and Agriculture organization data, India is second largest producer of sugarcane in the World after Brazil.

  • According to data of FAO 2016, Russia and France are the largest producers of sugar beets in the world. After that, USA, Germany, and Turkey are ranked third, fourth and fifth respectively.

  • Ukraine produces almost whole of its sugar production from beets only.

  • The leading producer of cotton in the world was USA after China at the time when question was asked. According to recent data of FAO, China is the largest cotton seed producer while cotton lint top producer is India.

  • Australia has the highest per hectare production (2014) of cotton in the world. Present situation – Top 5 countries according to cotton yield: Australia > Turkey > China > Israel > Mexico.

  • According to FAO 2016 data, largest producer of castor oil seed is India and largest exporter (2013) of castor oilseeds is India.

  • According to FAO data 2016, largest producers of bananas in the world are-

  1. India 00 thousand ton

  2. China 78 thousand ton

  3. Indonesia 12 thousand ton

  4. Brazil 32 thousand ton

  5. Ecuador 68 thousand ton

  • According to data of FAO 2016, the five leading producer of Coconut in the world are as follows.



    (Country)               (Coconut) (metric tonnes)

  1. Indonesia 17722429 mt

  2. Philippines 13825080 mt

  3. India 11127898 mt

  4. Brazil 2649246 mt

  5. Sri Lanka 2520095 mt

  • According to FAOSTAT (as on 26.12.2016) data India ranks second in the production of fruits and vegetables.

  • According to FAO data (2016), largest producer of tobacco in the world are-

  1. China 2805.61 thousand ton

  2. India 6132 thousand ton

  3. Brazil 675.54 thousand ton

  4. United States of America 285.18 thousand ton

  5. Indonesia 196.15 thousand ton

  • When this question was asked, China was the leading producer of Tobacco & raw silk in the world. India was the leading producer of Jowar (Sorghum) in the world. United States of America was the largest producer of Soyabean in the world. According to 2016 FAO data largest producer of Jowar is United states of America, followed by Nigeria and Sudan. U.S.A. is the largest producer of Soyabean; China is the largest producer of Tobacco (Unmanufactured) and Raw Silk in the world presently.

  • Mauritius exports highest percentage of its sugar production. The economy of Mauritius mainly depends on sugar export and tourism. India and Mexico exports only 5% of its sugar production. As per latest data (2015). Mexico exports maximum percentage (48.2) of its sugar production. India (11.2%) is at second place in this regard. Globally, Thailand exports maximum (82.05%) share of its total sugar production.

  • According to recent data of FAO statistics department, the five leading producer of Natural rubber in the world are as follows:

  1. Thailand 64          Thousand tonnes

  2. Indonesia 78          Thousand tonnes

  3. Vietnam 33          Thousand tonnes

  4. India 80            Thousand tonnes

  5. China 34            Thousand tonnes

World                     13962.90        Thousand tonnes



  • ‘India’ is the correct answer, when question was asked. At present the largest rubber cultivation is done in Indonesia (3639092 ha) followed by Thailand (3093971 ha), Malaysia (1072920 ha) and China (718060 ha).

  • During the decade of 1870-80, due to the epidemic, called leaf rust, the cultivation of coffee was abandoned in most of the British colonies. This epidemic first started in Sri Lanka during the year 1867. Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales that causes coffee leaf rust (CLR), a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantation.

  • Fazenda is a type of plantation found in Brazil where coffee is produced in south-eastern regions of Brazil. Fazendas were concentrated primarily in the north-eastern region during the colonial period (16th-18th centuries) where sugar was

  • According to data of FAO 2016 leading producer of Coffee (green) in the world are as follows:

(1) Brazil,           (2) Vietnam,       (3) Colombia, (4) Indonesia,     (5) Ethiopia,         (6) Honduras,

(7) India.

  • According to FAO (2013) Vietnam is the second largest exporter of coffee in the world after Brazil.

  • Coffee canephora (Coffea robusta), commonly known as robusta coffee, is a variety of coffee that has its origins in Central and Western sub-Saharan Africa Ethiopia and Robusta coffee is also cultivated in India.

  • According to the data prepared by Tea Board India. Leading exporter of tea is Kenya.

Crop                                          Production zone

Coffee                   –                   Sao Paulo Plateau

Jute                        –                   Ganges delta

Rice                       –                   Yangtze plains

Wheat                    –                   Prairies plains

  • Yangzi Jiang basin is known for Rice production and Huang He basin is known for Winter wheat production while Coffee is cultivated in Sao Paulo region and Candy basin of Sri Lanka is prominent in Tea production.

Cocoa                    –                   Ghana

Coffee                   –                   Ivory Coast

Tea                        –                   Kenya

Sugarcane             –                   South Africa

  • Fruits, spices, vegetables, shrubs, flower and turf are cultivated under commercial horticulture. Tea, coffee, sugarcane, rubber ets. are also cultivated under commercial horticulture. Large amount of human labour is required in commercial horticulture than other agriculture practices as continuous supervision of commercial crops (tea, coffee etc) is essential factor of commercial horticulture.



Rubber               –                 Malaysia

Coffee                –                 Colombia

Olive                  –                 Italy

Sugarcane          –                 Mauritius

Country                               Commodity

China                 –                 Iron-ore

India                   –                 Milk

Saudi Arabia      –                 Petroleum

Thailand             –                 Natural Rubber

  • The tropical plantation is one of the world’s oldest systems of commercial agriculture. Plantation crops are usually raised on large estates, of more than 40 hectares (100 acres) each, though the success of such crops has often encouraged other farmers to grow them so small holdings also exist side by side with the large estates. It is always a monoculture over a large area, e.g., coffee in Brazil, Tea in India, Rubber in Malaysia, etc. Some of the main plantation crops are Rubber, Palm oil, Cotton and Copra, Beverages like Coffee, Tea and Cocoa, Fruits like Pineapples and Bananas, as well as Sugarcane, hemp and jute. Although these crops require heavy rainfall for its growth, stagnant water is injurious to its roots. It is, therefore, grown on hill slopes where water drains away easily and water-logging does not take place. However, it grows equally well in the valley if the drainage is Till 19th century, Amazon Basin was major producer of Natural Rubber. Favorable conditions for rubber plantation existed in Amazon Basin and rubber plants even grow spontaneously. Now, Rubber production is not salient characteristic of South American Countries because of lack of workers and many other reasons.

  • According to Ministry of Agriculture, coconut, betel nut, Cocoa palm and cashewnut come under plantation crops. However, as per the Commerce Ministry, Tea, coffee and rubber are plantation crops. Thus Coconut, palm, betelnut, cocoa, cashewnut tea, coffee and rubber are plantation crops.

  • Alley Cropping is planting rows of trees with wide spacings. A companion crop is grown in the alleyways between the Intercropping is a wide multiple cropping practice involving growing two or more crops in proximity which includes Relay cropping, mixed cropping and alley Cropping methods.

  • Monoculture is a distinct characteristic of commercial grain farming.

  • Jhooming, Fang, Milpa are type of shifting cultivation while Fazenda is not concerned with shifting cultivation. Fazenda is related to plantation found throughout Brazil.



