>> Economic Development

>> Nature of Indian economy

– Before the British, the nature of the Indian economy was rural and the system was underdeveloped.

– The village was a separate unit and business was hereditary. The main business there was agriculture, but it was also advanced in the field of industry.

– Silk and cotton textiles produced by India were considered to be the best quality in the world.

– The work of marble, engraving, gold and silver jewelery and stone work were very good. So they were exported.

– Export goods included neil, opium, and spices. Thus, till the seventeenth-eighteenth century, the Indian economy was moving in its traditional form.

– The British did not only rule over India but also made it a colony.

– The colonization means that the country was not able to get independence of any kind and had direct control over its economic activities.

– From 1857 to 1858, the East India Company ruled India, and after that, the British government ruled from 1858 to 1947.

– After the independence of the Indian economy, the economy was backward, short-lived, destructive and sluggish economy.

– The development of any country is based on the agriculture and industries of that country. If for agriculture, power, credit, transportation etc., if any country wants to develop machinery, marketing, facility, transport, messaging etc. for the industries, then in this infrastructure –

  1. Power – coal, oil, sunshine, air etc.

  2. Messaging – Mail, telephone, radio, wireless wire etc.

  3. Bank, Finance and Insurance

  4. Science and Technology

  5. Some social items such as education, health.

– At the time of independence, there was a lack of all the above infrastructure.

– At the time of independence, the Indian economy had taken the form of a colony of Britain. Agriculture was depressed, farmers were poor, agricultural productivity was the lowest in the world. Organized industries were few but focused in big cities, there were no heavy and basic industries.



– Although one aspect of the Indian economy makes sense of its less developed form, but in the period of planning, there have been some fundamental changes in the form of Indian economy, on the basis of which Indian economy can be called development oriented.

– After independence, the economic planning in India has been the basis for development.

– The main and fundamental objective of all the schemes has been to promote integrated and balanced development in the country.

– During the planning period, many programs were run for development in all sectors of agriculture, industry, trade and efforts were made to solve the problem of India’s poverty and unemployment.

– In the planning period, the institutional framework of Indian economy has developed in an enormous form. Growing public development expenditure, nationalization of banks and insurance companies, rural electrification, development of road and rail transport, mechanization of agriculture and green revolution, industrial expansion, rising education and health facilities are many development oriented components.

– In the Indian planning period, there has been substantial growth in production in every sector of the economy.

– Agricultural production has increased during the planning period, basic industries have been established.

– Iron, steel, heavy engineering, chemical fertilizer etc. have been rapid growth in the planning period, thereby reducing the import of India and decreasing foreign dependence.

– The fundamental objectives of Indian planning get a glimpse of the socialist economy. Several steps have been taken in the planning period to eliminate the economic inequality and exploitation in the society.Such as: To eradicate landowners, to end the bonded practice, expand public sector undertakings, nationalize banks, develop cooperative movement, implement coordinated rural development program, loan release declaration of farmers etc.

– Based on the above-mentioned development-oriented facts, it can be said that India has not reached its developed state even though the Indian economy is a developing economy, where coordinated and planned efforts of economic development are continuing.

– An economy in which both private and public sectors exist, called mixed economy. Indian economy is a prime example of a mixed economy.

– Due to the abundance of population in India, it is defined as a labor-intensive economy.

– The primacy of the industry is the evaluation of the developed economy, as India’s economy is developing. Hence, not the characteristics of the Indian economy.



>> Determinants of economic development

>> Economic element

– Natural resources

– Labor power and population

– capital formation

– Technology & Innovation

– Capital product ratios

– Organization

>> Uneconomical Elements

– Social factors

– Religious factors

– Political factors

– Scientific factors

– International factors

– Indian economy is the developing economy. In the developing economy, there is a change in the structure of production, the nature of the production and the manufactured goods, and also in social relations, there is a change in development.

– The form of mixed economy has been adopted in India. Under the mixed economy, participation in both public and private sector development programs of the country.Where the administration of the public sector is governed by state, the administration of the private sector happens with the person. Thus, the Indian model of development protects both the state and the individual intrest.

>> National Income

>> Concept of Economic (National) Boundary

National Income Accounting is a branch of all economics and national income is a part of the estimation of the relevant community. National income and any sector related to this is the measurement of production of one country.

>> Economic borders

According to the United Nations, the economic border is a geographical boundary administered by a country’s government in which there is uninterrupted operation of individuals, goods and capital. The basis of this definition is the freedom of operation of individuals, goods and capital.



>> Economic border area

  1. The political boundaries of the country (including the maritime border and the Akashashi region)

  2. Embassy, consulate and military establishment abroad in the country.

  3. Sailboat aircraft run by residents of the country between two or more countries.

  4. Fishing boats, oil and natural gas carriers, which are run in international watershed or in areas which have exclusive rights to the country.

– There are two categories of national income groups – domestic and national nemely domestic products and national products. Production produced by production units located in the economic border of a country is called a domestic product.

>> Concept of Resident

Citizens and residents have different words. A person can be a citizen of a country and resident of any other country. Those who live in foreign countries, they are citizens of India and reside in the country they live in.

>> Definition of resident

– A person or an institution is a resident of that country in which the country lives, or is situated, it is the center of his interest in the economic front.

– “Center of Economic Interest” includes two things –

  1. The resident (person or institution) lives in (or is located) in the economic border of that country.

  2. The economic actions of earning, pulling and accumulation are from there.

– The production done by the residents of one country is called the national production. Whether this product is done in or out of the country’s economic borders.

– In comparison, the production done by all the production units located in the economic border of a country is called a domestic product, whether it was produced by residents or by non-residents.



>> Relation in national product and domestic product

– The total production done in a country’s economic borders is “domestic product”. The total production done by residents of a country is “national product”.

– National Product = Domestic Product + Production from the economic borders by residents of the country – Production of non-residents in the country’s economic borders


– National Product = Domestic Product + Factor Revenue Received from Foreigners – Income Referred to Foreigners


– National Product = Country Products + Nil Factor Income from Abroad

– If the factors derived from overseas, the factors given to foreigners are greater than the income, then the net worth income from abroad will be positive.

– If the factors derived from overseas, the amount given by foreigners is less than the income, then the Nil factor income from overseas will be negative.

>> Industrial Classification

– Grouping of production units in different industrial groups or areas is called industrial classification.

– Primary sector – In this area, those production units are included, which are exploited by the exploitation of natural resources such as agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing mineral removal, forestry etc. They get raw material for the secondary sector.

– Secondary sector – In this field, the production units are incorporated which convert into one type of object. Factory, construction, power generation, water supply etc are some examples of this.

– Tertiary sector – it is also called service sector, under which the manufacturing units producing services come. Transport, business, education, hotels, government administration, finance etc. This is some example.



There are a number of national income related groups in national income accounting –

  1. Country and national

  2. Gross and nibble

  3. Assessed at factor cost and calculated at market price.

>> Nibble national and domestic products

Nibble Country Products = Gross Domestic Product – Value Shraes

Nibble National Products = Gross National Product – Value Shraes

– Assessment on market value and instrument cost estimation

Country product at instrument cost = country product at market value – indirect taxes + government assistance (financial assistance)

– The difference between indirect taxes and government aid is called impartial indirectly

  Nibel indirect tax = indirect taxes – government aid

– National product is called national income at instrument cost

National Income = Gross domestic product at market value – Price – Nil indirect taxes + Nil factor income from abroad

>> National Income Assessment Methods

– The cyclic flow of national income gives us three methods of assessing –

– Production (value addition) method

– Income Taxes

– Spend method

– Production (Value-added) method – Under this, we first identify the gross value addition on the market price in each sector And in the sum of this value addition of all the sectors we get to know the gross domestic product at the market price.



– Income Taxation – Under this method, the total factors undertaken by the sector first assess the payment. Then by the sum of the payment of the factors of all the three sectors, we become aware of the Nil Value (country product) or the national factor rectangle at instrument cost.

– Domestic factor income (factor payment) consists of the following components –

Employees’ remuneration

  1. Rent and Royalty

  2. Interest

  3. Profit

– Mixed income means the combined income of all factors. Therefore

National product = Workforce + hire and royalty + interest + mixed income (if applicable) on instrument cost

– Spend method

Under this method, we add expenditure on consumption and investment. This expenditure is spent on the domestic product. It has various components –

  1. Personal Final Consumption

  2. Government Final Consumption Expenditure

  3. Gross domestic capital formation

  4. Nil Export (Import – Export)

>> disposable income

Income available for consumption expenditure and savings is called disposable income. This includes both income tax and transfer (non-factor income) factors. In national income only factor income is included. If national income is known, disposable income can be known.



>> National disposable income

There are two aggregates related to national disposable income –

1 gross national disposable income

2 Nibbles National disposable income

Gross national disposable income = National income + Nil indirect tax + value + nibbles current transfer from overseas

>> In relation to India

The total monetary value of all the final goods and services produced by the citizens of a nation in a period of one year is called national income.

>> National Income is calculated from three methods –

1 production method – total final output by all resources

2 Income Revenue – Total Income Earned by All Resources

3 Spend method – the sum of all consumption / expenditure

– The first estimate of national income in India was made by dada Bhai Naroji in 1868.

– William Diggie, Findlay Siraj, Shah and Khambhata, R. C. Desai, B. Natarajan etc. also presented the national income estimation.

– Most scientific estimates before independence in 1931-32, Presented by V.K. R. V. Rao.

– in this three-member committee D.R. Gadgil and VK.V. Rao was also a member.

– This committee was first introduced in the year 1951, while the second report was presented in the year 1954.

– National Income is currently calculated by the Central Statistics Office.

– cso works under the Central Statistics and Program Implementation Ministry.



>> National Income Concept

1 gross domestic product

– The total monetary value of all the final goods and services produced in a financial year within the geographical range of a country is called the country’s gross domestic product.

– Currently, India’s GDP is the world’s third largest economy based on purchasing power capacity.

– India’s 6th largest economy in real GDP

The major five economies in India (in descending order)





United Kingdom

– According to the final estimate released on May 31, 2018, India’s Gross Domestic Product is estimated to be worth 130.11 lakh crores, with an increase of 6.7 percent at constant prices (2011-12) in 2017-18.

– At the same time, at current prices, the Indian GDP is estimated to be worth 167.73 lakh crores with an increase of 10.0 percent in the year 2017-18.

2 Gross National Product

– The total monetary value of the final goods and services produced by any citizen of a country (both resident and non-resident) in any financial year is called GNP of that country’s gross national product.

– In the calculation of gross national income, the income of the citizens of the country working abroad is added, whereas the income of foreigners working within the country is reduced.

                                   GNP = GDP + Earned from abroad

– The final estimate released for the year 2017-18 is estimated at a gross national income of Rs. 128.64 lakh crores, with an increase of 6.7 percent on India’s fixed prices.

– At current prices, India’s GNI is estimated to grow 165.87 lakh crores in 2017-18 with an increase of 10 percent.



3 Pure national product

– Net national product is obtained after deducting value from the gross national product.

– The net national product at instrument cost is called national income.

– In the year 2017-18, the national income of India is estimated at an increase of 6.8 percent to Rs. 114.06 lakh crore.

– While in the provisional estimate of the year 2017-18, national income at current prices is estimated to be 148.49 lakh crores, with an increase of 10.1 percent.

– India’s per capita income is fixed at Rs 88668 at constant prices and Rs 11,2835 at current prices, in 2017-18.

– Net Indirect Tax (INT) = Indirect tax – Subsidy

– NDP (MP) = NDP (FC) + INT – S where S = Subsidy

– GNP = Gross national product

– NNP = Net National Products

– GDP = sakal household products

– NDP = nival household products

– MP = at market price

– FC = on instrument cost

– INT = nival indirect tax

– NFI = Nival Factor Income from Abroad

– National product value is measured by nival national product (NNP – Net National Product) and Gross National Product (GNP – Gross National Product), however both of these are different. All produced by GNP citizens in a year (within or outside the country) The total value of all the final goods and services produced in a year is wherein they get NNP by reducing the capital depreciation.

                                            NNP= GNP – Capital depreciation

 – In the given time period, the actual income will remain unchanged as prices and monetary income are doubled as the increased prices will balance the increased monetary income. This will not affect the actual income.    



 – Economic growth is taken care of in the growth of gross domestic product, gross national product and per capita national product.

 –  Amartya Sen is related to welfare economics. According to him, the main goal of economic development is human development.

– In the year 1981, Prof. Raj Krishna used the first time in the Hindu Development Rate, speaking by the American Economic Association. According to him, Hindu tradition is not favorable to development. Due to which growth is not promoted, the growth in national income in the Indian economy remains at 3.5 percent. It is clear that the Hindu growth rate used by Prof. Raj Krishna is related to national income.

– Along with economic development, the demand for goods in general increases and earnings also increase. That is why economic development usually gets interconnected with inflation.

– Due to the low participation of the school in the gross national product, wages are to be worked out compared to the prices.Price rise is a major symptom of the Indian economy, due to which even if there is increase in wages, the resultant profit is also reduced.

– Economic development – structural change

Economic Growth – Gross Domestic Product

Sustainable development – environment

Quality of life – Health

– The melt down is the status of securities and bonds, whereas recession is a condition of business and industrial chakras and Slow Down is the exact position of economic activity.

– The criticism is continued in India for the adoption of New Economic Policy, which is primarily based on liberalization, privatization and globalization, since 1991. Where the developed countries of the world are criticizing the Government of India due to non-adoption of the new economic policy in a holistic and definite time, At the same time, its criticism within India is also being done on the basis that due to the new economic policy, India is adopting capitalism and is distracted by the path of socialism mentioned in the Constitution. In fact, these criticisms are dependent on the ideals of differences.



– Under the new economic policy adopted after the assumption of power of the Narsimabha Rao government in June 1991, liberalization began on July 24, 1991. New industrial policy was announced on July 24, 1991. In this policy, all other industries, except 18 major industries, were made licensed free.

– After independence, India’s commercial structure remained more or less stable despite the huge change in India’s GDP growth and the major changes in the contribution of primary, secondary and third sector in GDP. Its main reason is the lack of transfer from agriculture to industry towards economic development. Though the public is aware of this, but even today agriculture is not considered as an industry but a tradition.

– Liberalization in the Indian economy is considered from the year 1991. At that time Manmohan Singh was the Finance Minister of India. As a result, he is only called the forerunner of the liberalization of the Indian economy.

– The most suitable measure of the economic growth of a country is the actual national income per person product / per person, because it reflects the per capita availability of national income.

– During the 1990- 2000 decade, the gross national product growth rate was 8.0% in the financial year 1996-97, which was higher than the gross national product growth rate achieved in any other financial year of this decade. In the 2001-2010, the highest growth rate of gross national product was in 2006-07 (9.6%).

– The task of collecting data on capital formation in India is done by the Reserve Bank of India and the Central Statistical Organization.

– Now in the measurement of national income, year 2011-12 is considered as base year instead of year 2004-05. In addition to GDP, now G V A (gross value added) is calculated. Therefore both changes in base year and calculation method have been changed.

– India’s Economic Survey is published annually by the Economic Department of Finance, Government of India, Ministry of Finance. Economic review is presented in the policy review of economics. It also contains facts and figures related to the performance of the semantics in the last financial year.

– Central Statistical Organization was formed on 2nd May, 1951, which calculates the national income of India. The national income and related facts enclosed by the CSO highlight the three dimensions of national income – domestic product, factor rectangle and final consumption and capital formation.



– According to the Economic Review 210-13, the per capita income at current prices in the year 2009-10 is Rs 46117. Is close to. According to the Economic Survey, 2017-18, the per capita income at fixed and current prices in the year 2017-18 was Rs 86660 and Rs 111,782 respectively. is. According to the last estimates released on 31st May, 2018, the per capita per capita living at constant and current prices is Rs. 86668. And Rs. 112835.

– The growth rate of India’s highest percentage of income on fixed prices for the years 1951-52 to 2015-16 is recorded in 2007-08. This year, India’s per capita income registered an increase of 8.60%. While the growth rate of per capita income in the years 2010-2011, 2014-15 and 2015-16 is 8.3%, 5.0% and 5.5%, respectively.

In the last 5 years, the growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Per Capita Income (PCI) of 2004-05 basis values was as follows –




















– It is clear from this table that the growth rate of neither gross domestic product nor per capita income has increased steadily in the last 5 years.

GDP and related indicators based on the new series (2011-12) –

All price are in crors





On stable market price




Growth rates




GVA on base price(on 2011-12)




Growth rate






According to the final estimates released 31 May 2018, the gross domestic product is estimated at 6.7% in the year 2017-18 on stable prices, when it was 7.1% in the year 2016-17. Gross value addition at constant prices is estimated to be 6.5% in 2017-18 compared to 7.1% of the year 2016-17.

– About 69% of India’s population lives in villages whose main business is agriculture.

– Economists have considered capital as the most important factor for economic growth. According to the Indian plan, “The real key of increasing rate of high productivity and of the growing level of income and employment is capital formation.”



The details of the year and the gross domestic savings rate (as a percentage of GDP) in them are as follows:-


Gross domestic saving rate














>> Economic sustainable development

– Sustainable development is the process of socio-economic development, in which the point of development is as per the stamina of the Earth. This concept developed in the 1960s, when people became aware of the harmful effects of the industrialization environment.

– The concept of sustainable development began in the year 1962 when the science writer Rachel Carson wrote। a book The Silent Spring.

– This book proved to be milestone in the study of interconnected relations between environment, economy and social parties.

– In the year 1968, Biologist J. Paul Erlich published his book Animal Husbandry Bomb in which he highlighted the relationship between human population, resource harness and environment.



>> Meaning and definition of Sustainable Development

The purpose of sustainable development is to secure the environment along with economic development. Its aim is to keep natural resources safe for current and future generations. The word eternity is defined differently –

1- Eternity means a situation, which remains forever.

2- Natural resources should be used in such a way that there is no environmental imbalance and nature is not more exploited than production capacity.

– The concept of sustainable development emphasizes the development of economic development policies according to the environment. Its purpose is to make changes in the development policies against the environment.