  • Taungya is a system whereby villagers and sometime forest plantation workers are given the right to cultivate agriculture crop during the early stage of forest. It is mainly practiced in

  • Nitrogen is an essential element for growth and development of the plants. It is a major constituent for the formation of cells and tissues. Due to lack of nitrogen, the development of plants get blocked. The chlorophyll content of the plant leaves is reduced which results in pale yellow colour. Older leaves turn completely yellow. Flowering, fruitning, protein and starch contents are reduced. Reduction in protein results stunted growth and dormant lateral buds.

  • Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Azospirillum and Blue-green algae are beingused as biofertilizers for long time. Blue green algae belonging to a general cyanobacteria genus, Nostoc or Anabaena or Tolypothrix or Aulosira, fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculations for paddy crop grown in both upland and low-land conditions.

  • Azolla-Anabaena Biofertilizer is used for Rice crop production.

  • Blue Green Algae is used as biofertilizer to induce paddy crop production while Azotobactor is used for Wheat, Maize, Mustard, Potato, Cotton and other vegetable Crops.Aspergillus is used as biofertilizer for Sorghum, Millet, Sugarcane, Maize etc.

  • Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa) is a plant primarily native to Asia, and is considered to be one of the first known herbs to It is naturally high in many essential vitamins and Minerals, includingA,D,E,K and family of B-vitamin; Biotin, Calcium, folic Acid, Iron, Magnesium and Pottasium.

  • For the first time, tea was produced in Africa at ‘Durban teagarden’ in the year 1850. Till the second world war, app. 800 hectare of land was used in cultivation of tea in Africa. In 20th century, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda became major tea producers.

  • Tea plantation need well drained hill slopes, fertile soil with high humus.

  • Podzol soil is found near 60º North latitudes in Eurasia and North America’s coniferous forest Taiga region.

  • Mocha Coffee is grown in Yemen. Café mocha takes its name from Mocha sea port from where it was exported.

  • Tea was first used as a medicinal drink in China. Theanine, caffeine, polyphenols, tannin, theobromine, theophyline etc are found in tea while Morphine is not found in tea.



  • The Green Box provides for the continuation (and enhancement) of programmes such as research, including general research, research in connection with environmental programmes, and research programmes relating to particular products; pest and disease control programmes, agricultural training services and extension and advisory services; inspection services, marketing and promotion services;

  • Cocoa in Ghana, Coffee in Brazil and Tea in Sri Lanka are famous plantation crop while Rubber is major plantation crop of Malaysia.

  • Heroin production is obtained from Opium resin.

  • The Golden Crescent is the name given to one of Asia’s two principal areas of illicit opium production located at Central and South Asia. Golden crescent includes three nations, Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan, whose mountainous peripheries define the crescent. Iraq is not included in this Golden Crescent.

  • Maize or Corn is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world. The grain are rich in Vitamin (A, C, and E), carbohydrates, Minerals and Protien. It is also rich in dietary fiber. It is an important staple food for more than 1.2 billion people in Middle Africa.

  • Sacramento- San Joaquin Valley is located in California. The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the S. state of California that lies South of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River. Sacramento- San Joaquin Valley is famous for vitreous & citrus fruit production in the world.

  • Commercial Viticulture is specific to the Mediterranean region of Europe. The major cause of Viticulture at large scale is the use of 85% of its grapes production in wine.

  • American agronomist Norman. E. Borlaug for the first time developed high yielding variety seed in Mexico.

  • Catechu is obtained from wood of Khair Tree (Accacia Catechu).

  • Peanuts is the main crop of Gambia among the given Countries. Agriculture accounts for 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) and peanut production accounts for 6.9% of its GDP. Presently, Ghana is the leading producer of ground nuts China is the largest producer of ground nuts globally.

  • Brazil in South America is considered the place of ground nuts.

  • Shahtoosh is the name given to a specific kind of shawl, which is woven with hair of the Tibetan antelope (Chiru) by master crafts man. They are found almost entirely in China, Tibet, Southern Xinjiang, and Western Qinghai; a few are also found across the border in Ladakh, India.

  • Apiculture is the maintenance of bee also called ‘Apiary’. Thus, Apiculture is related to the production of honey.



  • Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science of production, and study of grapes. It deals with the series of events that occur in the vineyard. When the grapes are used for winemaking, it is also known as viniculture. It is a branch of the science of horticulture.

  • Vegetable cultivation is called Olericulture not Horticulture. Rest are correctly matched.

  • According to FAO (2014) India ranks second in the production of silk. The largest producer of silk in the world is China followed by India, Vietnam, Turkmenistan, Romania, Thailand and Uzbekistan.

  • There are total 26.7 million cattles in Australia, 3 million of them are used for dairy purpose rest are used for meat. Australia is among the top exporters of beef. The socio­cultural structure of Australian society indicates that they are traditionally non-vegetarians.

  • As per the official website of Agriculture Ministry, department of Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fishries, largest livestock population was in India, when this question was asked.

  • Mad cow disease first broke out in 1980 in Britain. This disease caused death of more than 180000 cattles in a short span of time. It badly affected British beef industry. Similar instances were also observed in North American countries.

  • According to National Dairy Development Board India is the leading milk producer with 165.4 million ton production in 2016-17. Per capita milk availability in India is 355 gram per day (NDDB, 2015-16).

  • The correct descending order of the leading milk producers (2011) is India, U.S.A., China, Russia.

  • According to FAO data 2016, five leading producers of maize corn in the world are-

Country                                     Production (thousand ton)

U.S.A.                   –                   384777.89

China                     –                   231673.95

Brazil                    –                   64143.41

Argentina              –                   39792.85

Mexico                  –                   28250.78

  • Cuba is known as sugar bowl of the world because Sugarcane is major produce of Cuba which is used in processing of



Minerals Coal

  • Sedimentary rocks are formed by deposition of sediment or reef powder usually in form of layers. Sedimentary rocks are also known as layered rocks. Most of fossil and mineral oil are found in these rocks. Sedimentary rocks are spread over 75% of the earth’s surface. Minerals like Coal, Slate, limestone, Salt, Petroleum, Marble etc. are examples of Sedimentary

Depending upon the amount of carbon and hardness, coal Segregated in four categories-

(i) Anthracite : It is the best kind of coal. It has about 90­-95% Carbon content.

(ii) Bituminous : It is the second important type of coal and it is most abundant coal. It has carbon content

between 70-90%.

(iii)Lignite: It is often referred as brown coal. It has carbon content between 60-70%. It is mostly used in thermal power stations.

(iv)Peat: It is the lowest rank of coal having carbon content less than 60%, oxygen 35%, hydrogen nearly 5%.

  • Coal, Crude oil and Natural gas are Fossil Fuel. Fossil fuel was formed in the geological past over the course of millions of years from the remains of living organisms.

  • China rank first in production of the following mineral :Aluminium, Barite, Cadmium, Cement, Coal, Graphite, Iron, Zinc, Magnesite and Tungsten,

Donetsk basin, also known as Donbass, is situated in Ukraine and is a major coal producting region.

Saar region is a forest in south western German state bordered by France. A large deposit of coal is found here, It is situated in the ‘Saar River Valley. After world War-I Saar territory came under the possession of France but in 1935, it again became the State of Germany. In 1945, France occupied Saar region but finally in 1957, Saar region achieved its present status as a Federal State of Germany.

The biggest coal region in United States of America is Appalachian coal region. The best quality coal is found here.