– The Best Definition of Sustainable Development The Bentland Commission gave its report in Our Common Future (1987). He called sustainable development such a development that meets the needs of the future generations without compromising without meeting them.



>> The purpose of sustainable development

– There is some far-reaching and comprehensive objective of sustainable development which is free from caste, religion, language, regional bondage. These objectives are the right party for the emancipation of the economy by the chain of exploitative mentality, which has saved the destruction of the biodiversity of nations, In essence these objectives are as follows –

– Avoiding misuse of the Earth’s resources

– Discover new scientific techniques that work according to nature.

– To protect diversity and incorporate local communities into developmental policies.

– Decentralization of institutions of governance and make them more flexible, transparent and responsive to the public.

– To plan for such international institutions that do damage their environment without understanding the needs of poor countries, help them in development, To equate the level of life of most people with equality and justice.

– Increasing peaceful coexistence in all the nations of the world, because only peace ensures the protection of the wider interests of humanity.

– Sustainable development is a value-based concept that demands ideals such as mutual coexistence and respect for everyone. It is a continuous development process which is based on harmony in cultural, social, economic, political and environmental factors.

– Holding capacity or carrying capacity refers to the ability to maintain the maximum number of organisms within a particular resource. Therefore, the requirements of the present are to meet the requirements of the ecosystem with the ability of the ecosystem.

– Human capital is also considered as the same as the other. Increasing appropriation in human capital will lead to an increase in productivity. Whose gradual expansion is low –

– Development in skill

– Proper use of resources

– increase productivity

– Inclusive development means the access to resources and facilities to all the sections of the society.

– Inclusive growth is a multi-dimensional concept of development with totality.It improves the availability of better opportunities for education, health and employment, along with improving infrastructure. In addition to reducing poverty, its main dimension is not only expected to increase the inclusive growth of the high growth rate of national income.

– Neemrana is located in the Alwar district of Rajasthan. Almost all development works undertaken here are based on the sustainable economic development model.

– For the first time in the Economic Survey of the year 2011- 12, a new chapter of model development and climate change was added.

– There are four major characteristics of demographic transition related to economic development :-

In the first phase, due to the low state of development of the state, the mortality rate remains high as the birth rate is high, because there is lack of health services.

– In the second phase, development moves forward and improves health services. Therefore, mortality decreases with the birth rate high.

– When the state develops in the state of tropisation, there is an unprecedented increase in education, health, and employment. Hence, people become very conscious of the population and the population increases according to the country’s domestic resources. Thus, with low rates, low mortality rate comes.

– In the fourth stage, population stability status comes.

– Inclusive rule means that all the sections of society are equally provided with the facilities provided by the government.Establishment of effective district committees of all districts, increase in public expenditure on public health and providing empowerment to Mid Day Meal Scheme is part of inclusive regime.Non-banking financial companies can not be considered as part of the inclusive regime to allow banking.



>> Agricultural and related areas

– importance

– Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy.

– Even today, Indian Agriculture contributes about half of India’s gross employment, approximately 1/6 (15-18%) of national income contributes about 18 percent (about 6 percent in imports and 12 percent in exports) in international trade.

– This is the exterior of most of the population of the country.

– In the year 2016-17, agriculture registered an increase of about 6.3 percent, and in 2013-14 it is estimated at 3.0 percent.

– Gross granular production was 277.4 million tonnes in the year 2017-18, as long as the record is highest.

– It produces 111 million tonnes of rice and 97 million tonnes of wheat.

>> Features of Indian agriculture

Indian agriculture is still in a very backward state. Even today, farmers are doing farming in an effortless manner.

– Productivity of agriculture in India is a lot of work.

– In India, large-scale discovery is found in unemployment, which is one of the leading causes of poverty among farmers.

– Even today, Indian agriculture is uncertain due to which the crop is good when the weather is good, whereas the crop also gets spoiled due to adverse weather.

– Small joys are also a major feature of Indian agriculture.

– 67.1 percent of the total zodiac limit is less than the marginal holdings (less than 1 hectare) and the small scale of 17.9 percent is one hectare.



– Thus, about 85 percent of the plant is less than 2 hectare.

Sr. No.

Distribution of holdings in india



Marginal holdings



Small holding



Medium holdings



Large holding



>> Land reform in India

– After the independence land reform programs were undertaken by reforming the land settlement and protecting the interests of farmers and motivating them for agriculture.

>> Objective

1 Developing a land relation where cultivators are the real owners.

2 Removal of all obstacles in the geo-system, which can stop the exploitation.

>> Work

1 Elimination of Arbitrator – Under this all jamindari or all such arrangements were abolished and farmers were directly contacted by the government regarding the land.

2 Kastika Reform – Under this, the lease was regulated, the tenure officers were preserved and the tenants were given the land title.



3 Reorganization of agriculture – Under this, agricultural land redistribution was done. Determination of maximum land tenure was divided into additional land, landless.

– With small chakras, through a lot of constraints, large chakras were made, so that they could be made scientific.

– Government Agriculture was also encouraged under this program.

>> Green Revolution

– The Green Revolution was a set of programs for making India self-reliant in the food sector by accelerating agricultural production and productivity in India.

– Norman Borlaug, a scientist from Mexico, researched seeds and discovered more productivity seeds.

– When these seeds got proper facilities and protection, they could get a lot of production.

– For this reason, Borlaug is considered to be the father of the Green Revolution.

– M.s Swaminathan, who is regarded as the father of Green Revolution in India, emphasized on adopting the Mexican system in India and also laid the foundation for making Indian agriculture self-reliant.

– Green Revolution was a package program under which high productivity seeds (HYV) were nourished through fertilizer and irrigation and preserved through pesticides.

– Mechanization of agriculture was also encouraged to make its additional agriculture modern and scientific.

– Technically it was adopted in the year 1960-61 under the intensive agricultural district program and in 1966 it was implemented all over the country.

– In the Second Green Revolution, with emphasis on organic farming to increase the scope of the crops and the increase in the areas, the farming system is sustainable.

It focused on many areas including northern India, where there is a probability, but the Green Revolution was not successful.

– It also focuses on the production of pulses-like crops.



>> Agriculture Finance

– Agricultural finance is required for different problems.

– For short term loans (less than 15 month), etc. for short term loans, for the need of mid-term loans (for 15 months -5 years) and for permanent improvement of the land, big investment, etc.  Long term loans are required for more than 5 years.

>> The sources of agricultural finance

1 Institutional Source

– Agricultural and Rural Development Bank (NABARD), the highest organization of agricultural finance in institutional sources

– It was established in 1982. It regulates agricultural credit granting institutions by not giving loans directly.

2 Non-institutional sources

– Mahajan / Sahukar, Friend related collector, trader etc.

– His role at the time of independence was very high.

– The maximum contribution of commercial banks in the year 2016-17 is commercial banks (69%).

– Institutional sources of agricultural finance are commercial banks, regional rural banks, cooperative banks and governments.

– After this, the top placement is the place of cooperative banks (17.5%) and regional rural banks (13.5%).



>> Regional Rural Bank

– Regional Rural Bank was established in the year 1957.

– In these banks, 50 percent of the central government, 35 percent of the capital is commercial bank and 15 percent related state government.

– This is an institution devoted to rural finance.

>> Co-operative bank

– Co-operative bank is three-level –

1 At state level – State Cooperative Bank

2 At District level – Central Co-operative Bank

3 At the local level – Primary Co-operative Credit Organization

– State co-operative banks are not directly connected to the consumer, rather they regulate the remaining two-level banks, and refinance them.

– Note- The long-term loan in agriculture is given by the land development banks.

– The National Agriculture Scheme has been set up to provide better value of their produce to the farmers and to ensure transparent business of agricultural commodities. Its electronic portal (e – NAM) was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on April 14, 2016.It is an all-India electronic trending portal that integrates the outgoing agricultural produce marketing committees and creates an integrated national market for agricultural commodities. Due to the electronic business, farmers are competing according to the quality of their produce.

– National Soil Health Card Scheme was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on February 19, 2015, with the slogan of healthy grass, field green, of Suratgarh in Rajasthan.Its aim is to make the farmers aware about the quality of their land and prevent them from excessive use of fertilizers and make agriculture more productive, retarded and flexible to the environment.

– Prime Minister Chaudhary Charan Singh opposed the economic development of Nehru’s Soviet style. Chaudhary Charan Singh thought that cooperative farming could not be successful in India. Hence, Charan Singh is not considered a supporter of cooperative farming in India.

– During India’s independence, there was an agricultural system in which the ownership of the land was centered in some hands. Therefore, land reform was considered to be very necessary to enrich the country and for this there was a need to eradicate the jamindari system, fixing the maximum limit for land surplus and tenancy.



– Blue Revolution in India is related to fisheries. The following are other revolutions related to agriculture and relations sector:

Green Revolution – Food Production

White Revolution – Milk Production

Brown Revolution – Fertilizer Production

Yellow Revolution – Oilseeds Production

Red Revolution – Meat / Tomato Production

Pink Revolution – Shrimp / Onion Production

Black Revolution – Crude Oil Production

– The marginal holdings in India are less than 1 hectare. The size of the small zodiac is 1-2 hectares, the size of the sub-zodiac is 2-4 hectares, the size of medium zodiac is 4-10 hectares and the size of the large zodiac is 10 hectares or more. In India, 67% marginal increase in gross zones, 18% small holders, 10% sub-medium joints, 4% medium zones, and less than 1 percent of the wages are added.

– The status of the emergence of the Taj is very revolutionary for wheat irrigation. If a farmer has an irrigation facility, then he is advised to irrigate this condition.

– With the help of American Institute of Ford Foundation, the Ford Development Program, India was started from the year 1952 and it was the first country in the world to introduce it. Setting up a self-reliant, economically and socially equitable social system.



– Land allotment system for the farmers, land allotment system allotted to farmers, land tenure system allotted to large communities, land allotment system allotted to Maizearadro or Tehsildars of Malgujari and land revenue system at village level is called Mahalwadi system.

– The best soil bud clay for cotton crop is the highest in India’s Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh.

– Rural poverty reduces the investment of advanced technology in agriculture to farmers. Most of the Indian citizens, who live in cities, live in cities instead of cities. Thus, the impact of urban poverty on agricultural development is low or insignificant, whereas migrations to the villages in the city are completely false.

– Technology progress is of two types –

1 labor enhancing Technology progression

2 capital-enhancing technology progression

In the agricultural production, the use of steel in place of Halo of wood indicates the progress of capital-enhancing technology. Advanced capital promotion emphasizes more productive use of existing capital goods.

– According to the 2011 census, the highest (59.3%) employees in the agriculture sector are employed in Uttar Pradesh. The total workforce of the state is 29.0 percent whereas agriculture workers are 30.3 percent.

– Cash crops are those crops that are produced for commercial purpose and not for consumption purposes. Jowar is categorized under thick food crops.

– Economic Review The Government of India displays the following types of major crops in India.



>> Food crops (or food crops)

1 Rice Wheat Maize Coarse Grains

2 pulse

Non-food crops (cash crops)

1 Oilseed – groundnut, rapeseed and mustard

2 fibrous – cotton, jute, mesta

3 Bagan Crops – Tea, Coffee, Rubber

4 Others – Tobacco, Potatoes, Sugarcane

– The main purpose of the Agricultural Village Industries Scheme is to promote agricultural exports.

– National agricultureI insurance scheme, started from the year 1999-2000 Rabi season, was also implemented on Kharif crops from the budget of 2004-2005.

– The first attempt for crop insurance in India was done during kharif on 1st April, 1985 when a comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme was launched by the Government of India.

– The Kisan Bhihi Yojana was implemented in Uttar Pradesh in the year 1992.

– National agricultureI insurance scheme, was started from Rabi season 1999-2000 at the place of the Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme launched by the Union Agriculture Ministry from April 1985.The main objective of this scheme was to provide protection to the farmers due to drought, flood, hail, cyclone, fire, insect / disease and crop damage from nature disaster etc.At present, the Prime Minister’s Crop Insurance Scheme has replaced it.

– Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Program was started in the year 1996-97 to provide assistance to states whose inadequate large / medium irrigation projects were in advanced stages of completion.Center-sponsored Command Area Development Program was started in 1974-75 for efficient utilization of irrigation potential.

– For the eighth five year plan, India was divided into 15 agricultural climate territories.

– The National Agricultural Development Plan is operational from August 16, 2007, which is under the financial year 2007-08. In this, an amount of 25000 crore rupees was ensured in the Eleventh Five Year Plan.Under the scheme, the state will get additional central assistance in the form of 100% subsidy.



– National Horticulture Mission is a central sponsored scheme. It was started during the year 2005-06 (from 5th May 2005) during the Tenth Plan. The objective of this scheme is to increase the overall development and production of the horticulture sector in India.The target of National Horticulture Mission was to produce 300 million tonnes of horticulture production in the country and to 4 lakh hectares under sowing area under the year 2011-12. To promote horticulture production in India, the year 2012 has also been declared the Horticulture year.

– National Horticulture Mission is being implemented in the country since 2005. According to the Current State Statistical Year Book 2015, all states except the North-Eastern and Himalayan states (Sikkim Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Uttarakhand) and 3 Union Territories (Andaman and Nicobar Islands, lakshdeep and Puducherry) are included in the NHM.

– Small Farmer Development Agency Program started in 1818 development blocks of the country since 1971. This program was initially started in Kamrup district of Assam for evaluation and study of small and marginal farmers.

– China is the largest producer of vegetables. India is second place after China and america  is third place.

                                          India has the major imported pulses


Quantity (in year 2015-16 in thousand tone)

Quantity (in year 2015- 15 in thousand tone)

















According to the position of the year 2010-2011, the export value of agricultural products was as follows

 Raw cotton 2910 million-dollar, Rice 2545 million-dollar, Tea 736 million dollars and, Coffee 662 million dollar


843 million dollar


5734 million dollar

Raw cotton

1621 million dollar

Tea and mate

731 million dollar


805 million dollar


2853 million dollar



– India is the only producer of all known commercial varieties of silk. These five categories of silk are as follows:-

1 mulberry

2 tropical tasar

3 oak tasar

4 eri

5 muga

– China is the first in silk production and second place in India. India is also the largest consumer country of silk in India. Malabari silk is produced in Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Jammu and Kashmir In the state of West Bengal, while non-Mulberry silk is produced in Jharkhand Chhattisgarh is abundant in Odisha and North Eastern states.

– Early efforts were made in the direction of cooperative agriculture in India in the early 20th century. Special efforts were made to promote cooperative farming in the early years after independence. Cooperative increases agricultural productivity Thus cooperative farming is not the reason for the productivity of Indian agriculture.

– The National Food Security Mission was started from October 2007. The mission has the following objectives

1 Increase in the production of paddy, wheat and pulses by expanding the area in the well-known districts in the country and through continuous productivity enhancement.

2 Protection of Soil Productivity and Fertility

3 There was an increase in economic benefits at the farm level so that the confidence of the farmers could be born.

– The aim of the National Horticulture Mission is to achieve high growth in the horticulture sector, make the posterior system and develop resources.

– The Agricultural Workers Social Security Scheme was started from 1 July 2001. This scheme provides pension benefits to life insurance, one-time life benefits and agricultural laborers.

– National Food Security Mission is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. Which was started with the objective of procuring 10, 8 and 2 million tonnes of additional production (additional 20 million tonnes of foodgrains production) of wheat rice and pulses till the year 2011 12 (11th Five Year Plan).Current situation is the target of production of over 25 million tonnes of additional foodgrains in rice, wheat, pulses, coarse grains, commercial crops in 4 million tonnes and 3 million tonnes of coarse grains.

– The yellow or yellow revolution is related to oilseed production. This revolution started in 1986, from the oilseed technical mission run by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.In the beginning of this mission, the rate of growth of various oilseeds has been increased from 25% to 420%. In 2005-06, the total production of oilseed in India was 27.98 million tonnes. According to the 4th advance estimate released in August 2018, oilseed production is estimated at 31.31 million tonnes in 2017-18.



– American scientist Norman Borlog is considered to be the father of the Green Revolution. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in the year 1970.

– The beginning of Green Revolution in India is considered in the year 1966. Agricultural University Pant Nagar has been an important contributor to bringing green revolution in India. Therefore it is also called the birthplace of the Green Revolution.

– Father of the Green Revolution (1966), Agricultural Scientists was m.s. Swaminathan. then the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and the then Union Agriculture Minister Shri Subramanyam was also very important role.

– Operation Flood was launched in 1970 to develop milk business under the leadership of Verghese Kurien in India. Operation Flood-II (from April 1970 to March 1981) Operation Flood Two (from April 1981 to March 1985) Operation Flood 3 (from April 1985 to March 1995) and Operation Flood 3 (from April 1995 to 2000) have been completed.Operation Flood proved to be a successful program. As a result, India has achieved first place in milk production in the world.

– Through the Public Distribution System, the government provides foodgrains at the fair prices to the poor families. The Government provides subsidies to the food released from the PDS. The prices of food grains released by PDS are lower than the market prices.So if the government increases the price of grains distributed by PDS, its direct impact will be that the burden of subsidy on PDS will be reduced.

– The Green Revolution is criticized that its benefits have been received by big farmers in certain areas. Again, in the green revolution, focus was on increasing the production of wheat, rice and some cash crops, rather than coarse grains. Prices of foodgrains are continuously rising, except for the period of the first five year plan, in which the minimum support price has been a major contributor.The income of the people of low income group has increased in comparison to the price increase of food grains. Therefore, despite the almost three times intelligence in foodgrains in the period 1950-90, India still has not been able to get rid of hunger.

– Organic Farming Organic farming is a production system that is suitable for the health of the soil ecosystem and people.

– Mango’s favorite species for exports is Alphonso or Alphonso. Its major producing state in India is Maharashtra.

– The main principle of agricultural finance is the objective, productivity, planning, organization etc.

– Land revenue will not be included in the floating cost capital of any farm, whereas its floating costs will be included in the cost of seed fertilizers and irrigation water. Because all these are included in the agriculture.

– The government purchases agricultural produce from the farmers at procurement value from the procurement price. Acceptance value equality is higher than the minimum support price.

– The Agricultural Value Commission was set up in the year 1965 with the aim of advising the government on the prices of agricultural produce. In 1985, the Agricultural Value Commission was renamed as Agricultural Cost and Value Commission. Its headquarters are in New Delhi. It is known that in principle the government announces the minimum support price of agricultural products in view of its advice, but the government is not obliged to accept its recommendations.



– The Agricultural Costs and Prices Commission recommends to declare the following prices :-

1 Minimum Support Precious

MSP is the prices on which the government is ready to buy agricultural products. MSP ensures that the price of agricultural products will not be below the minimum support price. MSP provides security to farmers and ensures stabilization of agricultural value.

2 Recovery Prices

Recovery prices are the prices on which the government purchases agricultural produce from farmers. The recovery fee is higher than the MSP.

3 ongoing prices

Food Corporation of India sells foodgrains at this price through public distribution system. Where the MSP protects the interests of the farmers, the same continues to protect consumers’ interests.

– Agricultural Costs and Agriculture Commission currently announces the value of 25 crops under MSSP. The National Food Security Mission is a central government-funded scheme that deals with the increase in the production of rice, wheat and pulses. Presently, under this, coarse cereals have also been included. Its implementation is done by the Ministry of Agriculture. This mission started in 2007-2008.

National Agricultural Research Management Academy is located in Hyderabad.

The Indian charity and fodder research institute is located in Jhansi.

Niru Meeru water harvesting program was started in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India in the year 2000.

Central Food Technology Research Institute is located in Mysore.

Founded in the year 1960, GB Pant is the first agricultural university of the University of Agriculture and Technology, which is located in Pantnagar Uttarakhand.

Demand for agricultural products is sustainless. That is why in the case of higher yields, there is adverse impact on the price of the farmers and their total income.

Golden rice Orissa sativa is a variety of rice, which is made by genetic engineering for the bio-synthesis of beta-carotene which provides Provitamin A in the feeding rice.

The Indian National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Association is affiliated with Agricultural Marketing, which was established on 2 October 1958. It is a top cooperative organization at the national level whose work is to export and import the management distribution of selected agricultural commodities.

Uttar Pradesh Agricultural Research Council is located in Lucknow. It was established in 1989.

Indian vegetable research institute is located in Varanasi.

Handbook of Agriculture is published by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

In most parts of India, the market of agricultural products is developed and operated under the state-owned Agricultural Product Marketing Committee Act.

The National Land Records Modernization Program was started from August 2008.

Kisan Credit Card Scheme was started in the year 1998 99. The objective of this scheme is to provide adequate and easy financial assistance to the farmers from the banking system in time and in a simple way so that their financial needs can be met for the purchase of agricultural and essential equipment.

The Renfed Area Development Program, launched by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation of the Government of India, 2011, is a sub plan under the National Agricultural Development Scheme. Its main objective is to improve the level of farmers.



>> Industry sector

>> Industry and New Economic Policy

After independence, the government’s control of industries in the industrial policy of 1948 and 1956 was retained, but in the end due to presiding over industries, the need for lack of government intervention was felt in their management.

In the meantime, some relaxation was made and in the year 1991, the new economic policy, under which privatization, liberalization, globalization was adopted.

>> privatization

Under this, the government lowers public ownership and sells its stake to private individuals.

It is also called disinvestment.

>> Liberalization

Under this, government is reduced in government inspection and control and rules are made simple and liberal.

Termination of Inspector Raj’s termination license or relaxation in its rules is to be taken under liberalization.

Globalization is a concept related to the integration of the world under which all the world’s economies are interconnected and among them the goods and services resources, capital etc., seem to have an independent effect.

Liberalization privatization and globalization is called LPG policy.



>> New Industrial Policy 1991

In the industrial policy announced on July 24, 1991, several liberalized steps were taken while relaxing the public control over industries.

1 Freedom from Industrial Licensing

This policy eliminated the compulsions of getting licenses for all industries except for 18 major industries. In the meantime, there was a reduction in the present and currently only 5 industries (Alcohol, Cigarette, Tobacco Products, Hazardous Chemicals, Defense Equipment and Industrial Explosives) have been kept under license.

2 Reduction in the importance of the public sector

In the new industrial policy, 17 industries reserved for the public sector were reduced to 8 Currently, only two industries (nuclear power and railways) have been reserved for the public sector while reducing it further.

3 End of MRTP Asset Limit

This policy eliminated the maximum asset limit of the companies under the Monopoly and Prevention of Trade Practices Act, which would also encourage more productive activities by investing, merging and acquiring.

4 Apart from these, the policy related to establishment of industries has also been improved and the mandatory requirement for permission to set up industries in cities having population upto 10 lakhs has been abolished.

5 In order to attract foreign investment in industries, announcement on liberalizing the limits and conditions of FDI has been announced.

Note: In relation to foreign capital, FEMA was replaced in the year 1999 in place of the harsh act FERA. This Act came into effect from June 2000.



6 New Industrial Policy also emphasized the development of micro and medium enterprises. At present, micro-small and medium industries have been defined on the basis of investment –





industry area

Upto Rs. 25 lakh

25 lakhs to 5 crore rupees

5 to 10 crores rupees

Service area

Upto Rs. 10 lakh

10 lakh to 2 crores rupees

2 to 5 crores rupees


In India, the industries are in addition to internal resources to meet the needs of their finances, from institutional sources, the major institutions which fund the industries are:

1 Indian Industrial Finance Corporation Limited

Establishment – in the year 1948


– Providing long term and medieval lending to industrial establishments.

– It provides loans for improving industrial production capacity.

– It lends up to a maximum of 25 years.

2 Industrial Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation Limited

Established in year 1955


Financing of industrial units established in private sector.

Note – In the year 2002, the merger of this institution was done in ICICI Bank.

3 Industrial Development Bank of India

Establishment – in the year 1964


Funding all the sources of industrial countries, incentives of basic industries

Note – In October 2004, it was scheduled as a commercial bank.



4 Industrial Investment Bank of India

In the year 1971, the Indian Industrial Reconstruction Corporation Limited was set up to provide financial assistance to weak industrial units.

In 1985, the Indian Industrial Reconstruction Bank was converted into

In March 1998, it was renamed as Indian Industrial Development Bank.


Financing of sick industrial units

5 Indian Unit Trust

Founded in November 1963


From 1 July 1964, it started the collection of savings by selling units

Collecting small savings and financing industries.

6 small industries bank of india

Established in April 1989 by the Act in April 1989


Providing finance to small scale industries.

>> Public Enterprises in India

>> Navratna Companies

In the year 1997, to give independence to 9 selected public sector companies in more decision-making, they were given the status of Navratna companies. Presently, their number is 16.

>> Maharatna companies

– Maharatna status given to the best performing companies who meet the demands

1 Annual net profit in the last 3 years is 50 million

2 Company’s net worth is 15000 crores rupees

3  In 3 years, the average turnover of Rs. 25000 crores has been done.

4 It should be listed in the stock market



At present, eight companies have been granted Maharatna status.









Note – some companies in the public sector are also given mini Ratan status.

                                                Key committees and commission

Committees/ commission



Mahalanobis Committee




Assessment of income distribution

Khusro Committee


Agricultural and rural credit

Dantewala committee


Unemployment estimates

Sarkaria Commission


Center State Relations

Goopiriya Committee


Banking service improvement

Goswami Committee


Industrial sickness

Narasimham Committee


Financial reform

RajaCheilya Committee


tax reform

Janaki Raman Committee


Security scandal

Malhotra Committee


Insurance reform

Bhandari committee


Reorganization of Regional Rural Banks

Abid hussain committee


small industry

Meera Seth Committee


Handloom development

Mahajan Committee


Sugar industry

Tarapore Committee


Rupee changes in capital account.

Suresh Tendulkar Committee


Poverty estimation

Sachar Committee


Improvement in socio-economic and educational status of Muslims.

Parekh Committee


Price system of petroleum products

Malegaon Committee


For the bad loans in the banking sector




                                                   Major board

Indian coffee board

Bengaluru (karnataka)

Indian board

Kottayam (Kerala)

Indian tea board

Kolkata (West Bengal)

Indian Tobacco Board

Guntur (Andhra Pradesh)

Indian spices board

Kochi (Kerala)

Indian grape processing board

Pune (Maharashtra)

Indian jute board

Kolkata (West Bengal)

National Fisheries Development Board

Hyderabad (Telangana)


The Government of India has notified the National Manufacturing Policy on November 4, 2011, that the objective of this policy is to increase the share of manufacturing sector to 25% in GDP and create jobs of more than 10 crores in a decade.

The Trade Dispute Act of 1929 was applied for experimental basis for 5 years. The Act provided for the establishment of the Board of Agreement and the Settlement Court for investigation and resolution of trade disputes. In the public, public utility services like railways, postal, telegraph and telephone were prohibited without prior notification of strike or lockout.

The Indian government jointly established Indian Quality Council in 1977 with Indian industries. In Indian Quality Council, Indian industry is represented by three major industry associations such as Ascham, CII and FICCI. It gives a policy direction to the quality campaign in the country by establishing an analog assessment system which has been recognized internationally with the aim of increasing the quality of Indian products and services.Indian Council of Quality is run by a council of 38 members in which the government is the equal representation of industry and consumers. The chairperson of the QCI is appointed by the Prime Minister on the recommendations made by the industry to the government. At present, the President of this council, Adil Jainulbhai, who is appointed by the Prime Minister Was done in September 2014.

The first factory act was passed in 1881. In this, there was a provision related to security of only those laborers who were children. There was no provision made in relation to the women labor in this act. Therefore, the workers’ resemblance to this act was disappointing. NM Lokhande was a pioneer in organizing the labor movement in India, not only in the 19th century, but also for the miserable condition of handloom and cloth mill, they are remembered for improvement but also on issues like caste cult, they have taken an initiative.



The growth rate in the industries is 2,000- 2001 and 2017-18 respectively.



2016- 17


                                                    April – December


















– India’s industrial production index is calculated by the CSO. This is done by defining two bases –

1 The first broad sector-based IIP, which includes mining manufacturing and electricity.

2 Second Use-based IIP, which includes Basic Goods Capital Goods Intermediate Goods Consumer Goods Consumer Durable and Non Consumer Durable. It does not include construction.

The base of the Industrial Consumer Price Index was changed from 1960 to 1982. Presently the base year of the Industrial Consumer Index is 2010.



8 industries in India have the status of core industries. The contribution of the core industries in the entire industrial production is 37.90%. It is the 8 core industry

1 Crude oil

2 Petroleum refinery products

3 natural gas

4 Fertilizer

5 Coal

6 electricity

7  cement

8  Finished steel

Manufacturing, using machines, tools and labor, is called manufacturing. Manufacturing involves activities from handicrafts to high-tech activities, but this term is often used in the sense of industrial production. In this raw materials are converted into large-scale finished goods, the construction industry is kept separate from manufacturing. Under this industry infrastructure is built.

The National Manufacturing Policy was notified by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry on November 4, 2011. The purpose of this policy is to increase the share of manufacturing in GDP by 25% within a decade and 100 million jobs.

The Government of India has announced the policy of Special Economic Zones in April 2000. It is a duty-free economic zone, where there is considerable exemption from business operating fees and coasters. The Special Economic Zones Act was passed by the Government of India in the year 2005, which came into effect from February 2006.

Presently there are major problems facing Indian small industries – lack of capital, problem of distribution, lack of raw materials, constraints of infrastructure, customs policy, delayed payments, problems of morbidity, low level data availability etc.

The importance of small-scale industries is that it is a sector which generates more employment per unit investment. Developing countries like India, where Shramadashash is, it is important.

The most important small scale industry in India is the handloom industry under which the industries like muslin, chint, valley, khadi are included. The handloom industry comes under the unorganized sector, in which about 65 lakh workers are employed.



Essar Oil Limited is in the private sector whereas Mangalore Refinery and Bongaigaon Refinery are the subsidiary units of ONGC and IOC respectively. There are a total of 23 oil refineries in the country in which 18 public / joint sector, 3 private sector and two joint ventures.

Public sector refinery

1 Indian Oil Corporation, Guwahati, Numati (Assam)

2  Indian Oil Corporation, Barauni (Bihar)

3  Indian Oil Corporation, koyali (badodara) Gujarat

4  Indian Oil Corporation, haldiya (west Bengal)

5  Indian Oil Corporation, mathura(uttar Pradesh)

6  Indian Oil Corporation, digboi (Assam)

7  Indian Oil Corporation, panipat ( hariyana)

8  Indian Oil Corporation, bogaiganv ( Assam)

9 Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (Assistant to IOC), Manali (Chennai)

10 Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Nagapattinam (Tamil Nadu)

11 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai (Maharashtra)

12 Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)

13 Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai (Maharashtra)

14 Kochi Refinery Limited (subsidiary of BPCL), Kochi (Kerala)

15 Numaligarh Refinery Limited (Assistant to BPCL), Numaligarh (Assam)

16 Tatipakka, Tatipakka (Andhra Pradesh)

17 Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (subsidiary of ONGC), Mangalore (Karnataka)

18 Paradip Refinery, Odisha’



Private sector refinery

19 Reliance Industries Limited, Jamnagar (Gujarat)

20 Reliance Petroleum Limited, Jamnagar (Gujarat)

21 Essar Oil Limited, Vadinar (Gujarat)

Joint sector refinery

22 India Oman Refineries Limited, Bina (Madhya Pradesh)

23 HPCL, bhatinda

Natural gas is an important exchange in fertilizer production, so the use of potentially vast natural gas resources in India is most suitable for fertilizer production.

The textile industry is India’s oldest and largest industry. The first modern cotton mill in India was established near Kolkata in 1818 AD. By August 13, 1947, there were 394 cotton textiles mill in India. After Pakistan’s partition there were 380 mill.

Oil India limited is a Public Sector Undertaking that is engaged in research development and its production and rail transport of stainless oil and natural gas.

Large size paper ie newsprint paper is produced in most of India’s National News Print and Paper Mills Limited Nepalese, which is in Madhya Pradesh. Production of Newspaper Paper in the year 1960-61 was 0.4 lakh tonnes in India which increased to 6.5 lakh tonnes in the year 2003-04. At present, there is a huge shortage of Indian news paper and about 70% of our requirement is imported.

The largest trading institution in India’s government sector is the Mineral and Metallurgical Business Corporation. It is one of India’s two largest foreign currency earning institutions. India is the largest exporter of minerals and the largest bullion trader in India.

ITDC’s work is to develop tourism and hotel industry in India. This is a semi-autonomous institution. This institution works to solve problems related to tourists.

In order to encourage the development of manufacturing sector, the Government of India has set up a single window clearance along with establishment of national investment and manufacturing sectors. To develop the manufacturing sector, the technology acquisition and development fund has also been set up by the government.

The financial catalyst economy is provided by the government to save itself from recession and fall into a financial crisis. Under this, fiscal stimulus is given to various sectors of the economy to promote economic activities in the country.



The government had approved the mega food park scheme in September 2008. The basic purpose of MFPS is to include –

Providing value-added supply chain from firm to market with adequate / best and infrastructure facilities for the food processing industry.

Processing of damaged materials from 6% to 20% of current and subtracting wastage.

But providing the emerging and ecologically friendly food processing technologies for entrepreneurs is not included in it.

On October 25, 2011, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the establishment of 15 new mega food park projects which was in addition to the already announced 15 projects. They are being set up under the Infrastructure Development Scheme for improving the infrastructure facilities for the food processing industry.

The Tarapore Samiti was formed to consult the rupee convertibility in the capital account.

India has 8 core sector

1 Coal

2 Crude oil

3 Natural gas

4 Refinery Products

5 Fertilizer

6 Steel

7 cement

8 Electricity

Uttar Pradesh’s biggest industry in terms of employment is the handloom industry.

The western region of Uttar Pradesh is the most developed in terms of industrial development.

Tisco is not a public sector undertaking. It is India’s leading steel company, which was established in 1960 in Jamshedpur. NTPC cell, BHEL is the three public sector Maharatn companies.



Small industries have a special contribution in the economy of Uttar Pradesh. Small and Medium Enterprises Provide Employment Opportunities At Low Cost Small and medium enterprises by which long-term loans are provided in Uttar Pradesh are

Uttar Pradesh Small Industries Corporation

Uttar Pradesh Industrial Development Corporation

Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation etc.

The six additional industrial units of the public sector granted the Mini Ratan status by the Government of India on September 19, 2006 were as follows:



3 Hindustan latex

4 Engineering project India LTD.

5 Rashtriya ispat limited

6 Garden reach shipbuilders and engineers

Goverment policy


Information technology policy


Mineral policy


Hotel policy


Industrial and investment promotion




To maintain the status of Mini Ratan for any PSU, there is a need to continue to earn profits for the last three consecutive years. The status of mini ratan helps the PSU to invest up to 500 crores without the approval of the government.

Navaratna is a special category of PSUs in which the government looks at the potential of being a global company.

National Aluminum Company Limited, Asia’s largest aluminum complex, was established in the year 1981 as a public enterprise of the Government of India.According to the updated status Navratna-rated companies are also involved in Nalco, the number of Mohrant companies is 8. There are 56 companies in Mini Ratan category and 17 companies in Miniratna category 2.

On November 16, 2010, four Navratna companies of the public sector were granted Maharatna status by the Ministry of Industry. These four companies were

1 Indian oil corporation

2 National thermal power corporation

3 Oil and natural gas corporation

4 Steel authority of india limited

In addition to this, call India Limited Bharat Heavy Electronics Limited, GAIL and BPCL were also granted Maharatna status.

HAL produces aircraft equipment.

In India oilseeds like petrol diesel are government controlled substances whose oil companies determine the effect.

Tertiary sector (services)

The service sector or service industry comes under the tertiary sector, which includes business, hotel, transportation, communication, banking, insurance, real estate, public administration, security, education, letter papers, entertainment and foreign fields.