  • In addition to this, the other coal region in U.S.A. are Southern Appalachian, Western interior coal region, in rocky mountain

 (Coal fields)                  (Countries)

Donetsk                           Ukraine

Kuznetsk                         Russia

Lancashire                      U.K.

Saar                                  Germany

  • China was at the top in terms of reserve of hard coal when this question was asked followed by U.S.A. and India. Presently, China is at the top in proved reserve of Anthracite and bituminous coal.

  • According to data provided by Indian Bureau of Mines for year 2017, more than half of the world’s production of coal come from China and U.S.A.

  • Ruhr is a river of Germany. Ruhr Basin is in the Western Germany. Some of the important coal mine and industrial area are situated in the Valley, known as ‘Ruhr Basin’.

 (Country)           Ranks                   (Reserves by 2016 (Million Ton)

America                1                             251582

China                     2                             244010

Russia                   3                             160364

  • Various stones suitable for ornaments are found in the Rukwa lake region (Tanzania). Emerald, Moonstone, Aqamarine, Amethyst, Ruby and Topaz are prominent among them. Some coals layer are found in this region and some coal mining works has also been done in this region.


Iron Ore

  • The second most abundant metal present in the earth’s womb is Iron.

  • The largest producer of Iron Ore are China, Australia and Brazil, respectively.

  • According to data for year 2013, Russia, Ukraine and Sweden are the main Iron ore producing countries of Europe. France is not included in these four but data for year 2013 shows that France is at the fourth position in production of Pig Iron, subsequent to Germany, Russia and Ukraine.

  • Iron Ore region           Producer Country

Lorraine                                     –                   France

Midland                                     –                   U.K

Kiruna                                        –                   Sweden

Kokshetau                                 –                   Kazakhstan


  • According to Indian Mineral Year Book – 2017 three largest producer of copper ore in the world are –

  1. Chile

  2. China

  3. Peru

  • China would be on the top as far as production of copper is concerned.

  • Chile is still at first position in the production of Copper in world with a production of 5776 thousand ton. China is at second number and Peru is at third.

  • Zambia is a land locked country in Southern Africa. There is a long copper belt from Zambia to Katanga, Zaire. Despite abundant reserves of copper, this country could not progress as there are no sea route. Absence of sea routes has eliminated (chances of export.

  • Japan is almost self reliant in terms of copper as per USGS Mineral Year Book, 2012. Japan produces more copper than it consumes. Whereas, it is not self reliant in bauxite, iron ore and mineral oil.




  • According to Indian Mineral Year Book – 2017 four largest producer of gold are –

(Country)                                     Production (Ton) 2015

  1. Chian – 450

  2. Australia – 278

  3. Russia – 256

  4. USA – 212

  • World’s maximum Gold reserved is found in Australia. 70percent of it’s gold is derived from Western Australia. Twoof important gold mines Kalgoorlie and Cool gardie are situated in Western Australia.

  • Johannesburg is the biggest city of South Africa and capital of Gauteng Province. It is famous for its gold and diamond

  • Switzerland is the largest gold exporting country to India in the year.



  • According to Indian Mineral Year Book – 2017 largest producers of silver in the world ate –

Mexico               –                 5592 Ton

Peru                    –                 4102 Ton

Chin                   –                 3393 Ton

Russia                –                 1571 Ton

Chile                  –                 1504 Ton

Note – Till 2009, Chile was at the first place in terms of silver production.

  • German silver also known as Nickel silver, Mailechort, New silver, Alpacca etc. It is a copper alloy with nickel and often The usual formulation is 60% copper, 20% nickel and 20% zinc. It is named for its silvery appearance but it contains no silver element.


  • Bauxite is different from remaining three because Bauxite is an Aluminium ore, while other three i.e, Haematite, Magnetite and Limonite are Iron ore.

  • Maximum aluminium producing county (1993) in the world is U.S.A. Current situation – According to Indian Mineral Year Book – 2015 by Indian Bureau of Mines, largest aluminium primary producers of the World are-

  • Country Production (Tone)

China                 –                 31413 Thousand Tone

Russia                –                 3529 Thousand Tone

Canada               –                 2880 Thousand Tone

UAE                   –                 2397 Thousand Tone

India                   –                 2355 Thousand Tone

  • The largest producers of aluminium in the world (According to IMYB – 2015) are Chian > Russia > Canada > UAE > USA.

  • Aluminium Smelting

  • 2nd most important metallurgical industry in India.

  • It is light, resistant to corrosion, good conductor, mallable, becomes strong when mixed with other metals.

  • Used in Aircraft, utensils, wires.

  • Substitute of steel, Copper, Zinc, lead in number of industries.

  • 8 Aluminium Smelting Plants

  1. Orissa (Nalco & Balco)

  2. West Bengal

  3. Kerala

  4. Uttar Pradesh

  5. Chhattisgarh

  6. Maharashtra

  7. Tamil Nadu



  • 80% of World’s Tin is found in placer deposits. These deposits are natural concentration of heavy minerals caused by the effect of gravity on moving particles. Placer deposit are usually situated near river beds, and are spreaded in South East Asia.

  • According Indian mineral year Book – 2017 by Indian Bureau of Mines, largest, Tin producers of the world are:

Country                             Production (Tone)

Chia                   –                 135000

Indonesia           –                 70000

Myanmar           –                 43000

Brazil                 –                 25000

  • India: 9th: Crude steel producer→Largest producer of Sponge Iron.

Integrated Steel Plants 

  1. Burnpur

  2. Bokaro

  3. Durgapur

  4. Jamshedpur

  5. Raurkela

  6. Bhilai

  7. Vishakapatnam

  8. Vijaynagar

  9. Bhadravati

  10. Salem

  • SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited)

  • TISCO→ Tata Steel

  • China→ Largest Producer & consumer of steel

  • Chotanagpur Plateau => Maximum concentration of iron & Steel Industries.




  • According to Indian Mineral Year Book – 2017, leading petroleum producers are –

  1. Saudi Arabia – 586 Million ton

  2. USA – 564 Million ton

  3. Russia – 549 Million ton

  4. Iraq – 219 Million ton

  5. Iran – 216 Million ton

  • According to Indian Mineral year Book – 2015, leading petrolium producers in the Middle East are

(Country)                                 Production (Million tone)

Saudi Arabia        –                   543

USA                      –                   166

Iran                        –                   169

Iraq                        –                   160

Kuwait                  –                   151

  • The countries of Middle East i.e, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia have more than 60% of World’s petroleum Reserve. So Statement I is true. According to Indian Mineral Year Book-2015, Middle East has the largest share (45.40%) of world’s petroleum deposits. United States haspetroleum reserves in 31 states. Three states with largest petroleum reserves are – Texas, Alaska and California. The petroleum deposits of Texas and Alaska are almost equal. There are more reserves in Alaska than Texas. According to Indian Mineral Year Book-2015, USA is the second largest producer of petroleum after Saudi Arabia.

  • Indonesia is the biggest petroleum producer in South Eastern Asia. Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan are important Petroleum producing region in Indonesia.

  • South American country Venezuela is among the leading petrolium producing countries. The economy of Venezuela is dominatedby the petroleum sector. Oil/petroleum generates about80% of the country’s total export revenue, contributes about half (50%) of the Central Government’s Income, and is responsible for about 25% of the countries gross domestic product (GDP).