Marketing is a tertiary activity under which collection, storage, processing and marketing of materials, transportation, hotels, communication, packing, classification and distribution etc. are done. Agriculture forestry is related to primary sector whereas manufacturing is related to the second sector.



                                           Share in gross value promotion at basic cost


2016 – 17 (1st RE) At current prices

2017- 18 At current prices







Mining and quarrying






Electricity Gas & Water Supply






GVA at Basic Price




According to the advance estimates of the year 2012-2013 at stable prices and production cost of gross national product in India, the contribution of service sector was 59.29 percent, industry share contributed 27.03 percent and agriculture sector contributed 13.68 percent. Currently the service sector share is the highest.

Area wise shareholding percentage in GVA at current prices


2014 -15

2015 – 16

2017 – 18( 1st AE)

Agricultural and allied sectors














Fiscal policy and revenue

The fiscal policy is implemented by the government to promote development with stability in the country.

The implementation of the fiscal policy is done through budget announcements.

There are 4 instruments for fiscal policy –

1 tax

2 Public Expenditure

3 loans

4 new currency creation

Tax is a mandatory payment to the public in return for which the government does not promise any reimbursement.

Tax is divided into two parts

1 direct tax

2 indirect taxes

Taxes which can be avoided on others are called indirect taxes, whereas those taxes which can be avoided are called direct tax.

Based on the tax rate determination, there are 4 models of taxation.

1 progressive

2 proportional

3 retrograde

4 degressive

1 Progressive Taxation

When tax increases along with increase in income, such taxpayers are called progressive taxpayers.

2 proportionate taxation

Whenever income increases, but there is no change in tax rate, this system is called proportional taxation.

3 Reverse taxation

When tax rate is reduced with the increase in income, then it is called regressive taxation.

4 degressive taxation

 When the tax rate increases with an increase in income to a certain extent, but after that limit stabilizes, then it is called declining taxation.

In India there is a degressive system: 5% to 2.5 lakhs 5.00 lakhs up to 5.10 lakhs and tax of 30% on income exceeding Rs. 10 lakhs.



Laffer curve

The rendering of the Lefar Curve was done by economic gain.

This curve reflects the negative relationship between tax rate and revenue collected from taxes.

According to the curve, if the rate of tax increases after a limit, tax states start coming down.

In contrast, if tax rate is reduced, then tax revenues increase.

There are two main reasons for this

1 Reduced tax evasion due to low rates.

2 The rate of tax increases trade and commerce which increases the base.

Public expenditure

Public expenditure refers to the expenses incurred by the government on various producers, unproductive welfare etc. The expenditure is divided on two bases –

On the basis of nature

Revenue expenditure

Capital expenditures

On productivity basis

Plan expenditure

Non plan expenditure

Revenue expenditure

Revenue expenditure is the expenditure, which is frequency in its form (which is continuously at fixed intervals) and thereby neither reduces any liability nor deprivation of any property. Eg – salaries, interest etc.

Capital expenditures

Such expenditure is sometimes used and the expense of which some property is created or decreased in some obligation, is called capital expenditure. Eg – payment of loans, dam construction etc.



Plan and non-plan expenditure

When the expenditure is spent for the implementation of the scheme or for the construction of the scheme, then it is called the plan expenditure whereas the expenditure (maintenance, administrative, etc.) other than the schemes is called non-plan.

At present, accounting for planning and non-plan expenditure has been abolished in India. Currently, only capital and revenue expenditure is accounted for.

public debt

Gross obligation on a particular country is called public debt.

The public is both internal and external.

Loans taken from the country’s small savings scheme, etc., are internal loans, whereas multilateral bilateral trade borrowed from outside the country comes under the category of external public debt.

External public debt of india

In India, the figures of public debt in the first two quarters were released by the Reserve Bank of India while the figures of last two quarters were released by the Finance Ministry.

At the end of June, 2018, all external debt of India was about 80.8 percent long-term loan while 19.2 percent was short term loan.

In these loans, 50.1 percent of the loan was in the dollar and 3.5.4 percent in the loan amount.

The largest share in external debt was the commercial borrowings of 37.8 percent. After this, n.r.i. Getting started

Part 12 of the Indian Constitution, Article 280 provides for the Finance Commission in India.

According to the article, the Finance Commission will be constituted by the President within two years of the implementation of the Constitution and after every 5 years.



There is a president and four members in this arrangement.


1) The Finance Commission has four main functions.

2) Determination of the divisional formula between center of departmental and central states and between different states.

3) Suggesting the principle of distribution of revenue assistance / grants to the states.

Suggesting on any topic regarding strong finance

4) To make necessary suggestions for the promotion of the accumulated fund of states for the increase in the means of municipalities / panchayats. This work has been added in the 73rd Amendment Constitution, 1992.

So far 15 Finance Commission has been set up in India.

At present, the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission (from 2015 to 2020) are effective.

14th Finance Commission

14 Finance Commission was constituted in January 2013 and submitted its recommendations in October 2014 with its recommendations.

This commission was Chairman YV Reddy.

Recommendations of this commission are from 1 April 2015 to 31 March 2020 (5 years).



Major recommendations

It recommended 42% revenue to the states, which is 10% higher than the recommendation of 32% of the 13 finance commission.

In this finance commission, most of the revenue for disbursement of middle revenues in the states has been given to inequality (50%).

14 According to the recommendations of the Finance Commission, the weighted share of income distribution formula among states are as follows:


14th Finance

13th Finance

a. Population of 1971



b. population of 2011


c. Area



d. Forest area


e. Income inequality



f. fiscal discipline


According to the 14th Finance Commission, the most financed states

1 uttar Pradesh – 17.96%

2 Bihar – 9.67%

3 madhya pradesh – 7.55%

4 west bangal – 7.32%

5 maharashtr – 5.52%

Minimum Allocation States

1 Sikkim – 0.37%

2 gao – 0.38%

3 mijarom – 0.46%

4 nagaland – 0.49%

5 manipur – 0.62%

The Government of India announced the formation of 15th Finance Commission on 27th November 2017 with the approval of the President.

The Chairman of the 15th Finance Commission will be Mr. NK Singh.

In the Finance Commission there are four other members of the President, who are appointed by the President.

1 Shaktikant Das (Former Secretary of the Government of India) – Member

2 Dr. Anoop Singh (Assistant Professor George Town University Washington DC US) – Member

3 Dr. Ashok Lahiri (President non-executive part-time) TCL Bank

4 Dr. Ramesh Chandra (Member Policy Commission)

Shri Arvind Mehta will be Secretary of the Commission



The Chairman and other members of the 15th Finance Commission will have the date of submission of report from the date of assuming office or till October 30, 2019, whichever is earlier.

                                                               Finance Commission of India

Finance Commission



Time period



K.C niyogi

1952- 57




1957 – 62



A.K chanda

1962- 66



P.V rajmannar




Mahaveer tyagi

1969- 74



K. Brahma nand readdy

1974- 79



J.M shelaint

1979- 84



Y.B chahvan

1984- 89



N k p salve

1989- 95



K c pant

1995- 2000



A M khusaro

2005- 2010



C rangrajan




Vijay kelkar




Y. V ready

2015- 2020



N.K Singh

2020- 2025



The National Pension Scheme, which was started by the Government of India on January 1, 2004, is a voluntary pension scheme. Under which, every Indian citizen (resident or non-resident) of the age of 18 to 60 years may be included. There is a special provision for people working in government jobs. Central Government employees (excluding armed) who are employed in service on or after January 1, 2004, are eligible for admission in the scheme. All employees of state governments who have been in service after notification by the respective State Governments are also eligible for this scheme.

GST is an indirect tax for the entire country, which will make India an integrated common market. With the implementation of GST, the final consumers will have to bear the GST imposed by the last dealer of the supply chain. This will end all profits of the previous steps.

Profit of GST

For business and industry

Easy compliance, the uniformity of rates and structures, the abolition of tax on taxes, improvement in competition, manufacturers and exporters benefits.

For Central and State Governments

Simple and easy, administration, misconduct, better control, expertise in more revenue.

For consumers

Single and transparent tax proportionate to the value of goods and services, relief in the overall tax burden.

The main theme of the Union budget for the financial year 2017-18 is- Farmers, rural population, youth, poor and deprived classes of special facilities, infrastructure, financial sector, digital economy, public service, judicial fiscal management and tax administration, export execution Not included in this.



In India, the fiscal policy is determined by the Finance Ministry of the Central Government while monetary policy is determined by the RBI. The finance commission splits the central and state’s central revenue and financial resources. The task of the Planning Commission is to split the five year plan. The Planning Commission’s task was to prepare the Five Year Plan It is known that from 1 January 2015 the Policy Commission has replaced the Planning Commission.

In the Economic Survey of 2015, the Indian economy has been considered as a masking challenge of the Indian economy going towards the non-issuance committee marketism in socialism.

In the budget speech of 1985 86, long term fiscal policy was announced by then finance minister VP Singh.

Kins has projected that in order to bring an economy out of depression, it is necessary that the government should support fiscal policy and increase public expenditure. In the year 1936, Kinns published his famous book General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money Was of

Financial fiscal policy is primarily related to government. The fiscal policy contains policies related to the income of the government (taxes and tax different income) and government expenditure.

The different stages of construction of the budget are as follows

1 Drawing and Disbursement

Preparation of estimates by 2 officials

Recognition and consolidation by 3 departments and ministers

4 Monitored by the Ministry of Finance

5 settlement of disputes

6 consolidation by the Finance Ministry

Economic review is prepared by the Finance Ministry. It is kept in parliament by the Finance Minister of India before the annual budget each year. In which the country is reviewed in the financial condition of the previous year.



The budget is related to the government’s fiscal policy. Budget is the receipt and expenditure of the government for each financial year (1 st April 31st).

On February 25, 2016, Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu presented the Railway Budget and proposed the formation of a Research and Development Organization Special Railway Establishment for Strategic Technology and Holistic Advancement. Done After its formation, the predecessor organization RDSO will focus only on everyday matters whereas the goal of the best will be to do long-term research. The head of the head will be a noted scientist.

Total receipts for the year 2010- 11 are Rs 1108749 crores, out of which 61% comes from the income received and 39% came from the capitalist castes. According to Budget Estimates 2018-19, the total receipts are estimated at 2442213 crores, of which revenues of Rs 1725738 crores and capital receipts Rs 71,6475 crores.

Subsidy, interest, payment, defense expenditure, maintenance expenses, education, health, pension, payments, completed projects in the previous five years, and the transfer of state to the states under the non-plan expenditure. Currently, the expenditure of the budget expenditure (budget estimate 2017-18) has been supplemented.The rail budget has also been included in the general budget.

Revenue expenditure in central budget is the payment of interest to the largest item of non-plan expenditure

The total expenditure in the year 2018-19 is Rs 2442213 crores, out of which

interest payment – 575795

Main production – 292825

Defense expenditure – 282733

Between the periods 2008-10, the central item’s revenue or current account expenditure was the main item of interest, after which there was a position of assistance and defense expenditure from karma.

In the budget of the year 2015, the largest expenditure of non-employment expenditure was to pay expenditure.



The fiscal deficit in the year 2011 was 5.7% of GDP.

The contribution of customs and central excise duty in gross revenue receipts in budget 2018-19 was 6.52% and 16.05%, respectively.

The fiscal deficit target of 2018-19 has been targeted at 3.3 percent.

Control on the fiscal deficit can be found by institutional reforms. Promotion of FDI or privatization of higher educational institutions is not a measure of control of fiscal deficit.

Zero-based Budget in India was first implemented in the first year in 1983 in the Department of Science and Technology and later in the year 1986.In the Zero-based budget each scheme is reviewed again as starting from zero.

In the fiscal year 2002-03, the combined fiscal deficit of the states was Rs. 102122 crores. In 2016-17, India’s gross fiscal deficit stood at 6.9 percent of GDP, out of which, the Center’s deficit was 3.5 percent and the combined account of states was 2.6 percent.

In the budget of 2012-2013, the expenditure on subsidy was proposed to keep 2.0 percent of GDP. Total subsidy expenditure in the year 2016 – 2017 was 2.14% of GDP.

The central government’s initial deficit, the fiscal deficit, the revenue deficit is as follows


Budget 2003- 04

Budget 2017 – 18

Budget 2018 – 19

Fiscal deficit




Revenue deficit




Initial deficit






Risking of subsidies, reduction in revenue expenditure and deficit reduction in the current account is used to control the growing deficits by the government. On the contrary, public spending increases the budget deficit further. In addition, by reducing inflation and stressing on the quality of public expenditure, new ones can also reduce the losses by rationalization.

In order to achieve the primary deficit, the interest deficit is reduced in the fiscal deficit. Therefore

Primary deficit = fiscal deficit – interest repayment

Budgetary deficit = Total receipts – Total expenditure

Revenue Deficit = Revenue Receipts – Revenue Expenditure

Fiscal deficit = budgetary deficit + government debt and other liabilities.

Fiscal deficit = revenue receipts + receipts from debt + other receipts – total expenditure

The fiscal deficit is bigger than the budgetary deficit because the budgetary deficit here is the difference between the government’s total expenditure and total receipts. The same fiscal deficit is the difference between the total income and total expenditure of the government. Public debt and other liabilities are the government’s receipt but this is not the income of the government because the government has the obligation to bring them. So the fiscal deficit is higher than the budget deficit.

The budget is audited by the Public Accounts Committee. There are 22 members in this committee. A member of the opposition party is the president of this committee. It is the oldest financial committee of the Parliament.

In the budget of the federal government, a large part of the fiscal deficit is met through other liabilities on domestic loans. In 2015, about 98% of the deficit was funded by domestic resources.

According to Union Budget 2016-17, 15% surcharge will be payable if there is more than one crore rupees annually.

Infinite management (i.e. printing of new notes for the loss of income) creates a possibility of inflation, as this supply of money exceeds goods and services.

In a country like India, the main objective of the financial system of deficit is to promote economic growth. In these countries it becomes necessary for funding development schemes, whereas in the developed countries the deficit financing system is used as a means of economic policy to overcome the situation of depression.

Open general license – Foreign trade

TRYSEM –   Employment

Wholesale price index – Inflation

Cash reserve ratio –  credit control       

 In the context of economic slowdown, cutting tax rates and increasing government expenditure can be considered as part of the fiscal stimulus package, whereas eliminating producers is not included in it.

Through import quota, the quantity of imported items is fixed by the government in a given time period. Import quota can not be imported more than a certain quantity. Import quotas are an effective measure of physical control. 



The main five income sources of panchayats are as follows :-

1 Public Relations and Money Assistance

2 taxes, fees, financial penalties

3 grants

For the administration of the state government

For the state government’s plan

For the central government’s plan

District council committee etc.

From central government

From the state government

4 financial loans

5 Income of self

The 10 sign letters on the pan card are divided into five parts. The first three letters of the first five English letters are in the alphabetical order. AAA to ZZZ



The fourth letter shows the cardholder’s status, which includes –

C – company

P – person

H – Huf (Hindu undivided family)

F – firm

A – association of person (aop)

T – trust

B – body of individual

L – local authority

J – artificial judicial person

G – government

The Finance Minister Yashwant Sinha had announced tax holiday for 10 years to promote industrialization in the North-East, while presenting the budget of 1999-2000.

The Prime Minister Atal Bihari Bajpai had declared a holiday for 5 years in the production fee for industries of the district affected by earthquake disaster.

PAN card is the identity card issued by the Income Tax Department on which the person’s name is marked on the date of birth and PAN number, the address is not mentioned. So this does not certify the card.

Banking Department is not a department of the Ministry of Finance. The Finance Ministry has five departments – Department of Economic Affairs, Department of Expenditure, Department of Revenue, Department of Financial Services, Disinvestment Department.

During the 11th Plan, the goal of reducing infant mortality rate was 28 per 1000 live births. In the 12th Plan, the goal of IMR is 25,000 live births.

If the trend of growth in the inequality in the income of persons of different income groups in different periods is reflected, then this increase in asymmetry indicates that the rich are becoming more rich and poor becoming more poor.

Special requirements of start ups are met through messenger investors, risk capital, and crowd funding. They are given the status of new generation in the field of financing.

The Committee recommended the abolition of tax rebate under section 88 of the Income Tax Act. Kelkar Committee was constituted to provide Direct Tax Reform suggestions. It presented its report in the year 2003.



The competent project approved by the Government of India is related to the new indirect tax network. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved this project on September 28, 2016. The total cost of the scheme is Rs. 2256 crores, while the period is 7 years. This project will be helpful in the work of commodity and service tax, and this scheme will also extend the single window interface for the customs business equation.

The Tax Reform Committee (RJ Chelaiya Committee) presented a comprehensive framework for tax reforms, which was based on fiscal reforms since 1991.

13 th recommendation of the Finance Commission, there was a compensation package regarding the imposition of taxes on goods and services and the compensation package regarding the acquisition of this proposed proposal, that a certain portion of the local bodies would be transferred in the form of a grant, whereas India’s genital According to the dividend, the plan to create lakhs of jobs in the next 10 years is not part of its recommendation.

Under 101 Constitutional Amendment Act, provision for the formation of the goods and services tax council has been made by adding Article 279A to the Constitution. It is headed by the Federal Finance Minister.And the Minister of State in charge of Central Revenue or Finance is its member. The GST Council will decide about the tax rate exempted from tax rates and the new taxation that Dahlee will determine. After the GST is implemented, the state governments will not have the option of VAT collection.

According to the recommendations of the 12th Finance Commission, the state and the state’s loss of the state should be zero by the year 2009-10. The 12th Finance Commission’s recommendations were for the year 2005- 2010.

According to the recommendations of the 12th Finance Commission, total credit to GSDP of the year 2014 should be 68 percent.

13th Finance Commission (President Vijay Kelkar) recommended minimum 32% of the share of states in central taxes.

12th Finance Commission Chairman Dr. C. Rangarajan submitted his report on 30 November 2004 to President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam. In which he recommended increasing the share of states in Central taxes and fees from 29.5 to 30.5.