  • According to data of ‘Indian Mineral Year Book-2017’published by Indian Bureau of Mines, the largest certified crude oil deposits (47.0 billion ton) are found in Venezuela. Saudi Arabia with a 36.6 billion ton deposit is at second place.

  • The five countries with largest Petroleum Reserve, according to Indian Mineral Year Book – 2017 are as follows:

(Country)                                 Reserve deposit (billion ton)

Venezuela             –                   47.0

Saudi Arabia        –                   36.6

Canada                  –                   27.6

Iran                        –                   21.8

Iraq                        –                   20.6

  • According to Indian Mineral Year Book – 2017, five countries with largest reserves are – Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Iran and Iraq.

  • Ras Tanura is the oldest refinery on the Persian Gulf coast, located near the industrial port city Jubail in Saudi Arabia. This oil refinery was started in 1945.

  • Gasohol is a mixture of unleaded gasoline (90%) and ethanol (10%). Gasoline is a byproduct mixture of petrol. Presently, USA is the top producer and consumer of gasohol.

  • Brent Crude is a major classification of crude oil serves as a major bench mark price for purchases of oil worldwide. This grade is described as light because of its relatively low density due to its low sulphur content. Brent Crude is sourced from the North Sea and comprises of Brent Blend, Forties Blend, Oseberg and Ekofisk crudes.

  • Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline is also known as the ‘Peace Pipeline’ or IP gas pipeline.

  • Romania was the country in the world with an oil production of 27.5 tones officially registered in 1857 in international The first commercial oil well in Romania was drilled in 1857. Lentil, Sugarbeet and Wheat are crops that cannot be used for bio fuel production. Bio fuel is a fuel that is derived from biomass, that is plant material, or animal waste. Sugarcane, Corn Syabeen, Rapeseed, Jatropha are used for biofuel production. Biofuel is cost effective and alternative to petroleum.





  • According to World Nuclear Association, presently Kazakhastan is the largest producer of Uranium (2015). Canada and Australia are at 2nd and 3rd place respectively. Notably, prior to 2009, Canada was the leading producer of

  • Australia’s Uranium reserves are the world’s largest reserves, Olympic Dam Mine is the biggest reserve, situated in South

  • Uranium city Saskatchewan, is a planned community located near north shore of lake at habasca, in Canada. It is 230 meter above sea level.

  • Radium is a radioactive element with symbol Ra. It is extracted from Uranium ore Pitchblende.



Mineral: Miscellaneous

  • Natural Camphor is obtained from various sources :

(i) Cinnamomum Camphora is native tree to China and Japan through which camphor is obtained.

(ii) Blumes Species of compositae origin Camphor is found in India.

(iii) Bomeo, Sumatra Camphor is obtained from Dryobalanops origin.

  • Non-Ferrous metals are those minerals which have negliglble iron content. Non-ferrous metals are Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, Tin, Titanium, Lead, Nickel etc. In addition to these, some other non-ferrous metals are Gold, Silver, Cobalt, Gallium, Beryllium, Cerium, Tungsten Mercury, Platinum, Zirconium, Cadmium, Germanium.

  • (Minerals) (Producer Region)

Coal                   –                 Karaganda Basin

Gold                   –                 Highveld

Iron Ore             –                 Krivoi Rog

Mineral Oil        –                 San Joaquin Valley

  • (Minerals) (Major producer)

Minerals Oil       –                 Venezuela

Copper               –                 Zambia

Manganese         –                 Gabon

Bauxite               –                 Guyana

  • (Region)                    (Minerals)

Donbas Basin     –        Coal

Mesabi Range    –        Iron ore

Mosul                 –        Mineral oil

Transvaal           –        Gold

Note : Mesabi Range is known for iron ore. All other are correctly matched.

  • Port Radium is located on the East shore of great Bear Lake, It is famous worldwide for its Uranium reserves. Binghama mine is famous for Copper production located at South West of Salt lake City Utah, U.S.A. Baku in Azerbaijan is the largest city and capital of Azerbaijan, famous for petroleum production. Mesabi Range is one of the six important series for Iron ore Reserves in region of Superior Lake, USA.

  • Copper is found in Arizona, USA.



(Region)                              (Mineral)

Kimberley          –                 Diamond

Witwatersrand   –                 Gold

Katanga              –                 Copper

Saar                    –                 Coal

Butte                  –                 Silver

  • The discovery of Lithium mineral in Afghanistan was compared with discovery of oil field in Iran.

  • At thetime of above exam, Russia was the leading producer ­of Titanium in the world. At present China is the leading producer of Titanium.

  • According to the data of Indian Mineral Year book-2012 Australia is the leading producer of Bauxite. According to IMYB-2017, Australia continued to be the major producer and accounted for about 28% share in total production, followed by China (22%), Brazil (13%), India (10%) and Guinea (6%).

  • Nitrate, in its natural form is found at wider scale in Chile and Atacama desert located in North Chile has largest source of Nitrate.

  • Present situation Leading Tin producer (IMYB, 2015) – China, Leading Silver producer (IMYB, 2015) – Mexico, Leading Iron ore producer (IMYB, 2015) – China, Leading Nitrate producer (IMYB, 2015) – Peru.

  • Rare earth metals are group of 17 chemical elements found in the earth’s crust that are vital to many modern technologies including consumer electronics, computers, networks, communications, clean energy All of the world’s heavy rare earths come from Chinese rare earth sources. In 2010, China produced over 95% of the World’s rare earth metals supply. China has announced regulations on export and a crackdown on smuggling. Since these metals were easilyavailable from China and its production causes serious trouble to environment. Thererfore most of the countries stopped its production. India have 3.1 million reserves o rare earth metals.

  • The position of Diamond producing countries, according to mineral year book-2017, are as follows –

Country                                Production (in thousands carat)

Russia                –                 41912

Botswana           –                 20824

DR Congo          –                 14284

Australia            –                 13561

  • Commercial sources of energy purely consist of power, coal, oil, gas, hydro-electricity and uranium.

  • According to the Indian Bureau of mines, D.R. Congo is the biggest producer in Africa.



City and Industries

  • Centre for Iron-steel Country

Hamiltons          –                 Canada

Birmingham       –                 U.K.

Essen                  –                 Germany

Anshan               –                 China

Centre                                 Industry

Pittsburg            –                 Iron and steel

Shanghai            –                 Cotton Textile

Dundee               –                 Jute Textile

Leningrad           –                 Ship building

Centre                                 Industry

Salem                 –                 Iron and steel

Los-Angeles      –                 Aircraft

Abadan               –                 Oil Refinery

Nagoya               –                 Cotton Textile

  • Aberdeen is often called as the ‘Oil Capital of Europe’. The petroleum industry in Aberdeen began with the discovery of significant oil deposits in North Sea during the mid-20th century.

  • Brimingham is located in United Kingdom. It is famous for its Iron and steel industry not for ship building.

  • City          Industry

Osaka                          –                 Textile Industry

Yokohama                   –                 Ship building

Pittsburgh                   –                 Iron and steel

Houston                      –                 Oil and Natural Gas

  • The major city related to automobile industry is Detroit.