In Kelkar Committee formed under the leadership of Dr. Vijay Kelkar, it was recommended to abolish income tax exemptions available in section 88 of Indian Income Tax Act.

Regarding the recommendation of the Kelkar Task Force, there is improvement. The main emphasis in the recommendations is on removal of artificial allowances and current deduction under various streams. Doctor Vijay Kelkar has been the Chairman of the 13th Finance Commission and besides this he has been holding important economic positions in India.



The Finance Commission and the Planning Commission are both co-operative institutions.

KC Pant, Chairman of the 10th Finance Commission formed in connection with State Distribution and Subsidy Grants in the Central States for the period 1995-2000.

National agricultural policy – 2000

Sea fisheries policy – 2004

New foreign trade policy – 2014

Seventh finance commission – 1978

The voluntary income declaration plan started by the Ministry of Finance on 1 July 1998 and ended on 31 December 1997.

The performance budget on the recommendation of the Hauper Commission (1949) was first used in the agricultural sector in the USA. This type of budget denotes cost benefit analysis.

Foreign debt direct investment and portfolio investment etc. create capital accounting.

In order to provide excellent environment and latest facilities and services in Railway Budget 2013-14, approval was given to run a ride called Cognition.

The estimated total tax revenues of the budget 2017-18 are Rs 1227014 crore, in which the contribution of corporation tax, income tax, central excise, customs and service tax is 19%, 16%, 14%, 9% and 10%, respectively. Thus, in the current context, the highest share in the total state is Municipal Corporation Tax and Income Tax.In the Budget 2018-19, the Indian government’s tax revenues are about two major sources and service tax (about 7.44 lakh crore rupees) and the corporation tax (6.21 lakh crore) and income tax (5.29 lakh crore rupees) Central excise duty. Indirect taxes, service tax etc. have been included in GST.

In India it is not taken by the Indian government, it is taken by the State Governments.



Capital Gain Tax

Capital Gain is of two types – long term capital gain and short term capital gain. As the capital gain is tax-free, if the property is sold after more than 3 years then long term capital gains are sold in less than 3 years, then there is a short-term capital gain. Thus, it is related to property sale.

Central Excise Duty or Central Excise

The price of goods produced by any company or factory is applied.

Custom duty

This is an indirect tax which is imposed on the commodities that come out of the country’s borders and out of the country, which is actually imposed on exports and imports.

Corporate tax

It is levied on the benefit of companies. For this reason, it is also called the company profit tax. This is a direct tax like income tax.

Stamp duty implants center but its collection and appropriation rule (Article 268), Article 268 also mentions stamp duty as well as excise duty on medicines and toiletries.

In the history of excise duty, the year 1986 was a historic year, when implemented by the BP Singh (Finance Minister) from March 1, 1986, in the implementation of the Long Term Fiscal Policy (1985). The turnweight (revised value-added tax) is also a type of central excise duty.

Customs and corporation taxes are imposed and quoted by the federal government. State governments have exclusive rights on sales tax. State Governments have the right to property tax, land revenue tax, gift tax and holding tax.

Income tax, property tax and property charges are direct because the taxation and tax liability are both on one person. Wherever the seller applies (taxation) on sale, the buyer has to pay the final tax on (taxation). So this is indirect tax.

Value-based tax is a multi-point target based tax system, in which the production / distribution chain is taxed on the value addition in each stage of the transaction. Also, it is a tax levied on the last consumption of goods and services which the consumer has to eventually afford.

Cenvat is concerned with central excise duty.

Service tax is an indirect tax. It was implemented in the period of financial year 1994-95 on the recommendation of Chelaiah Committee. This is the subject of the union list.

The property was first implemented in India in the year 1957.



Sales tax in the Union Territories of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is not applicable.

Since April 1, 2005, the VAT system implemented by the then Bharatiya Janata Party ruled states, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu did not give their consent. So it was implemented in the Congress-ruled Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra but not implemented in Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh.

Income tax in India was started by Sir James Wilson on July 24, 1860. It was to do so that the selected wealthy, royal families and British citizens were employed. In modern times, the annual tax on income of the person is taxed.

The first state Haryana (year in 2003) was the value-added tax hike in India.

Doing such things which are attributed to the object (i.e. indirect taxes) increase the value of the object only. On the contrary, due to direct tax, the value of goods remains unaffected.

Taxes imposed by the Central Government on imports and exports are known as customs duties.

Entertainment tax comes under list 2 (State List) of Seventh Schedule of Indian Constitution. List the items mentioned in the list on the state government.

Production on liquor is imposed by state governments. This is mentioned in the 8th item of the list of the seventh list of the Constitution (State List).

After independence, the strategy of planning to bring economic justice to the people of India and to bring the country into a self-reliant and leadership class.

Under this strategy, priorities were assessed while estimating the probability of their resources and a 5-year strategy was created for their achievement, it was called the Five Year Plan.

So far, 12th Five Year Plan has been successfully conducted in India.

Given modern needs by the new government, leaving the five-year strategy and moving forward on the new long-term strategy.



Under which, mediclaim and annual plans will be created for achieving long term strategies.

Planning commission

The Planning Commission was constituted on 15 March 1950 by the Cabinet Resolution on the recommendation of the Niyogi Committee.

This is a non-constitutional institution.

Its President is the Prime Minister.

This is a cooperative body.

Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first chairman of the Planning Commission and the first Vice President Gulzarilal Nanda.

National Development Council

National Development Council was constituted on August 6, 1952 to ensure the role of States in the planning process.

This is also the constitutional body. Its President is the Prime Minister.

The structure of the National Development Council is as follows:


President – Prime Minister


1 Chief Minister of all states and Union Territories Deputy Governor / Chief Minister

2 All the members of the Planning Commission

3 Union Council of Ministers


Finalizing the schemes prepared by the Planning Commission

Evaluation of the operation of national plans

Review the policies affecting national development.

Note : The Planning Commission has been replaced by the Planning Commission, while the structure of the National Development Council is still in the old condition. Therefore, as a member of the National Development Council, a member of the Planning Commission is being given.



Planning in Indian Constitution

The motivation of planning in India is obtained from the preamble of the Constitution (Economic and Social Justice) and Policy Directive Elements (Article 38, 39, 46).

The mention of economic and social planning is given in concurrent list of Seventh Schedule.

The Planning Commission constituted on March 15, 1950, on the proposal of the Union Cabinet, is a statutory advisory body. Prime Minister of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Planning Commission. Since January 1, 2015, the Planning Commission has been constituted and replaced by the Policy Commission from its date of  (January 1, 2015). Its vice president is currently Rajiv Kumar means the policy means National Institution for Transforming India.

According to the latest report of the Policy Commission


GSDP growth rate (at current prices) in 2014 (in percent)

Madhya Pradesh








Note : Goa’s growth rate was 15.30% in the year 2013


The Planning Commission constituted on the proposal of the Cabinet is a statutory body. The Vice President and the number and tenure of the members are based on the wishes of the government and no particular qualification is mentioned for its members.



Dr. Manmohan Singh was the Chairman of the Planning Commission from January 15, 1985 to 31 August 1987 and Pranab Mukherjee from June 24, 1991 to May 15, 1996 and Montek Singh Ahluwalia was Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission from July 4, 2004 to May 26, 2014.

All India Rural Credit Survey Committee known as Edi Borwal Committee, along with Imperial Bank, recommended the establishment of State Bank of India with a few State affiliated banks. On July 1, 1955, acquiring all the properties and liabilities of Imperial Bank started working in State Bank of India. It is the country’s first largest nationalized bank.

In June 2000, the Planning Commission had constituted a committee on India Vision 2020, whose chairman was Dr S.P. Gupta, a member of the Planning Commission.

The 12th Five Year Plan (2012 17) is a subtitle – faster, more inclusive sustainable development. There are 25 main goals in the scheme, some of which are as follows –

Accretion at 8% annual rate of GDP

Agriculture accretion at the rate of 4%

Manufacturing Enhancement Accretion at 10%

Per capita consumption decreases 10% in poverty

During the plan, 50 million in non-farm sector created job opportunities etc.

The draft of the Five Year Plan in India is prepared by the Planning Commission and presented before the Union Cabinet. After approval of the Cabinet, it is sent to the National Development Council for approval. Finally, after getting Parliament’s permission, it is published in the Gazette of India as a basic plan.

Planning in a nation is adopted to fulfill the following objectives –

1 for balanced socio-economic development

2 to expand the benefits of development

3 to focus on removing zodiacal inequalities

4 To maximize the use of available resources

Presently, most of the resources for the public expenditure of India’s schemes are mobilized with debt. Loans include market loans, short-term loan foreign aid, securities issued in lieu of small savings, state provident fund, borrowings of capital receipts and other liabilities. The share of lending and other liabilities in budget 2016-17 is 21%.

In 1938, the National Planning Cemetery was formed on the direction of Subhash Chandra Bose, this committee was chaired by Jawaharlal Nehru.



In the year 1944, a scheme for the economic planning of India was presented by the famous Gandhian economist Shri Mann Narayan Agarwal, who was known as Gandhian scheme. The scheme envisaged the establishment of decentralized economic structure along with self-supporting villages.

Recommendation of rolling plan for previous countries Murdle was given by. In this arrangement the plan continues steadily. In 1978, the Janata Party government led by Morarji Desai had accepted it in India.But the results of this plan are not positive. Consequently, in the year 1980, the Congress government led by Indira Gandhi accepted the five-year plans at its place.

Moving plan or rolling plan is a long term plan, in which 3 schemes are created for short term (1 year) Medieval (3 to 5 years) and long term (10 to 20 years) schemes. The necessary amendments are made in the plan under the rolling plan. Thus, this is a flexible plan that adjusts itself according to the circumstances and progresses further.

Financial planning has been mentioned in Entry No. 20 of the concurrent list of Seventh Schedule of the Constitution.

Gunnar Murdle had recommended rolling plan for developing countries in its book Indian Economy in its Broader Setting.

From the year 1951, the process started, since then, the number of untold total years in the five year plan is 7 years. Planning leave for 3 years till 1966 – 69. In 1978 79, the continuous scheme was implemented and no plan was implemented in the year 1979-80 and the completion of the seventh plan was a gap of 2 years between the first year of the eighth plan 1992 to the year 1990.

For the first time under the fifth Five-Year Plan, national development programs were started for the purpose of reducing the minimum requirements of the poorer classes with the aim of reducing poverty.



In the proposed approach letter for the 12th Five Year Plan, the National Development Council had set a target of 9-9.5% for gross domestic product. However, on December 27, 2012, the National Development Council approved the 12th Five Year Plan, with an average annual growth rate Target reduction of 8%, Agriculture and allied sector growth rate target of 4.0%, Industrial sector growth rate target 7.6%, and service sector VIC Sense rate target has been reduced to 9%.

Development Center approach was launched with the objective of removing regional inequality in the Fourth Five Year Plan. Although the development center program started in the fourth scheme, the special emphasis was given in the fifth plan.Resource-based programs, problem-based programs, targeted group approaches, incentives and broad areas approach etc. were the components of the development center.

The growth rate of agriculture, forestry fisheries during the 12th Five Year Plan is estimated at 4% level.

The second Five Year Plan in India ran from 1 April 1956 to 31 March 1961. This plan was based on the model of Professor PC Mahalanobis. The basic objective of this scheme was to start the process of industrialization in the country. In the industrial policy announced in the year 1956, the establishment of society in socialist form was accepted.

In the 9th Five Year Plan, 66% of the total education budget was allocated for primary education.

The term of the 12th Five Year Plan is from 2012 to 2017.

According to government estimates, the necessary instructions for infrastructure in the 12th Five Year Plan are estimated to be 55.7 lakh crore rupees (about $ 1 trillion or $ 1000 billion).

The base of 11th Five Year Plan (2007 to 2012) of India was kept at 3644718 crores. The base of the 12th Five Year Plan (2012 to 2017) was 8050123 crores rs.

In the 12th Five Year Plan, the highest amount has been declared in the category of social services. In this, a total of 2664843 crores rupees have been disbursed, which will be 3.4% of the total outlay.

Outlay of 12th Plan is as per the area.

Target amount

Percentage share

Agricultural and allied sectors( in crore rs)



Rural development












social services



Concept of 12th Five Year Plan (2012 17) is the focal point of the document – faster, more inclusive and sustainable development



Seventh Five Year Plan (1985 to 90) ended on 31 March 1990. After the completion of Seventh Five Year Plan, after the gap of 2 years, the eighth plan started from 1st April 1992, till 31 March 1997.



First plan (1951- 1956)

Community Development Program in 1952 and National Expansion Service In 1953

Second plan (1956 – 1961)

Fast industrialization with special emphasis on basic and heavy industries is a top priority.

Third plan (1961- 1966)

Special emphasis on agriculture sector with the development of basic industries.

Fourth plan ( 1969 – 1974)

Economic development with the achievement and stability of Self reliance

Fifth plan ( 1974 – 1979)

Annual program for food grains in 1977-78 in the year 1974 and the beginning of Antyodaya Yojana in 1977-78.


The emphasis on social prosperity and equality was given in the Ninth Five Year Plan. The work of this scheme was from 1997 to 2002. The actual growth against the targeted growth rate of 6.5% was 5.4% in this scheme.

In the new Five Year Plan (1997-2002), the women’s contribution scheme was started as a major configuration. In this scheme, 30% funds were allocated for women related areas.

The first five-year plan (April 1, 1951 to 31 March 1956) was based on Harrod Dommer’s growth model. The main priority in the first scheme was given to agriculture and irrigation sector. The second five year plan was based on the PC Mahalanobis model.

The author of Planning and the Poor Book is BS Minhas.



Planning magazine is published by the publication department under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of India. This is a monthly magazine.

The first five year plan was presented by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in Parliament on December 8, 1951. National Development Council was formed on August 6, 1952. In independent India the currency was devalued in 1949 for the first time. While India is the founding member of the International Monetary Fund.

Market economy is driven by profit due to the economy. As a result, in areas of the economy that do not have the potential to earn substantial profits, investment is reduced and such images are left behind in order of development. The Indian agricultural sector is the same area in which the rate of profit is low, but in that it is very important in terms of the overall economy development.

In the plan, the core sector is an industry that has special significance in terms of long term economic development of the economy. The core sectors include eight basic industries such as steel, cement, fertilizer, mineral oil, coal, natural gas, refinery products and electricity.

The Panchayati Raj (Article 40) is mentioned in Part 4 containing the policy elements of the Constitution. Article 40 has been accepted as the first unit of village planning. An attempt has been made to give Panchayati Raj an integral form of money through money. This has been done because the planning above is a goal that is still to be achieved.

The subject matter for education in the Eleventh Five Year Plan is compulsory elementary education. With a drop out rate up to 20% and fixing the minimum standard for elementary education, the target was set to 85% by the year 2011-12.

The Green Revolution in India was started in the year 1966-67 and 14 banks were nationalized for the first time on July 19, 1969 while Garibi Hatao’s slogan was given by Indira Gandhi in 1971, which is the main goal of the fifth Five Year Plan. Included in

In the 11th Five Year Plan, the target of per capita domestic product growth rate was 7.6% per year, due to which it was expected to reach two-fold in the next 10 years.

In the 11th Five Year Plan, the target of 4.1% 10.5% and 9.9% was fixed for the growth rate of agriculture, industry and service sector respectively.



Integrated Rural Development Program was started on 2 October 1980. The whole family has been adopted for its implementation. For example, the government has selected the family as the unit in the IRDP to define the poverty line. From 1 April 1999, the IRDP was reconstituted as a Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana.

The strategy of the five year plan for the period 1985-90 was to strike poverty, unemployment and regional inequality. As a result, in this scheme, all the policies have been stressed, which can increase the production of food grains and increase employment opportunities and increase productivity.

The basic objective of the eighth Five Year Plan was human development in various aspects.

The main priorities of the eighth Five Year Plan were to strengthen infrastructure (transport, communication, energy and irrigation) to support the development process on a sustainable basis.

The first objective of self-propelled development in India was adopted in the Fourth Five Year Plan. In the third Five Year Plan, the goal of self-sufficiency in the field of foodgrains was targeted.

After the adoption of the new economic policy in July 1991, the public sector outlay in the eighth plan began to decline. The reason for this was that in the process of development, the private sector was given more importance than before.



Expenditure on various items in the 10th and 12th Five Year Plan.


10th plan

12th plan




Social services










The summation of the crops given during the Tenth Five Year Plan and their growth rate is as follows


Growth rate (in%)

In pulses and oilseeds


Fruits and vegetables


In grain


In the grain



The growth rate targets related to the sectors in the Tenth Five Year Plan were –


Growth rate (goal)





Traffic (transport)






In the 10th Five Year Plan, from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2017, there was a target of 15.0% growth rate in the communication sector, which was the highest growth rate target.

The tenure of the Tenth Five Year Plan was from 1 April 2012 to 31 March 2017. Hence the closing of the Tenth Plan was held in the year 2007.

The prosperity rate of some schemes remained the following –  

7th plan   – 5.8%

8th plan  –  6.8%

9th plan  –  5.4%

10th plan  –  7.6%

According to the format of the 11th plan format, after achieving the targeted growth rate and annual growth of 1.5% of the population, the annual income of an average Indian will double in 10 years.

The rate of economic development during the five-year plans was the following:

1st five year plan – 3.6%

4th five year plan  – 3.3%

6th five year plan  – 5.7%

10th five year plan  – 7.6%

>> Money and Banking

>> currency

Money is the currency that acts

The currency has the following characteristics

1 currency is acceptable

2 currency gets statutory validation

3 Currency is uniform and departmental.


The functions of money are divided into two parts

1 primary function

Medium of regulation

Measure of value

2 minor tasks

Basis of future payment

Accumulation of value

Transfer of value



Demand of money

The demand for money is usually done for three functions

1 to fulfill the transaction objectives

2 Vigilance purpose or contingency requirements

3 For the purpose of earning profit from speculative purposes

Money supply

Regarding the payment of money in India, the Regulation is done by the Reserve Bank of India.

In India, minimum funding system is adopted for the exchange of currency.

Under this, the Reserve Bank of India can print any currency by placing a fund of minimum 200 crores.

In this fund of Rs 200 crores, Rs 115 crores are to be kept in gold while 85 crores are in foreign securities.

In India, the payment of money is measured on the basis of 4 measurements.

1 M1 = currency in circulation + demand deposits + other deposits

                   C                           +          D                 +     Od

2 M2 = M1 + Post office

3 M3 = M1 + add credit

4 M4 = M3 + post office

The liquidity order of these currencies is – M1>M2>M3>M4

Generality – M4> M3>M2>M1

Note :- M3 is called broader currency




>> Banking history in India

Bank of Bengal was established in 1806, the first bank in India.

After this, Bank of Mumbai in 1840 and Bank of Madras came into existence in 1843.

Further, in 1921, these three banks, together with the three banks, formed the Imperial Bank of India, which became nationalized on 1 January 1955 and became the State Bank of India.

In 1881, the first Indian bank, the Awadh Commercial Bank, was established.

This committee was an Indian bank with liability.

In the same sequence, in 1894, the first full bank of Indian Bank, Punjab National Bank was established.

Nationalization of banks

A major occurrence in Indian banking history occurred on 19th July, 1969, when nationalized of 14 banks whose deposits amounted to `500 crores or more were nationalized.

In this order, on April 15, 1980, five more commercial banks were nationalized.

Later, in the year 1993, New Bank of India merged with Punjab National Bank to become number 19.

Currently, the number of public sector banks in total of 21 (19 + SBI + IDBI = 21 bank) has been done after nationalization of IDBI.



Reserve Bank of India

Reserve Bank of India is the central bank of the country.

The monetary policy in the country is determined by this.

The formation of a central bank in India was recommended by the Hilton Young Committee formed in the year 1926.

In pursuance of this, RBI was established on 1 April 1935 under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.

It was nationalized on January 1, 1949 and CD Deshmukh became the first Governor of Independent India.

Functions of RBI

1 Issuance of Notes

2 Working as a government bank

3 Working as a bank of banks

4 Controlling credentials

The central bank controls the credentials of two methods, quantitative control and qualitative control

RBI economy under quantitative control is an equally strong emphasis on generating credibility in all regions without discrimination.

For qualitative credit control, he controls the credentials in a particular area, not in the entire economy.

Fluid control equipment

1 cash reserve ratio

The ratio of all the deposits (demand deposits and fixed deposits) that commercial banks have to submit to RBI, is called CRR.

Currently, this rate is 4%.

With the increase in CRR, banks lack liquidity, while on the contrary it reduces liquidity.



2 statutory liquidity ratio

The ratio of the overall deposits of banks which they have to keep in the form of government securities, upper and cash, such as movable and safe assets, is called SLR.

It is also related to liquidity negatively. Currently it is 19.5%.

Credit control devices

1 repo rate

This is the rate at which RBI provides short-term loans to commercial banks.

It affects the creditworthiness of scheduled banks.

Due to the low rate of repo, the banks can make substantial surveys because they get loans at an affordable rate from the RBI.

2 Reverse Repo Rate

The rate at which the RBI offers interest on deposits in the commercial banks of RBI, is called a reverse repo rate.

3 bank rates

The rate at which the RBI gives long-term credit to commercial banks is called bank rate.

It also has an opposite relationship with the creation of credibility.

4 marginal fixed facility rate

The rate at which the loan is taken by the Reserve Bank for the purpose of its short-term liquidity requirement, from the RBI, for its SLR, is called the MSF rate.

It is worth noting that banks can not take loans of more than 2% of their total deposits at MSF rate.



Credit Control by RBI

Qualitative control device

1 Bank Rate

2 msf rate

3 open market actions

4 repo / reverse repo


Selective credit control device

1 Determination of the minimum threshold

2 ethical pressure advice

3 Credit Criteria Determination

Inflation and deflation

The trend of a sustained rise in prices, the trend of inflation and the constant decrease in prices is called deflation.

On the basis of rate

Inflation based on rate is divided into

1 creep inflation

When the rate of inflation is one digit

2 hyper inflation

When the rate of inflation is two or three digit

3 hyper inflation

When the rate of inflation is high, such as Zimbabwe’s 22.9 million percent.

If the growth demand increases, it is called demand-induced inflation, whereas inflation due to this situation is called cost-induced inflation if for some reason the cost increases.



Three major causes of inflation

1 Factors that increase demand

Money supply will increase

black money

Increase in public expenditure

Repayments of loans

Increase in population

Deduction of taxation

2 Fulfillment Factors

Lack of resources

Labor movement

Natural crisis

Artificial rarity

Export increases and decrease in imports

Genesis depletion rules are effective (i.e. cost increases in production)

3 factors that increase the cost

Increase in demand of instruments

Increase in living expenses

Increase in monopoly profit

Cost escalation by labor union

Unethical alliance of merchants

Phillips curve

In the year 1958, W. Phillips interpreted short-term relationships between inflation rate and unemployment.

According to him, there is a negative relationship between unemployment rate and inflation in the short term, ie status rate control will encourage unemployment.

Inflation Rate A1 / Unemployment



Measures for inflation control

Fiscal measures / government efforts

1 increase in taxation

2 reduction in public expenditure

Increase in 3 loans

4 direct action

5 Public Distribution System

6 increase in imports

Monetary measures

1 Increase in CRR

2 Increase in SLR

3 increase in repo rate

4 increase in reverse repo

5 increase in bank rate

                                                               Influence of inflation




– ve


+ Ve


– ve

Public saving

– ve

Public expenditure

+ Ve


+ Ve


– ve


+ Ve


+ Ve


+ Ve


+ Ve


+ Ve

Variable income group

+ Ve

Stable income group


Pension bogie

– ve



In May 2016, the finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India formed a committee under the chairmanship of Neeraj Kumar Gupta to promote cashless transactions, which had 7 members. In the same sequence, on November 8, after the decision of monetization, a committee was constituted under the chairmanship of the CEO of Policy Commission Amitabh Kant, to promote digital transactions between the citizen and government through the Central Government on November 25, 2016.

Indian institutions can raise money in foreign exchange market rupees from foreign markets by masala bonds. HDFC became the first such Indian company in July 2016, in which the Bond masala bond is to be released in Indian rupees for investing in the foreign capital market in simple terms of the release of spice bonds on the London Stock Exchange. Prior to this facility, Bond had to be released for the investment in the international market.

According to National Judiciary Survey 2011-12 in India, the current daily situation was unemployment rate of 5.6 percent.

Different consumption expenditure has been done in the determination of poverty line for rural and urban areas by the Rangarajan Committee. According to the committee, per person per capita expenditure in rural areas (Rs. 972 monthly) per day in rural areas and Rs. 47 (Rs. 1047 per month) in urban areas sets per person consumption expenditure, poverty line per day. As per the definition given by the Rangarajan Committee, in 2011 12, India’s population of 29.5 lives below the poverty line, whereas for the year 2011 12, Tendulkar Committee estimates 21.9% of poverty.

The approved project approved by the Government of India is related to the new indirect tax network. This project was approved by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs on September 28, 2016. The total cost of the project is Rs. 2255 crore whereas the period is 7 years. This project will be helpful in implementing the object and service tax. In addition, this scheme will also extend the single window interface for facilitating the custom department’s business.

The integrated payment interface is a quick payment system that has been developed by the Indian National Payment Corporation of the RBI regulated entity, based on the IMPS infrastructure and financing the money immediately between the bank accounts of any two parties through a smartphone is.This facilitates the customer to pay online or offline payments to different traders from a bank account, making it easy to transact the main benefit of the UPA without any credit card delivery, IFSC code or net banking voynushki password. After linking to the bank account, uninterrupted payment can be made without top up like Wallet. It is easy to use the UPI for direct bank transfer without worrying whether there is money in wallet or not.



The decimal system of currency in India was tested in the year 1957. Where did the money produced in the mint from 1957 to 1964 go new money? In 1964 new words were exempted from new money and now it was called money. Hence the new money prevailing with the decimal system of money became money from 1 June 1964.

Bitcoin is a virtual currency. It was developed by a programmer named Satoshi Nakamoto. This is an electronic payment system. It is beyond the control of central banks. This is a peer-to-peer system. Under this, the transaction can be done by the user without any intermediary and no identity exposure.

Establishment of banks

State Bank of India -1955

Leading Bank Scheme – 1969

Regional Rural Bank – 1975

NABARD – 1982

Easy money refers to the liquid currency. Under this, deposits are available to the public, currency available and other deposits of the Reserve Bank of India come.

In India, the currency multiplier measures the macro or macro currency and the ratio of reserve currency. So if the currency multiplier is k

                K = M3/M0 or M3/ Rm

This foreign currency that has a quick migration trend is called a hot currency. This kind of currency flow from one country to another is obtained from the investors for the benefit of higher interest rates.

Reserve Bank of India has the right to print currency notes upto Rs. 10,000. Currently, the Reserve Bank of India is working to print currency coins of 1, 2, 5 rupees and noted of 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 2000.



Note, for the issuance of the year 1956, the minimum foreign funding system was adopted, under which 515 crores was required to be in the form of Foreign Fund and the remaining value was in the security of rupees. According to the revision of the Reserve Bank after 31st October, 1957, it was reduced to only 200 crores in which 115 crores rupees would be mandatory to be kept as gold and it is mandatory to have securities of Rs 85 crores in the balance of the remaining notes.

India has the sole right to set up coins in India. The responsibility of construction of coins is from time to time as per the Coin Construction Act of 1980, as per the Government of India. It is also the responsibility of the Government of India to make and design the designs of different value class coins. According to the Reserve Bank of India Act, the coins for operation are issued only through the Reserve Bank of India.

In India, the mint was established in Mumbai, Kolkata and Hyderabad only, in addition, another mint was set up in Noda in 1988.

Currency expansion refers to the increase in the amount of money in the economy. Due to currency expansion, the purchasing power of money falls. That means less quantity of goods or services can be purchased before the certain quantity of currency. All of these results as normal but the level increases.



In India, the issuing system of currency notes has been changed from proportional fund system to the lowest level fund system in the year 1956.

In an economy, when the value of the goods increases and the decrease in the value of the currency, the situation of currency spread occurs.

Paper currency in India was first introduced by Bank of India (1770-1832) General Bank of Bengal and Bihar (established by Warren Hastings 1773-75) and Bengal Bank (1784 91) by 1861 Paper Currency Act of India, then British The government took the right to issue paper money from private and presidency banks. Subsequently, the first paper currency issued by the Government of India was issued in 1862.

Such a currency which is not in the currency and only for accounting purposes is called artificial currency. SDR is a currency that expresses the ADR American Depository Receipts and GDR Global Depository which is used for accounting for IMF transactions.

The currency of the Western Indian Ocean Seychelles is Rupee. Bhutan’s currency is Nuguldrum, Malaysia’s currency ringagit and currency of the Maldives is Rupee.

The currency of Bangladesh is Rupee, Rupee of Nepal, Dinar of Iraq, and Lira is the currency of Italy.

Bahat is Thailand’s legal currency. Turkish Lira of Turkey, Riyal of Dong Vietnam is the currency of Iran

China’s currency is Yuan, while Lira is Italy’s Yenana and Rupee is the currency of India.

United Sudan’s currency dinar is the currency of the former Yugoslavia, New Yugoslav Dinhar and Tunisia, while the United Arab Emirates currency is Dehrham.

Mexico – Peso

Austria – Shilling (currently EUR)

Japan – Yen

Saudi Arabia – Riyal

Constant increase in cumulative and steady increase in price level is called inflation. At this stage, the value of the goods increases rapidly and the value of the currency falls. In comparison to other countries, due to the exponential increase in domestic prices, it weakens the rupee against foreign currencies. So the exchange rate does not improve.

Inflation rate in India is measured on three basis – Consumer Price Index, Wholesale Price Index and Livelihood Cost Index of Workers, However, the most prevalent in these measurements is wholesale price index-based inflation.



The most popular measure of inflation estimation in India is the wholesale price index. The first wholesale index started from the week beginning January 10, 1942. On the basis of year 1939 = 100 was taken. The base year for the wholesale price index is currently 2011- 12.

The general price level of deflation goods and services has declined. It does not fall in the rate of inflation, which is known as disinfaltion.

The effect of calculating the current data of the earlier data is called the base effect. In relation to the increase in inflation rate, the impact of previous year’s prices on the calculation of current status rate is the only base effect. In other words, if the last year’s position is at the very least level, then a slight increase in the price index this year will also show the inflation rate significantly larger than the previous year.

Surgeon of new currency will be the highest inflation rate for meeting the budgetary deficit as the increase in the currency will increase the monetary income of the people, which will result in an increase in demand which will increase the prices.

The Central Government uses the Consumer Price Index for industrial workers to compensate for the wages due to inflation in their employees’ wages.

The dearness allowance of employees in India is determined based on the consumer price index of the industrial workers. CPI has 4 classes –

1 CPI – IW – Consumer price index – industrial workers

2 CPI- AL – Consumer price index – agricultural labourers

3 CPI – RL –  Consumer price index – Rural labourers

4 CPI – UNME – Consumer price index – Urban Non Manual Employees

Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers Consumer Price Index for Agricultural Laborers and Consumer Price Index for Rural Laborers is compiled by Labor Bureau under the Ministry of Labor and Employment, while the Consumer Price Index Central for Urban Non-Labor Workers Statistics has been compiled by the Organization.

In October 2009, the basis for the wholesale price index was dropped from 1993-94 and the year 2004-05 was decided.



Micro Finance in India was started in the early 1980s through the formation of a self-help group on a small scale. Financial services currently available under micro finance include: credit facilities, savings facilities, insurance facilities and fund transfer facilities.

These loans, which are given by commercial banks, are called populist loans. Those who take the borrower’s ability to repay the loan and other standards are provided without paying attention. Interest rates on these loans are attractive in the initial years and are increased in subsequent years. Populist loans are a form of underproduction loans and banks have a risk that their loans may not be paid in the future. These types of loans are mainly provided in the form of home loans to individuals of small or middle income groups.

Shadow Banking refers to financing and other activities by non-banking financial institutions. We can also call it a virtual bank system. In this, many non-banking financial intermediaries provide services to customers similar to conventional commerce banks, but neither the government nor the central bank have any control over them.

RBI started Lead Banking Scheme from December 1969. Under this each bank is allocated a district and the bank is given the name of the lead bank. The Lead Bank of each district plays a leading role in relation to the credit system in the respective district. This scheme is applicable in almost all the districts of India. Lead Bank plays a central role in building the information at the district level and fulfilling it.

Private sector Axis Bank has first established its branch in Shanghai city of China.

Bank dealing with small industries is mainly IDBI. It was established in the year 1990.



In September 2015, State Bank of India launches Simply Click Credit Card in partnership with the 7 largest e-commerce sector companies in India, it has seven companies –

1 Amazon India

2 bookmisho

3 cryptography

4 fabulous

5 Food Panda

6 lens cardard

7 wet cabs

Establishment of ICICI – January 1955

Establishment of IDBI – July 1964

Establishment of IFCI – July 1948

State Bank of India was the first bank in India to open its first branch in China.

Started work from Rajputana Woman Citizen Cooperative Bank of Jaipur on August 30, 1995.

The merger of Bank of Rajasthan with ICICI Bank Limited was effective from August 13, 2018.

Since April 2011, Pradeep Chaudhary, who was posted as the Chairman of the State Bank of India, was on April 7, 2011 replacing OP Bhatt. Rajneesh Kumar is currently in the position.

India’s largest private sector bank, started the first moving service in Mumbai, on December 12, 2002 at ICICI Bank Limited.

Indian Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation was established in year 1955 with the suggestion and cooperation of the World Bank and the United States. Its objective was to develop small and medium enterprises in the private sector of the country.

State Bank of India is the largest trading bank in public sector banks. Effective April 1, 2017, it had 22414 branches till March 2018 after the merger of Punch Associate Banks and Indian Women Bank.

In India, deposits of commercial banks are deposited in the most important part. The deposit also has the most important term deposited in the second place, the savings bank deposits in the second place and the demand at third place is deposited.

Public sector banks are those banks in which the government’s capacities are highest; Under the public sector banks in India, State Bank of India and its subsidiaries and 19 nationalized banks.

Currently there are 20 public sector banks in India except State Bank of India. (IDBI Bank is a public sector bank but not nationally, so the number of nationalized banks in India excluding State Bank Group is 19) In September 2018, a panel led by Arun Jaitley, in a public sector bank named Bank of America Recommendation of the merger of Baroda, Vijaya Bank and Dena Bank.

The Indian Small Industries Development Bank was established on 2nd April 1990. This is the premier financial institution for promotion of small industries in the country for finance and development.



According to the Reserve Bank of India, the loan given by the commercial banks, whose last payment has been stalled for 30 days from 90 days till the principal amount is not paid and the interest payable on it is called non-executed asset is.

The core banking posture is from the banking services to be provided by the bank branches linked to the network. Under Core Banking, the customer can also operate any branch of a bank branch with other branches. Many services are provided under Core Banking, such as Annever Banking or anywhere, intensively banking transfer of banking instruments etc. It is not related to enhancing the control of RBI through computerization and the acquisition of banks.

Under the central government’s internal debt, the market borrowings, state governments, business banks and other institutions are included in the government-made treasury bills, specific securities issued to the RBI, the compensatory bonds etc.

If interest rates are reduced in an economy, then it will increase consumption expenditure and investment expenditure in the economy as it becomes easy to borrow at a lower interest rate. By which people are motivated for investment and consumption expenditure.

The primary areas include the following categories:

1 agriculture

2 small and small enterprises

3 education

4 houses

5 export credit and

6 others

The objectives of financial inclusion include expanding financial services for the poor population, opening through the potential increase of weaker sections and promoting financial services in rural areas. The purpose of financial inclusion involves the idea of banking and infrastructure and not shrinking it.



Based on limited liability, established in 1881, the Oudh Commercial Bank was the first bank operated by Indians. The first Indian bank was completely Punjab National Bank.