Anshan (China)          –                 Iron and steel industry

Hawana (Cuba)           –                 Cigar Industry

Detroit (U.S.A.)          –                 Automobile

Nagoya (Japan)           –                 Cotton Textile

Chelyabinsk (Russia) –                 Metallurgy and Military Machinery

Milan (Italy)               –                 Silk textile industry

Moscow (Russia)        –                 Metal, Chemical and Machinery industry

Osaka (Japan)             –                 Cotton textile

Sheffield (England)    –                 Cutlery industry

Venice City (Italy)      –                 Glass industry

Glasgow (Scotland)    –                 Ship building industry

Ottawa (Canada)         –                 Paper making industry

  • Osaka is a port and commercial city of Japanese Island Honshu. It is an important centre for cotton textile industry.

  • Camden ship building centre was an American ship building company that operated in Yorkship village of city of Camden, New York not in Florida.



  • Coal fields Location

Kuzbas                        –                 Russia

Red Basin                   –                 China

Bristol                         –                 U.K.

New South Wales       –                 Australia

Industrial Region                        Country

Kinki                           –                 Japan

Canton                        –                 China

Lorraine                      –                 France

Belo Horizonte           –                 Brazil

  • Mesabi Range is famous for Iron ore field, not for coal region.


Industrial Region                                          Country

Lancashire Region                        –                 United Kingdom

Ruhr Region                                 –                 Germany

Keihin Region                              –                 Japan

Southern AppalachianRegion       –                 United States of Americas

  • According to data for year 2011 given by United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation, China is at 1st rank in the production of Wool with production of 393072 metric ton. Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom are at second third and fourth place respectively. At present (2013) China is member one wool (greasy) producer. Australia and New Zealand are at second and third place respectively.

  • Wuppertal is a City in North Rhine – Westphalia, Germany. Itis a centre of wool production. Saint Petersburg is in Russia, Bradford is in Northern England and Prato belongs to Italy.

  • China is a leading producer of cotton textiles in the world. It has nearly 26% of total production.

  • Footloose industry is a general term for any industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport. These industries often have spatially fixed costs, which means that the costs of the products do not change.

  • The availability of raw material is not the primary consideration in electronics industry.

  • At present, Japan is one of the top economies of the world. It is due to its industrial development. In this competitive time Japan has maintained its credibility due to its high technologies. Due to lack of bio energy sources and Minerals, it is dependent on the imported materials. The industrial revolution was started in Britain not in Japan.

  • Scotland Industrial Area is not in Sweden, it is situated in United Kingdom. ‘Poplar’ is the woody raw material used for making of paper pulp.

  • There is a lack of resources/deposites of Iron ore and Coal in Japan and due to this, Japan imports high quality Iron ore and Coal from various countries. The bigger ship are used to import them to reduce transport cost. Most of factories are at the port or near coastal cities, where the market of steel is located.



  • Japanese steel plants are mostly based on market. The great ‘Tokyo-Yokohama’ and ‘Osaka-Kobe-Himeji’ Iron Steel regions are based on market.

  • Osaka (Japan) is known as ‘Manchester of East’ for production of cotton textile. Most of the Iron and steel production centre are located at southern coastal region. In eastern Asia, Japan is at prominent position in ship building, while in Kyushuregion-fukuoka, Kitakyushu, Nagasaki are important region for automobiles, chemicals, semiconductor industry. South Korea is a leading country in ship building industry.

  • London is the largest metal trading centre.

  • Detroit city of Southeastern Michigan, USA, is famous for its automobile industry and not for cotton textile. Apart from automobile industry, there are also industries related to Tyres, Electric Wires, Battery, Paint, Car Machinery, Chemicals, Computers etc. Ontario situated in Canada is famous for paper industry, Texas is famous for chemical industry and Nagoya in Japan is known for motor car.


  • North Atlantic Sea route, connects two major industrial zones of Europe and North America. It is the busiest Sea route in the World.

  • North Atlantic Ocean Route is the busiest ocean route. Major ports of western Europe i.e., London, Liverpool, Hamburg, Amsterdam etc. and major ports of North America like Quebec, New York, Boston, Philadelphia etc. come under the North Atlantic Ocean Route.

  • During a flight from Delhi to Tokyo the airplane will land in Bangkok (Thailand), Hanoi (Vietnam), Hongkong (China), Taipei (Taiwan) airports respectively.

  • Lufthansa is a German airline. In the context of passenger airline services, it is the fourth largest passenger airline fleet in the World.

  • European trans-continental railway travel from Paris to Trans-Andean railway is most important rail route of South America. It travels from Valparaiso to Buenos Aires of Argentina. The Trans-Siberian railway is the longest (9232 kms.) railway in the world. It has connected Moscow with Vladivostok. Orient Express is most important rail route Of Europe. It runs across eight countries of Europe. It connects Paris & Le Havare to Istanbul.



Countries                                     Railway Length (in Kms)

U.S.A.                         –                 224792

Russia                         –                 128000

China                          –                 103144

India                            –                 65000

Canada                        –                 46552

Australia                     –                 38445

  • The Canadian Pacific Railway connects Montreal to Vancouver.

  • Euro tunnel connects England and France. It is also known as Channel tunnel. This service started from 13 August, 1986.

  • The Delaware Aqueduct is the newest of aqueducts in the New York City. It takes water from the Rondout Reservoir through the Chelsea Pump Station, the West Branch Reservoir, and the Kensico Reservoir, ending at the Hill view Reservoir in Yonkers, New York. The aqueduct was constructed between 1939 and 1945, and carries approximately half of the New York City water supply of 1.3 billion US gallons per day. At 85 miles (137 km) long and 13.5 feet (4.1 m) wide, the Delaware Aqueduct is the world’s longest tunnel.

The Paijanne Water Tunnel, located in Southern Finland, is the world’s second longest tunnel (after the Delaware Aquenduct in the U.S.A.). It is 120 kilometers (75 mi) long and runs 30-100 meters under the surface in bedrock The purpose of the tunnel is to provide fresh water for the million of people in Southern Finland in the cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Hyvinkaa, Jarvenpaa, Kerava, Kauniainen, Kirkkonummi, Sipoo, and Tuusula.

The Bolmen Water Tunnel is a water supply tunnel, 82 km (51 mi) long. It goes from the lake Bolmen in Kronoberg county of Skane province in Sweden, and it serves around 700,000 people with drinking water. It has a cross section area of 8 m2, a diameter of almost 3 m. About 2 m3/s is transported through the tunnel, although the capacity is 6 m3/s.

The Seikan Tunnel is a 53.85 km (33.46 mi) dual gauge railway tunnel in Japan, with a 23.3 km (14.5 mi) long portion under the seabed. The track level is about 100 metres (330 ft) below the seabed and 240 m (790 ft) below sea level.

  • The longest rail route tunnel of the world, Seikan is located in Japan. Its length is 53.85 Kilometers.

  • 2000 km of high speed rail network were in service till Sep­tember, 2016. With this China has the largest high speed rail network in the world. China has started its longest Bullet ‘Shangri-la of the World’ on 5 January, 2017 connecting Kunming, capital of South-west China’s Yannan Province to Beijing (2760 km) covering the distance in approx 13 hours with the maximum speed of 330 km/h).




  • The busiest port of Japan is Yokohama. It is operated by Portand Harbour Bureau of the City of Yokohama in Japan. It served as gateway to the greater Tokyo area.