All India Rural Credit Survey Committee, Known as the Gorwal Committee, had agreed to set up State Bank of India in association with the State Bank of India along with some State Relations Banks. Six banks were nationalized on April 15, 1980.

The trading bank is a financial institution that does business in currency and credit. It not only accepts money from people as deposits, but lends itself to entrepreneurs and adventurers when necessary. Its functions include the procurement and sale of shares and securities on behalf of the customer and acting as executor and trustee for goods.

Central Bank of India is a Scheduled Nationalized Bank of the Public Sector whose capital is 86.4% of the government’s share till March 2018, which is in the control of Central Bank of India Reserve Bank.

National Housing Bank has been established on July 9, 1988, according to the National Housing Bank Act, 1987 passed by the Parliament. This bank is fully owned by the Reserve Bank of India.

Provident fund in India, contract based savings. The provident fund is that part of the income of public sector employees, which has to be deposited with the government on the basis of contract. It is known that the fund is not the income of the government but it is the obligation.

Depending on the period, the loan has been classified into the following three categories –

Short Term Loans – Less than 15 months

Medium Term Loans – 15 months to 5 years

Long term loan – More than 5 years

The bank merged with Punjab National Bank was New Bank of India. This merger happened in the year 1993.

State Bank of India has set up a farmer club for easy access to farmers.

Bank and their country of origin

ABN Amro Bank – Netherlands

Barclays Bank – London (UK)

Cookman Bank – South Korea

Interest rates on savings bank accounts in India were first regulated by the Reserve Bank of India, which was released in October 2012.



According to the condition of December 31, 2015, the highest number of foreign banks in India is British Standard Chartered Bank (102), followed by Hong Kong’s HSBCLi (50) and United States Citibank (45) France’s BNP Paribas Bank (8) is the place.

In India, the financial year is from 1st April to 31st March, whereas the accounting year of the Reserve Bank of India or accounting year is from 1 July to 30 June. In the past, the accounting work of RBI was done from January to December. This arrangement was changed from 11 March 1945 to July to June.

Four reservation ratios or convertible fund ratios by which RBI makes changes to the liquid funds held by banks, when the open market operations by which RBI sells securities, both of which are the credit control methods as a result of RBI Come under monetary policy.

Reserve Bank of India sells government securities and treasury bills under the action of open market. Selling securities to remove the required quantity of currency from the economy while securities are bought in order to enter the desired amount of currency in the economy.

In India, currency and credit is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India. Use results and qualitative measures to achieve this objective.

Methods / tools / methods of monetary policy control or credit control

Quantitative credit control methods

Selective or qualitative credit control methods

Bank rate

Minimum limit or margin fixation

Marginal fixed facility rate

Moral pressure

Open market actions

Rationing of credit

Liquidity Adjustment Facility (Repo & Reverse Repo)

Regulation of Consumer Lending

Convertible Fund Ratio –

(Cash reserve CRR, statutory liquidity ratio – SLR)

Credit clearance scheme



The real distribution of income and assets is not the purpose of monetary policy.

The exchange-proof deed was passed in December 1881 but it came into effect on 1 March 1882. Recently, this Act was amended by the Exchange Act, 2018. It received President’s consent on August 2, 2018.

Treasury bills were first introduced in India in the year 1917. These are sold by RBI through auction bids. Generally, their value is in the class 25 thousand or its qualities. The main objective of their release is to raise funds for the government’s additional expenditure.

Reserve Bank of India has scheduled bank fixed deposits of deposits as cash deposits. With the increase in CRR by the Reserve Bank of India, the banks’ ability to generate credibility is low and there is a decrease in monetary liquidity in the economy.

On March 1, 2015, International Financial Services Center was established in Gandhinagar, Gujarat. This is part of a special economic zone.

The Industrial Finance Corporation of India acts as a development bank. The IFCI was established on 1 July 1948 under the IFCI Act 1948.


Establishment year

Indian industrial credit and investment corporation


Industrial development bank of india


Indian industrial finance corporation


Small industries development corporation of india




SAIL is a marketing institution while SEBI Sidbi and NABARD are the top institutions in the region. Establishment of SEBI In 1988, SIDBI was established in the year 1990 and NABARD was established in the year 1982.

Indian Export Import Bank, established in the year 1982 under the Indian Export Import Bank Act 1981, is a top financial institution in the country. Indian Industrial Development Bank was formed as a financial institution under the Indian Industrial Development Bank Act, 1964 and it came into existence from 1 July 1964 by notification of 22nd June, 1964 issued by the Government of India. The establishment of Indian Industrial Loans and Investment Corporation was done in the year 1955 to provide medium and long term loans to the private sector industries. The Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction was established in January 1988.

According to the main recommendation of the Malhotra Committee report (January 7, 1994), the IRDA Act 1999 passed the report recommending establishment of an independent regulatory authority for the insurance sector. In April 2000, the IRDA came out as a statutory body.

Protecting the song of IRDA’s target insurance holders Working on the revised regulation of insurance industry and related and incidental matters.

Actuaries word is related to insurance sector. Actuaries are related to the financial impact of future uncertain events.

NBFCs can not accept demand deposits like savings accounts, they can participate in the acquisition of securities issued by the government.

Unit Trust of India was established in the year 1964 with the aim of utilizing small savings of the country’s low and middle income groups for the industrial development of the country. UTI was formally split on February 1, 2003. UTI 1 was allocated to all 26 schemes, including US 64, in which the assured returns have been assured to the investors. UTI2 will continue to operate as mutual funds under SEBI rules.



Established on February 1, 1964, UTI is India’s largest mutual fund organization, currently UTI is the largest investor in Indian stock exchanges.

It is not necessary to have a partnership and management in the committee liability partnership firm. It can also be decided by mutual consent between the internal administration partnership and it is a permanent body corporate governed by succession. There is no upper limit on the number of maximum participants.

On August 5, 1998, in the State Bank of India, Risarjit India bond was issued in three foreign currencies – u.s dollar pound sterling and dues mark (German mark).

Establishment of National Stock Market National Stock Market, which was held in November 1992 on the recommendation of the Sherwani Committee, is headquartered at Worli in South Mumbai.

Commercial form is the source of 7 for the corporate industry. In India, commerce forms have been introduced since 1990. This form is a type of promissory note, whose maturity period is between 7 days to 1 year from the date of issue.

The firm or company which is Organized in this form, where the liability of the share holder or its owners is limited, the company is called a company.

The National Stock Exchange of India was formed in 1992 on the recommendation of the Firvani Committee. Among its promoters include top financial institutions in addition to the Government of India, which include IDBI, LIC, GIC, and SBI.

The sensitivity index of the Bombay Stock Exchange is briefly called the Sensex. The downside in the sensitivity index means the downside in the support price of shares of listed companies in BSE.

Nikki Tokyo is the wholesale price index of the stock exchange.

Until March 2014, the number of companies in the Gurneys index of the Bombay Stock Exchange was 25.

The Mumbai Stock Exchange is located in Dalal Street, Mumbai.

Bull and beer are the words of the stock market, which means the Hindi meaning respectively in bullion and beard. The person who wants to increase the price of the stock is called bullion and the person who hopes to drop the price of the stock is called beard.

The different types of betting or activities in the stock market are as follows –

1 bull (bullion)

2 beers

3 lem duck

4 stags

Indian stock market is due to fluctuation

1 Flow of flow and external flow of foreign funds

2 Changes in Monetary and Fiscal Policy

3 fluctuations in foreign capital markets that affect the investor

4 Status of industrial environment Market availability of liquidity etc.

Insider trading is related to the stock market, under which the employees of the company and any related person receive an inappropriate benefit in the stock trading using the company’s internal information.This is considered illegal work.

Capital market is an important part of the financial system. It is a long term fund market that involves pooling of capital through equity and debt. It is a market for long-term funding within and outside the country.



Trust worthy securities refers to the shares of companies with a broad range of products, whose higher management and those who earn higher returns and dividends.

In the Gilt Market, the sale of government and semi-government securities is done through the Reserve Bank. Gilt-aged means the best or the best. It is called excellent because the value of these government and semi-government securities remains constant, there is no instability in the same as other securities. This is the reason that banks and other institutions hold special interest in securities.

Land Development Bank provides long term loans to farmers for permanent improvement in agriculture. The first land development bank in India was established in the year 1920 in Zhang (Punjab).

The Sensex is related to the BSE and the Nifty share market, while the SEPS is the program to cure the country’s financial imbalance. Government of India started SEPS with new economic policy in the year 1991.

The meaning of the deventure is from the loan letters. Joint capital companies issue their deventure to get loans. The institutions which issue these funds give interest to the holder at a fixed rate. The issuance of a dividend by the public limited company is subject to the guidelines issued by the SEBI on the Companies Act 1956 and on 11th June 1992. The original amount of the deventure is handed over to their completion period.

In India, the co-operative banks work at three levels, at the first level there are state state cooperative banks. At the secondary level there are central cooperative banks which work at the district level and hence they are also called district co-operative banks. At third level there are rural credit societies or primary credit committees who work at the village level.

National Agricultural and Rural Development Bank is the highest institution providing finance to agriculture in India. It was established on July 12, 1982. Its headquarters are in Mumbai. NABARD provides refinance facilities to many financial institutions in the form of a top institution in the rural infrastructure, which provides loans to promote a broad area of productive activities in rural areas.

Consumer cooperative stores are established by members while their registration is done by the Registrar of Co-operative Societies.

The first five regional rural banks were established on 2 October 1975 in the country.

Moradabad (Uttar Pradesh)

Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh)

Bhiwani (Haryana)

Jaipur, (Rajasthan)

Malda (West Bengal)

The National Service Tax on the recommendation of raja j Chelaiya Committee was started from the central budget of 1994 1994 to further increase the tax base. Currently the service tax has merged into the commodity and service tax.

Rangarajan Committee was constituted for the disinvestment of shares by the Government of India, in which its report was submitted in April 1993.



The financial sector reform committee set up under the chairmanship of Raghuram Rajan in the year 2008 by the Planning Commission submitted its report to the government. The committee was to make suggestions regarding the second generation of financial sector reforms.

In August 1991, the then Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh had constituted a committee under the chairmanship of M Narasimhan to improve all aspects of the financial sector. Second Narasiman Samiti was constituted for re-banking reform, in which submitted its report to the Government on April 23, 1998.

An executive group was set up to amend the wholesale price index of the items, which was presided by Prof. Abhijit Sen was created. In its technical report, detailed recommendations have been given in terms of work group, base year election, item selection method, weight diagram and prices.

Rangarajan Committee is related to reform in the banking sector.

Nachiket Mor Committee has recommended the establishment of a bank to encourage financial inclusion. The committee was constituted to submit its report in the year 2013 to the Reserve Bank of India on January 7, 2014.

The Financial Stability and Development Council was established in December 2010 with the aim of strengthening the system of increasing the inter-regulatory and financial stability to boost the growth of financial sector by the Indian government and institutionalize it. The Central Finance Minister is the Chairman, while the Chief Finance Secretary of the Financial Rules (RBI, SBI, PFRDA, IRDA, FMC), Secretary of Economic Affairs, Secretary of Financial Services Department and Chief Economic Advisor are its members. It works in the context of supervision of supervision of supervision of the economy, inter-ordinal coordination and financial sector development, financial literacy, inclusion etc.

The Banking Ombudsman is appointed by the Reserve Bank of India. Banking Ombudsman can hear the complaints of NRIs holding account in India. The order passed by the Banking Ombudsman is not binding on the final and the relevant parties, but the appeal can be made against the Appellate Authority, which acts under the leadership of the Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank, and the services given by the Banking Ombudsman are free.

C Rangarajan was the chairman of the committee formed on financial inclusion. Shri Rangarajan has also been the Governor of RBI.

In the budget speech of Finance Minister Arun Jaitley, in the year 2015-16, the proposal to launch Gold Monetary Fund and Sovereign Gold Bond scheme in place of gold deposit scheme and Gold Metal loan scheme in the east was started. Prosperity Scheme is a plan to mobilize gold stored while Sovereign Gold Bond scheme is related to the purchase of gold bond equivalent to gold value by cash payment. The overall aim of these schemes is to mobilize the gold kept in India’s gross domestic and institutions and to put them into productive activities and to work reliably on the country’s golden import dependence.

The self-help group bank linkage program was started in 1992 with the objective of providing small finance by NABARD. This program is implemented by the commercial bank RRB and Cooperative Bank. NABARD does not implement this program. This is a regulatory body.

The announcement of Kisan Credit Card Scheme was made in the budget of 1998-99, when it started in August 1998. It facilitates farmers to take loans from commercial banks, cooperative banks and regional rural banks. Under this scheme, credibility is provided to farmers as well as investment credentials. In accordance with the amendment in March 2012, ATM cards have been issued to interested KCC holders.



In February 2011, the financial security scheme named Swabhiman was started by the Central Government. Whose purpose was to provide banking facilities to the bankless villages with population above two thousand. Under this scheme, business correspondents or bank partners are selected by the banks, who act as mediators between the villagers and the banks. Basic services like bank deposits, withdrawals, and disputes are provided by a bank partner. Also, government and social security benefits can be transferred directly to beneficiaries’ bank accounts through this scheme.

S & P 500 is the index of the stock market, which includes 500 companies.

Market is where the goods and services are sold and sold. The goods and services are bought and sold on the basis of their production cost, which is called the price of goods or services. Therefore, price is the basic element for the existence of the market.

The futures market commission in India was established in the year 1953. It regulates futures trading of commodities. On September 28, 2015, the Forward Markets Commission was merged with SEBI.

The importance of pension funds in India has diminished because the venture traders are dependent on their capital investor and they want to invest in their associate institution.

National Agricultural and Rural Development Bank maintains the Rural Establishment Development Fund established in the year 1995 96.

The Constitution of India provides for three types of policies for the central government, which is as follows –

1 Consolidated Fund of India

2 Public accounts of India

3 contingency fund of India

The amount of money that the government receives under state provident fund is deposited in public account fund.

The hypothetical price / shadow pricing machine is used to evaluate the proposals of capital investment. J. Tinbragin and Holish had predicted.



The term Smart Money is used for the credit card. The Reserve Bank promotes information technology for this, which will help the bank reach its reach to as many customers as possible using credit card / smart card etc.

Foreign exchange reserves are an essential element in the analysis of the situation of a country’s economy. 4 constituents of foreign currency reserves of India are included – Foreign Currency Assets, Classes, Special Drawing Rights and Protected Status in the IMF.

In India, the mutual fund was established in the year 1963 with the formation of the Indian Unit Trust by the Parliamentary Act. The first mutual fund was launched by UTI US 64 years in 1964. Since 1987, mutual funds have also been started by public sector banks and insurance companies in addition to UTI. Private sector mutual funds were received in India in the year 1963 and the Kodari Pioneer, registered in July 1983, was the first private sector mutual fund.

>> Social development

>> Human development

>> India

– Human development is a broad concept, under which the concept of a long healthy one creative life lies.

– First of all, the United Nations Development Program focused on the human side of development and development was linked to the improvement in the quality of life of the inhabitants of the nation beyond the prosperity of the nation.

– In the same sequence, the first human development report was released by the UNDP in th year 1990.

– In this report, the country was ranked on the basis of the Human Development Index.

– The credibility of rendering the Human Development Index becomes a Pakistani economist, Mehboob-ul-Haq.

– Nobel Prize winner Indian economist Amartya Sen also had significant contribution in the formulation of this index.



– The Human Development Index is calculated on the basis of three indicators such as life expectancy education and per capita national income.

– The maximum age expectancy for the calculation of life expectancy index is 85 years and minimum age of anticipation is 20 years (according to the method of 2016).

– For calculating the Education Index, two variables such as the average year of the school term and the estimated year of school period are taken.

– It is notable that before the year 2010, the education index was given to the gross enrollment rate and adult literacy.

– The income index is calculated on the basis of gross national income per person.

– It is worth mentioning that before 2010, it was calculated on the basis of gross domestic product per capita.

– For calculating the income index, the maximum value of gross national income per person has been fixed at $ 75,000 and minimum value is $ 100.

– The Human Development Index is the geometrical mean of all three indices above-

HDI = Life expectancy × Education Index × Income Index 1/3

– The value of the Human Development Index is between zero and one in which 0 represents minimum human development while one represents the highest human development.

– The latest Human Development Report, published in 2018 in Human Development Index, 2017.

– In this report, Norway, Switzerland and Australia were the top human development countries in 189 countries, while Niger was the lowest (189th) human development country.

– In HDI 2017, India is at 130th place with 0.640 points.



– In India, this index contains a group of countries with moderate human development.

– In terms of human development, India is in the lower position in BRICS countries.

– In South Asian countries, India’s position is better than other countries except Sri Lanka and Maldives.

– According to the report of the year 2018, life expectancy in India was 68.8 years, the average year of school term was 6.7 years, the estimated year of school term was 12.3 years and national income was $ 6353 per person.

– It is important that in the Human Development Report in 2010, inequality adjusted human development index(IHDI), multi-dimensional poverty index(MPI), and gender inequality index(GII) are being published along with the Human Development Index.

>> Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index

– The multi-dimensional poverty index is a multi-dimensional concept of poverty measurement.

– The publication of the MPI is being done from 2010 in Human Development Report.

– Human poverty index (HPI) was published with the Human Development Report from the previous year 1997, from the multi-dimensional poverty index.

– It has been developed by the Oxford Poorness and Human Development Initiative in collaboration with UNDP.

– The construction of this index is based on 10 points in terms of 3 dimensions (education, health and standard of living). This is indicative-

1- Education related

– Year of the school term

– attendance at school

2- Health related

– child mortality

– Nutrition



3- Lifestyle related

– Electricity

– Cleanliness (toilet)

– Drinking Water

– residential floors

– Food cooking fuel

– Assets (TVs, vehicles, refrigerators, cattle etc.)

>> Human development in Indian states

– In the first of the Indian states, the State of Madhya Pradesh released Human Development Report in 1995.

– In the year 2002, the first Human Development Report (NHDR) was published by the Planning Commission to assess the comparative situation in the context of human development of states in India.