  • Canberra, the capital of Australia is not surrounded by Sea. Tokyo – Capital of Japan and prominent sea port situated on Honshu Island.

New York – Sea-port city of USA located on the banks of Hudson River in New York city.

London – Port situated on the banks of Thames.

  • At the time when question was asked Rotterdam was the largest harbour in the world. World’s 5 largest harbours as in year 2014 were :

  1. Shanghai (China) 2. Singapore (Singapore) 3. Guangzhou.

  • When this question was asked, Shanghai was second biggest port of the World after Singapore. But according to 2014 data. Shanghai ranks first, followed by Singapore, and Guangzhau.

  • Maracaibo port is a city and municipality in North Western Venezuela, on the western shore of the strait that connects Lake Maracaibo to the Gulf of Venezuela. It is connected to the Gulf of Venezuela by Tablazo Strait which is 55 kilometers long and fed by numerous rivers. Until petroleum was discovered in 1917, the city was a small coffee port. Within a decade, it became the oil metropolis of Venezuela and South The dredging of the channel connecting the lake with the Caribbean in the late 1950s stimulated the economy of North Western Venezuela and quickened the maritime life of the city. Lake Maracaibo of South America is rich in petrochemical products. That is why Maracaibo port city has been developed as an oil port in Venezuela.

  • Alexandria is the second largest city and major economic centre in Egypt, extending about 32 km along the coast of Mediterranean Sea. Its low elevation on Nile Delta make it highly vulnerable to rising sea level. It is an important industrial center because of its Natural Gas and Oil pipelines from Suez.

  • Port Nolloth, a town of South Africa, is known as Port The port was previously aTranshipment point for copper from the Okiep mines and diamonds from the Namaqualand region. Nolloth port has been developed as diamond production area.

  • The port of Santos is located in Brazil. It was established in 1540 for exporting coffee at large scale. Now it is known as Coffee Port due to highest coffee export in the world.

  • In terms of the monetary value; the largest ship builder country of the world is South Korea.

  • Gwadar Port is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated on the Arabian Sea at Gwadar in Balochistan province of Pakistan. It has strategic significance. Pakistan and China have signed a deal to acquire the usage rights to more than 2,000 acres of China is developing railways for rapid and easy access to this port.

  • Igarka is a town in Turukhansky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, not in China.



Major Sea Ports

  • 12 Major & 181 medium & minor ports

 Now 13

  • Major ports: 95% India’s foreign trade.

  1. Kandla Port (Gujarat)→ Highest Cargo Handling

  • Kandla in Kuchchh→ 1st port developed after independence.

  • Tidal port

  • Caters to export & import of Granary & industrial belt across states of Jammu Kashmir, Himalaya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat.

  1. Mumbai (Maharashtra)→ 4th highest cargo handling

  • Biggest port with natural & well – sheltered harbour.

  • Jawaharalal Nehru Port→ 3rd highest cargo handling also called Nhava Sheva, –

South of Mumbai, Largest Container Port in India, serve as a hub port.

  1. Marmagao Port (Goa)

  • Premier Iron Ore exporting port of India.

  • Accounts for 50% of India’s iron ore export.

  1. New Mangalore Port(Karnataka)

  • Export of iron ore from Kudremuch mines.

  1. Kochchi Port (Kerala)

  • Extreme S-W port,

  • Located at entrance of lagoon with a Natural Harbour.

East Coast

  1. Tuticorin Port (Tamil Nadu)

  • Extreme S – E port

  • Natural harbour & rich hinterland.

  • Hence, Handles large cargoes to even Srilanka, Maldives etc & Coastal regions of India

  1. Chennai Port→ 2nd highest container port

  • One of oldest artificial port of India.

  • Ranks next to Mumbai in terms of volume of trade & Cargo.

  1. Vishakapatnam Port→ 5th highest cargo handling

  • Deepest landlocked & well – protected port.

  • Originally started as an outlet for iron ore exports.

  1. Paradwip Port (Orissa)

  • Export of iron→ 2nd highest cargo handling

  1. Kolkata Port

  • Inland Riverine port

  • Serves very large & rich hinterland of Ganga – Brahmaputra basin

  • Being tidal port, it requires constant dredging of Hoogly.

  1. Haldia Port (West Bengal)

  • Subsidiary port to relieve pressure on Kolkata port

  1. Ennore Port (Kamarajar Port Limited)

  • Coromandel coast about 24km North of Chennai



  • An Isopleth map generalizes and simplifies data with continuous distribution. It shows the data as third dimension on map. Thus, isopleth maps are more common for mapping surface elevation, amounts of precipitation, atmospheric pressure and numerous other measurement that can be viewed statistically as a third dimension. It is an example of daily weather map.

  • An imaginary line or a line on a map joining points on the Earth’s surface at which the magnetic declination is the same called, isogonal.

  • An imaginary line representing points of depth under water is called Isobath in mapping.

  • The map shows the sea voyage route followed by (World traveller) Ferdinand Magellan. Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer (1480 – 1521) who completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.

  • Contours are an effective device for representing relief on topographic maps. They can be defined as an imaginary line connecting points of equal elevation on the ground surface. When contours are close together, they represent a steep slope, whereas when contours are far from each other, they represent a gradual slope.


  • At about 40° N and 60°S latitudes on the western margins of the continents, the cold and warm Ocean currents diverge. On the contrary, at the same latitude, along the eastern coast of the continents, the cold currents flowing from the polar seas and the warm currents from the low latitudes converge. Because of convergence, there is strong mixing of ocean In such areas, the nutrients essential for marine organisms are in abundance. So the marine life is rich in such areas. The most important fishing grounds in the world are located in shallow water close to the land where there is mixing of Cold and Warm Currents from different regions. The favourable conditions for fishing are plankton concentrations, warm and cold Oceanic currents joints, the depth of water, its salinity & shallow sea etc.

  • Grand Banks portion of the North American continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean lies in Southeast of Newfoundland island, Canada. It as an international fishing ground. The banks extend for 350 miles (560 km) north to south and for 420 miles (675 Ian) east to west. The cold Labrador Current and the relatively warm Gulf Stream meet in the vicinity of the Grand Banks. The mingling of the cold and warm water produces favourable conditions for the growth of plankton, on which fish depend directly or indirectly for their food supply. It consist of a number of separate banks, which are St. Pierre; Georges Bank, etc.



  • The concept of Neo- Determinism in geography was advanced by Griffith Taylor. This concept is known as ‘stop-and-go determinism’ or Scientific determinism.

  • E. Spencer and W.L. Thomas have divided the world into 11 cultural worlds in their book “Introducing Cultural Geography.”

  • The Kurd or Kurdish people are an ethnic group in the Middle East mostly inhabiting a contiguous area of Eastern and South-eastern Turkey, West Iran, Northern Iraq and Northern While Madhesi or Teraibasi Nepali are indigenous ethnic group of Nepal and Rohingya are Muslim of the Rakhine State, Myanmar.

  • Cuba is known as the ‘Sugar Bowl’ of the world. Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China. India is the leading producer of Milk in the world not USA. Australia is a federal State consists New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania.

  • A line on a map or chart connecting areas of equal rainfall is known as Isohyte. Whereas Isobar is a line on map connecting points having the same atmospheric pressure at a given time. Isotherm is a line on map connecting point having same temprature at a given time and Isohalines are lines (or contour) that join point of equal salinity in an aquatic system.

  • A nautical mile is a non-SI unit of distance, set by International agreement as being exactly 1,852 metres (about 6,076 feet). It is generally used by navigators in the sea, air and in polar exploration.

The terrestrial mile is a unit of length equal to 1,760 yards and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement. The length of terrestrial mile is less than a nautical mile.

The Harmattan is a dry and dusty North Easterly trade wind which blows from the Sahara Desert over the West African subcontinent into the Gulf of Guinea between the end of November and middle of March. In West Africa, it is known as ‘The doctor’ because of its invigorating dryness compared with humid tropical air.

Located on the Southwestern tip of the European Continent, the Iberian Peninsula, includes the countries of Andorra, Portugal and Spain, and the British Crown Colony of Gibraltar while Greece & Albania are not part of Iberian peninsula.

  • Atlas mountains is expanded in Morocco, while Grasslands of Pampas are found in Argentina (South America).World famous mines of Kimberley is located in South Africa, Manitoba is Canadian Province.

  • A pole star is a visible star aligned with Earth’s axis of rotation i.e., a star whose apparent position is close to one of the celestial poles. It lies directly overhead North Pole or South Pole.

Gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with the mass are brought towards one another and Earth has gravitational force.

Greenland- is located between Arctic and Atlantic Ocean, Sound is generated by Explosion.

  • Geographical feature Country

Great Victoria desert           –        Australia

Grand Canyon                     –        U.S.A.

Lake Winnipeg                    –        Canada

Southern Alps                      –        New Zealand

  • The pursuit of nuclear energy for electricity generation began soon after the discovery in the early 20th century that radioactive elements, such as radium, released immense amount of energy, according to the principle of mass-energy In 1932, James Chadwick discovered the Neutron, which was immediately recognized as a potential tool for nuclear experimentation because of its lack of an electric charge. Experimentation with bombardment of materials with neutrons led Frederic and Irene Juliut-Curie to discover induced radioactivity in 1934, which allowed the creation of radium-like elements at much less the price of natural radium. Further work by Enrico Fermi in the 1930s focused on using slow neutrons to increase the effectiveness of induced radioactivity. In the United States, where Fermi and Szilard had both emigrated, this led to the creation of the first man-made reactor, known as Chicago Pile-1, which was successfully operated on December 2, 1942. This work became part of the Manhattan Project, which made enriched uranium and built large reactors to breed plutonium for use in the first nuclear weapons, which were used on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Electricity was generated for the fast time by a nuclear reactor on December 20, 1951, at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho, USA which initially produced about 100 kW.

  • The Seikan Tunnel is a 53.85 km (33.46 mi) dual gauge railway tunnel in Japan, with 23.3 km (14.5 mi) long portion under the The track level is about 100 metres (330 ft) below the seabed and 240 m (790 ft) below sea level.

The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers, are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It contains 88 stories and a pyramid-shaped pinnacle surmounted by a slender steel spire. Both rise to height of 1,483 feet (451.9metres), which includes 242 feet (73.6metres) for pinnacle and spire.

The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply the A.T., is a marked hiking trail in the eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katandin in Maine. The trail is approximately 2,200 miles (3,500 km) long.

  • Rogan Dam is an embankment dam in the preliminary stages of construction on the Vakhshriver in Southern Tajikistan. The height and length of the dam are 335 metres and 660 metres respectively. The hydroelectric power plant is expected to have six turbines with total capacity of 3,600 MW.



  • Peneplains are formed by rivers. Peneplain are almost fea­tureless gentle undulating plain produced by fluvial erosion and in course of time reduce the land almost to base level, leaving so little gradient that essentially no more erosion could occur. Peneplain’ word was first coined by Morris

  • The Bermuda Triangle is an Oceanic area bounded by points in Bermuda, Florida and Puerto Rico in the Western part(Miami) of the North Atlantic Ocean which stretched in the total area varying from 1,300,000 to 3,900,000 km2. The Bermuda Triangle is also known as the ‘Devil’s Triangle’.

  • Bermuda Triangle extends up to Southern Florida and Puerto Rico. Bermuda Triangle is in triangular shape, the third point is in Bermuda.

Golden Triangle                   –        Opium producing Area of South East Asia

Bermuda Triangle                –        North Atlantic Ocean

Rice Bowl of Far East         –        Myanmar

Red Basin                            –        China

  • Cape Canaveral, located at Florida USA, is prime Centre of space craft and satellite launch.

  • RADARSAT-1, the satellite of Canada which helped in the preparation of a detailed and complete map of Antarctica for the first time in 1997.

  • According to data of 2011, the largest producer of Wine in the world is France while Italy ranks second.

  • The age of the tree can be determined by counting the numbers of rings on its stem. Growth rings, also referred to as tree rings or annual rings, can be seen in a horizontal cross section cut through the trunk of a tree. Growth rings are the result of new growth in the vascular cambium, a layer of cells near the bark that is classified as a lateral meristem; this growth in diameter is known as secondary growth. Visible rings result from the change in growth speed through the seasons of the year; thus, critical for the title method. One ring generally marks the passage of one year in the life of the The rings are more visible in temperate zones, where the seasons differ more markedly. Dendrochronology is the scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings, also known as growth rings. Dendrochronology can date the time at which tree rings were formed, in many types of wood, to the exact calendar year

  • Copacabana, located in south zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is known for its 4 km balneario beach, which is one of the most famous beach in the world.

  • When the above question was asked, world’s highest ground based telescopic observatory was located in India. The Indian Astronomical Observatory stands on Mt. Saraswati, Hanle village in South-Eastern Ladakh in the Eastern Jammu and Kashmir India. It is situated at an elevation of 4,500 metres (14,764 ft). It is operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The Satellite link between the Centre for Research and Education in Science and Technology (CREST), Bangalore and Hanle was inaugurated on 2 June 2001. The Observatory was dedicated to the nation on 29 August 2001. At present, the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory located on the summit of Cerro Chajnantor is the world’s highest astronomical observatory.



  • The European Union (EU) is a political-economic union of 28 member States which are located primarily in Europe. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1 November 1993.Its headquarters is located at Brussels in Belgium.

  • International Maritime Organization is a specialized agency of United Nation. The headquarter is located in London, united Kingdom. IMO currently has 171 members and three associate members.

  • The headquarter of the Food & Agricultural Organization is located in Rome (Italy).

  • South East Asia has captured the attention of global community over space and time as a geo-strategically significant region, because of its location between the Pacific and Indian oceans and its pre-eminent maritime character. Due to its geo-strategic significance, Spykman had proposed Rimland theory.

  • Look East policy was developed and enacted during the Government of Prime minister P.V. Narasimha Rao (1991-1996). India Look East policy represents its efforts to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and a counterweight to the strategic influence of the People’s Republic of China. Initiated in 1991, it marked a strategic shift in India’s perspective of the world. India wants to restore the historical and cultural ties with its neighbours in South East & East Asia.

  • Kailash Mansarovar is located in Chinese Tibet, hence Visa is required for Indians to its pilgrimage. Mount Kailash is apeak in the Kailash Range (Gangdise Mountains), which forms part of the Trans – himalaya in Tibet China. It lies near the source of some of the longest rivers in Asia: the Indus River, the Sutlej River (a major tributary of the Indus River), theBrahmaputra River, and the Karnali River (a tributary of the River Ganga). It is considered a sacred place in four religions: Bon, Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. The mountain lies near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal in Tibet.

  • The Christmas is celebrated in Summer season in Australia because it is located in the Southern Hemisphere.The axis of the earth is tilted approximately 23 degrees. Due to this tilt, the Northern Hemisphere experience winter during December time while the Southern Hemisphere experiences summer during December time, Christmas which is popularly shown as a snowy and winter kind of festival, cannot be applied to



  • Vietnam, Combodia & Singapore are permanent member of ASEAN while India has status of only ‘Dialouge Parten’ in the ASEAN.

  • The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is federation of petroleum exporting countries. The members of OPEC are Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, Indonesia , Libya , the United Arab Emirates , Algeria , Nigeria , Ecuador , Gabon and Angola ). Indonesia suspended its membership in January 2009, but reactivated from 1st January 2016.

  • The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and geopolitical organisation of eight countries that are primarily located in South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. The SAARC Secretariat is in Kathmandu, Nepal. The idea of regional political and economical cooperation in South Asia was first raised on 2nd May 1980 by Bangladesh President Ziaur Rahman and the first summit was held in Dhaka on 8 December 1985, when the organisation was established by the governments of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Since then the organisation has expanded by accepting one new full member, Afghanistan, and several observer members.

  • The leaning tower of Pisa is a campanile, or free standing Bell tower. It is worldwide known for its unintended tilt. It is situated in Pisa, Italy, behind Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in Pisa’s Cathedral Square after Cathedral and Pisa

  • Elysee Palace lies in Paris, France. The Elysee Palace is the official residence of the President of the French Republic since 1848.

  • Ostrich is the tallest bird but cannot fly. Crane is tallest among flyer birds.

  • India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world which is more than 1 lakh.

  • The Chernobyl nuclear disaster happened in April 1986 in then Soviet Union and current Ukraine. Ukraine was part of Soviet Union when this nuclear disaster happened.

  • ‘The Great Leap Forward Policy’ in Chinese history, is the campaign undertaken by the Chinese communists party between 1958 and early 1960 to organize its vast population, especially in large-scale rural communes, to meet China’s industrial and agricultural needs, The inefficiency of the communist and the large-scale diversion of farm labour into small-scale industry disrupted China’s agriculture seriously, and three consecutive years of natural calamities added to what quickly turned into a National disaster; in all, about 20 million people were estimated to have died of starvation between 1959 and 1962.

  • The descending order of countries according to the number of nuclear power plants is as follows:

USA – 104, France – 58, Japan – 50, Russia – 33

U.S.A.                         –        102657 mw

France                         –        63130 mw

Japan                           –        44215 mw

Russia                         –        23643 mw

Republic of Korea      –        20721 mw

China                          –        16038 mw

  • The descending order of their percentage in total installed capacity of power generation in India as on 30th September 2016.



Source               Established Capacity         Percentage

(i) Water             43112.43                              23.02

(ii) Natural Gas  25057.13                              13.38

(iii) Nuclear       5780                                     3.08

(iv) Diesel          918                                       0.49

  • The word ‘Kyrgyz’ is derived from Kyrk which means fourty. Thus Kyrgyz stan means country of 40 tribes. Notably Kyrgyz epic ‘Manas’ depicts a stony of their national Hero Manas who united 40 tribes to save their mother land from Chinese

  • Venice city of Italy, is known as ‘La Dominante’ ‘Queen of the Adriatic Sea’,“ City of Canals”, “city of Bridges” etc,




  • Primitive Subsistence Farming – “Slash & burn Agriculture”

  • Land productivity is low as farmer doesn’t use fertilizers or other modern inputs.

  • Different Names in India

  1. Jhumming→ North – East: Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland

  2. Pamlou→ Manipur

  3. Dipa→ Bastar dist→ Chhattisgarh & in Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

  4. Bewar or Dahiya→ Madhya Pradesh

  5. Podu or Penda→ Andhra Pradesh

  6. Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa→ Orissa

  7. Kumari→ Western Ghats

  8. Valre of Waltre→ South East Rajasthan

  9. Khil→ Himalayan belt

  10. Kuruva→ Jharkhand

  • Different Names in World

  1. Milpa →Mexico, Central America

  2. Conuco→ Venzuela

  3. Roca → Brazil

  4. Masole→ Central Africa

  5. Ladang→ Indonesia

  6. Ray → Vietnam



  • Intensive Subsistence Farming

  • Areas of high population pressure on land.

  • Labour intensive

  • Biochemical input, irrigation

  • Land holding => Uneconomical, small

Enormous pressure on agriculture land

  • Commercial Farming

  • Use of higher doses of modern inputs→ HYV seeds, Fertilizers, Pesticides etc => to get higher productivity.

  • Degree of commercialization varies from region to region. Example:-Rice→ Commercial crop in Punjab, Haryana→ but subsistence crop in Odisha.

  • Plantation Commercial farming

  • Single crop grown on large area

  • Interface of agriculture & industry

  • Capital intensive inputs, migrant labours

  • Produce is used as raw material in respective industries

  • Example:-Tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc => India

  • Production => Market, so well developed n/w of transport & communication connecting plantation areas, processing industries & market plays a important role in development of plantations.

  • Tea → Assam and North Bengal

  • Coffee→ Karnataka

  • Cropping Pattern

3 Cropping Seasons

  1. Rabi

  2. Kharif

  3. Zaid



  1. Rabi Crops

– Sown in winter => October to December

–  Harvest : Summer => April to June Important Crops

  1. Wheat

  2. Barley

  3. Peas

  4. Gram

  5. Mustard


→States from North & North – West parts

  1. Punjab

  2. Haryana Wheat & Other

  3. Himachal Pradesh                   Rabi Crops

  4. Jammu & Kashmir

  5. Uttarakhand

  6. Uttar Pradesh (West) 7. Parts of Rajasthan

Favourable Conditions

  1. Availability of precipitation in winter months due to Western Temperate Cyclones.

  2. Green revolution : Punjab, Haryana, Parts => Rajasthan

Kharif Crops

  • Grown with onset of monsoon.

  • Harvest→ September – October



Important Crops

  1. Paddy

  2. Maize

  3. Jowar

  4. Bajra 5

  5. Tur (arhar)

  6. Moong

  7. Urad

  8. Cotton

  9. Jute

  10. Groundnut

  11. Soya bean

Important Rice Growing Regions

  1. Assam 3 crops of paddy crown in a year

  2. West Bengal

  3. Orissa (Coast) Aus, Aman, Boro

  4. Andhra Pradesh

  5. Tamil Nadu                           Coastal Regional

  6. Kerala

  7. Maharashtra (Konkan Coast)

  8. Uttar Pradesh

  9. Bihar

  • Recently→ Paddy : important crop : Punjab & Haryana

Zaid Season

  • In between Rabi & Kharif seasons, there is a short season during summer months known as Zaid Season.

Important Crops:

  1. Watermelon

  2. Muskmelon

  3. Cucumber

  4. Vegetables

  5. Fodder Crops

  • Sugar Cane→ Takes almost a year to grow.










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