– In it, Kerala was the first in the country in terms of human development. Among the indices, Punjab was second, Tamil Nadu third, Maharashtra fourth and Haryana at fifth position.

– The second report of National Human Development Report was released by the Institute of Applied Manpower Research (IAMR) under the Planning Commission in 2011.

– The headline of this report was towards the India Human Development Report, 2011 Social Integration.

– According to this report, in the year 2007-08, the best state was Kerala in terms of human development.

– Kerala remained number one in the states with 0.790 HDI index.

– After this, Delhi (0.750), Himachal Pradesh (0.652), Goa (0.617) and Punjab (0.605) remained second, third, fourth and fifth place respectively.

– Chhattisgarh was last in this report with the view of HDI index.

– Odisha, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh are also the following human development states.

– The index had 18th rank of Uttar Pradesh and it was in the states below national level.



>> Hunger

– The situation of hunger occurs when a person becomes unable to meet his daily food requirement.

– Hunger can be due to three reasons: –

1- People lack the purchasing power

2- Supply of food grains is insufficient

3- Easy access to people till food grains

– Assessment of the status of hunger in the countries of the world is displayed in the Global Hunger Index.

– This index is done by the National Food Policy Research Institute.

– This index is manufactured on four indicators, on the basis of short nutrition, force minimization, child tinnability and child mortality rate.

– In the global starvation index of 2017, India is placed in countries with severe starvation.

– India’s 100th place in 119 countries in this index.

– In this index, Belarus is ranked first place where as Central African Republic is ranked in the last 119.

– In the Indian villages, more population different religions, 4 castes and their sub-castes are the main characteristics of Indian culture of Sanskrit, sex ratio etc. Poorness exhibits the country’s socio-economic structure, not a sign of Indian social structure.

– The United Nations Development Program first focused on the human side of development. It not only encompasses the income, but also the health and education of humans, in the process of measuring humans.

– Under Article 25 (1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Right to Education, Article 21 (2) has the right to receive public service in accordance with equality and the right to food under Article 25 (1).

– Madhya Pradesh is the first state in India to issue state-level human development report, which released its first human development report in the year 1995.

– According to the census of 2011, the unemployment rate in Kerala is stagnant in the country, Kerala is the first place in terms of human development index in the country.



>> Employment and Unemployment

– All persons of age who can work in a country are jointly called the labor force of that country.

– Both employed persons and unemployed people come in.

– In the context of employment, 8 hours of work per day for 273 days is called the standard year and the person who is employed in these days is considered as a full employment.

– Those people are considered unemployed, who have the ability to work and desire, and are present for work on the conventional distance but they can not get employment.

– In the developed and developing / less developed countries, unemployment is found in different forms for different reasons.

>> How are the major forms of unemployment –

1- Cyclical unemployment – Such unemployment which arises due to lack of demand due to market expectations and the demand increases again, the cyclical unemployment is called. It is commonly seen in developed countries.

2- Friction-born unemployment – Friction-born unemployment is in fact unemployment in the middle of a period of employment between one employment and other employment. Tackling jobs due to change in techniques etc. is the main reason for this unemployment. It is also a common feature of developed countries.

3- Structural Unemployment – This kind of unemployment occurs in the absence of skills in people. That is, when people are unemployed due to their contribution based on employment, this unemployment is called structural unemployment. This is the generality characteristic of developing and underdeveloped countries. India also has a high level of unemployment.

4- Seasonal unemployment – Seasonal unemployment is highest in agriculture sector. In the agricultural sector, work increases in the months of the year, thereby increasing the number of jobs, but unemployment remains in the remaining months. Seasonal unemployment is the similarity characteristic of developing and underdeveloped countries.

5- Disguised Unemployment – People engaged in any work are considered technically unemployed. That is, if more people are engaged than employed in any employment, then even if the level of production remains on the expulsion of the additional people from that employment, then the extra people taken out is considered as disguised unemployed. In technical terms, the person whose marginal utility is zero (i.e. there is no additional contribution in production) is considered as unemployed, even if it is unemployed, the disguised unemployment is found in the primary area, especially in the agricultural sector.



>> Employment Measures in India

– Three methods of unemployment measurement in India are in circulation – normal condition, current weekly status and current status of the current daily.

– If a person is unable to get employment for more than half a year, then it is also considered as employment of general conditions.

– If a person does not get 1 hour of work in the week, then it will be considered as current weekly level employment.

– If a person is not able to get 1 hour of special employment in any particular day, then the current daily situation is considered as unemployed.

– It is notable that if a person is in employment for more than 4 hours in a day, then he is in full employment of that day whereas in less than 1 hour and less than 4 hours employment is considered as half day employment of that day. .

– National Sample Survey Organization collects data for measuring unemployment in India.

– According to the employment and unemployment report of 68th round of NSSO, in the year 2011-12, there were 2.7% unemployment in India based on normal situation.

– Highest unemployment among Nagaland (25.6%) of Indian states was recorded followed by Lakshdeep (15.4%) and Tripura (14.6%) being the state with highest unemployment.

– On the basis of current weekly status, 5.6% unemployment registered in India in the year 2011- 12, 3.7% and on the basis of current daily situation.

– According to the World Employment and Social Scenario, 2018, the unemployment rate of 3.5% in India in 2018 is estimated.

– Under NSQF, the learner can obtain the certificate of competence for formal qualification at any level through formal, non formal and informal education.



– Specific results expected from the implementation of NSQF are as follows:-

1- Middle transmission between business and general education by alignment of degree with NSQF.

2- Identification of pre-learning permission from non-formal organizational job market transition

3- Humanized consistent, nationally acceptable results of training of the entire country through national quality assurance framework

4- Global mobility of skilled workers of India through the international equivalence of NSQF

5- Mapping the path of progress in regions and across regions

6- Approval of NOS / QPs as national standards for skill training.

– Unemployment refers to the unavailability of the means of income. More people will come down from the poverty line as the unemployment increases and thus poverty will increase.

– The state with the highest percentage of educated unemployed in India is Kerala.

– Employment is also created with a high rate of growth. In this, the people who receive education according to employment get employment, but due to the lack of vocational education many people have to be deprived of employment. Therefore, educated unemployment increases. This is happening in India. The National Sample Survey Organization has clarified its latest surveys that unemployment rates are high compared to those who are less educated than those due to the shortage of professional skills in the high school and above-the-aged youth.

– Most of the unemployment found in developing countries and less developed countries, including India, is structural. The main reason for structural unemployment is that people do not have the skills to work according to their employment. The backwardness of the structure of the economy, the limited capital availability and the abundance of labor are the main reasons for today’s structural unemployment.

– The hidden (disguised) unemployment in India is more in the primary sector (agriculture and allied areas), due to excessive pressure of population on land and other natural resources. Due to the lack of technical development, most of the population depends on agriculture and related activities, due to which there are more people than required in the same work. This is the reason for the hidden unemployment.

– The term unemployment hidden in economics was used by most Mrs. John Rabinson.

– The increase in per capita income for unemployment is not responsive, while lack of rapid population growth, lack of skills and manpower planning is the responsibility of official unemployment.

– URP and MRP method have been used for poverty estimation in the 61st round of data for the year 2004-05 by NSSO. Consumer expenditure data is collected for all use items in the record period of 30 days in the URP method. Whereas, non-food items like garments, shoes, sandal, durable goods, education and institutional medical expenditure are collected for the 365-day fixed period and consumption expenditure for remaining items are collected from the 30-day fixed period, in MRP.



– Rajiv Awas Yojana was started in June, 2011, which has been expanded to 2022. Slums free cities have been conceived in this scheme, in which basic citizen infrastructure and social facilities and proper shelter are available to every citizen.

– Panchadara scheme was started for the welfare and development of women especially in rural and tribal areas in November, 1991 by the Government of Madhya Pradesh. This scheme was a set of five schemes namely Vatsalya Yojana, Rural Planning, Ayushma Yojana, Social Security Pension Scheme and Kalpvriksha Yojana.


Launch Date

Sukanya Samridhi Yojana

22 January, 2015

Atal Pension Yojana

9 May, 2015

Make in India

25 September, 2014

Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana

28 August, 2014

Digital Gender Atlas for Advancing Girls Education in India

9 March, 2015

Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana

9 May, 2015

Mudra Bank Yojana

8 April, 2015


– Skill Development Initiative was started by the Ministry of Labor and Employment in May 2007.

– Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Prime Minister Ujjwala scheme from Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh on 1st May 2016, with a clean fuel, tagline of better life to provide clean fuel to poor families who live below the poverty line. Under the scheme, the target of providing 10 million LPG connections in the next 3 years was set.

– The Prime Minister Jan Dhan Yojana was formally launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi at a national function organized in New Delhi on August 28, 2014.

-Under the initiative, transfer of LPG grant is done directly through the beneficiary’s bank account through the Direct Benefit Transfer Scheme. The first phase of the Initiative Scheme was launched in 54 districts from 15th November 2014. While this scheme was expanded on January 1, 2015 in all the districts of the country.



–  Rural employment program called employment guarantee scheme or employment guarantee scheme was first started by the Maharashtra government on January 26, 1979.

– Employment Guarantee Scheme seeks to provide financial assistance to at least one man and 1 woman of rural families living below the poverty line for reducing employment in rural areas.

– Yojana was started in August 1979 with the aim of providing self-employment training to the rural youth of the age group of 18 to 35 years.

– ILEGP Project was started on August 15, 1983 for providing employment opportunities for rural landless people.

– Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was launched in April 1989 by the merger of National Rural Employment Program and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Program.

– The Employment Assurance Plan was started on 2 October 1993. Its main objective was to provide employment to agricultural rural youth with seasonal unemployment.

– The Rural Establishment Development Fund was formed in the year 1995-96. Its purpose is to provide funds for state governments and state-owned rules, so that they can fulfill rural infrastructure projects. Rural water supply, rural roads and rural electrification come under it, but rural industry does not come under it.



– Swavalamban scheme is a pension scheme of the Government of India for the unorganized sector workers, which was started in the year 2010. Currently the scheme has been taken by Atal Pension Scheme.

– On December 25, 2014, the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched the Mission Rainbow for the vaccination of children and pregnant women. Mission Rainbow is a national vaccination program to ensure high vaccination across the country. Under it, seven vaccines (diphtheria, black cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, polio, hepatitis B and measles) have been included.

– The Government of India started the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Program in the year 1972 73. However, since April 1, 2009, the rural drinking water supply program was named the National Rural Drinking Water Program. National Rural Drinking Water Program is one of the six components of Bharat Nirman.

– The resolution project is linked to the completion of HIV / AIDS or a project jointly operated by Hindustan Latex Limited and Employees State Insurance Corporation.

– The Prime Minister’s Rural Road Scheme was started on 25th December 2000. The purpose of this scheme was to connect the main road through the perennial road in villages with population of more than 500 villages (hill, tribal and villages with population of more than two and a half hundred in the desert areas), there were basically two goals of this scheme –

1- In the first phase of the scheme, connecting villages with more than 1000 population to the good perennial road by the year 2003.

2- In the second phase, connecting 500 villages with good perennial road till 2007.

Agricultural Labor social security scheme


Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana


Rojgar Guarantee Scheme


Pradhan Mantri Gramoday Yojana


Sarv Siksha Abhiyaan


Saakshar Bharat Mission


Operation Black Board


Rashtriya Saaksharata Mission


Sangam Yojana


Janshri Bima Yojana


Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana


National Rural Health Mission




– The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGA) was enacted on September 5, 2005 and implemented from 2 February 2006. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was changed to the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) on October 2, 2009.

– A.K. Day called as Chief producer of community development in India. He was the first Coopration and the Panchayati Raj Minister of India. Jawaharlal Nehru was prime minister at that time when the Government of India started his community development program in 1952.

– National Rural Health Mission was started in April, 2005 when the Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) was released.

– The program called Integrated Child Development Services was started by the Central Government in the year 1975.

– Integrated Child Development Service Scheme in India was implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India on October 2, 1975.

– The Central Government launched the Prime Minister Housing Scheme in June 2015. The time period of this scheme is 2015 to 2022.

– Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme was launched by the Government of India in August 2004 for educationally backward blocks (where female literacy and academic gender gap nationally) for girls belonging to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Classes, Minority, Sex Workers, etc. Level was low) was done for the establishment of residential high primary school.

– Tarun Bharat Sangha is an NGO founded by Dr. Rajendra Singh, who is working in Rajasthan for sustainable development.

– The Central Government had set up the Deepak Parekh Committee (May 2007) to resolve the measures for establishment and financing.

– In India, only the first university for the handicapped is Chitrakoot in Uttar Pradesh, whose headquarter is Chitrakoot. The name of this university is Jagadguru Ram Bhadracharya University of Disabilities.

– India’s first open university was established in August, 1982 in the name of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar in Hyderabad.

– The purpose of introducing the Rudsat Institute is to provide training for skill and entrepreneurship to the rural unemployed youth to develop their own origins.

– Andragogy is the second name of adult education.



– The concept of PURA (Providing of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas) was first presented to former President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam in his book Target 3 billion whose co-author, Sajan Pal Singh. On the eve of the 54th Republic Day on the eve of India, the then President, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, presented the concept of complete, to the public, after which the implementation of the scheme was announced by the Prime Minister of India on August 15, 2003.

– The policy of giving urban facilities to rural areas was supported by former President of India, APJ Abdul Kalam. That’s why they talked of providing four types of contacts. He emphasized on economic linkages in rural areas through real contact, electronic contact and contact of knowledge.

– The Akshaya Patra Foundation is a non-governmental organization of India, which was established in Karnataka in 2000 in Bengaluru. This institution provides free mid-day meals for school children.

– A program to provide identity to the Indian citizens based on the Indian Unique Identification Authority’s introduction. This is a 12 digit special identification number, which is prepared by collecting the basic demographic and biometric information photographs, fingerprint and Irish scan database of each person including infants. It can be used as a bank account opening, telephone / mobile connection, receiving air or rail tickets etc.

– Public Program and Rural Technology Development Council (CAPART: Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology) was formed on September 1, 1986. CAPART works under the instructions of the Rural Development Ministry. Its headquarters are in New Delhi. Its main objective is to promote and assist in the implementation of projects for rural prosperity, voluntary work.

– Swayamsiddh Yojana was started by the Government of India on July 12, 2001. Under this, emphasis has been laid on the overall empowerment of women by self-help groups. The mention of the Swadhar Yojana is to provide assistance to women lying in difficult situations. There is a provision for the implementation of both the Swayamsiddh Yojana and Swadhar Yojana schemes through governmental bodies and support groups.



National visually impaired institution


National institute of orthopedic disability


Ali Yaavarjung National Deaf Institute


National Institute of Mental Retardation




– The Prime Minister’s Labor Award is provided by the Ministry of Labor and Employment of the Government of India. The awards are performed by the departmental undertakings of Central and State Governments, Central and State Public Centers and State Governments, Departmental Undertakings and Private Enterprises defined in the Industrial Dispute Act, 1947 (in which there are at least 500 registered employees). Workers are provided.

– Vision 2020 for India is the document proposed by the then President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, which is related to making India a developed nation by the year 2020.

– The Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana, launched by the Central Government on October 2, 2007, provides social security to all landless laborers living below poverty line in rural areas. Under this scheme, a member of the rural landless family head or family who is between the ages of 18 to 59, will be able to insure under this scheme. This scheme is conducted in collaboration with the governments of the States / Union Territories and the Life Insurance Corporation of India. Premium payable under the scheme ₹ 200 per month per month is borne by the Central and State Governments in the ratio of 50:50. There is also provision of ₹ 300 per quarter per child scholarship up to 2 children studying between classes 9 to 12 of the insured person in the plan.



– Deendayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana is aimed at ensuring full power supply to the agriculture and non-agricultural consumers in the field. This scheme was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Patna on July 30, 2015. Since this scheme will improve rural education, health, sanitation, banking services and all this comes under rural empowerment.

– The six previous schemes which were merged with the Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna started from April 1, 1999 are as follows :-

1- Integrated Rural Development Plan

2- Trisam

3- Million Well Scheme

4- Rural women and child development scheme

5- Advanced Toolkit Plan

6-After the Ganga Kalyan Yojna, SGSY was reconstituted as National Rural Livelihood Mission. Presently the name of this scheme is Deendayal Antyodaya Yojna – National Rural Livelihood Mission.

– The National Secondary Education Campaign was started in March 2009 by the Government of India to increase access to secondary education and improve its quality. It was implemented from the session 2009-10.

– Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Act empowers each Indian family to have unskilled work of at least 100 days in a financial year. It is to be noted that the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was passed on September 5, 2005 and it was started on 2 February 2006 from the Bandapali village in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh by the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh. On October 2, 2009, it has been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA).



– National Rural Livelihood Mission started on June 2, 2011 (by restructuring the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana) from Banswara in Rajasthan. The objective of the scheme is to provide a sustainable and effective institutional stage to the rural poor and increase their livelihood, increase their access to financial services and increase their family income.

– Support for training and employment program for women (Step: Support to Training Employment Program of Women) was started in the year 1986-87 as a central scheme. Its aim was to develop skills in women, so that they could get unemployed or become self-sufficient by self-employment. Under this scheme women of 16 years and above were included.

– The Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana was launched as an integrated program to provide employment opportunities to the rural poor on April 1, 1999. The Golden Jubilee Urban Employment Scheme was started on December 1, 1997. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was launched on April 1, 1989. The National Rural Health Mission was started on April 12, 2005.

– Mid-Day Meal Scheme: This scheme, launched from August 15, 1995, is the revised form of Nutrition Support to Primary Education, which has been implemented at the primary level since September 2004. It has been implemented at upper primary level since October 1, 2007.

– Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Keeping in view the strong forward and backward linkages of education, the Indian government implemented Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in the year 2001.

– Rural Health Mission: Rural Health Mission Scheme was launched by the Government of India on 12th April, 2005 to provide accessibility, family and quality health facilities to rural population.

– Look East Policy: India has adopted the Look East Policy (Look East) to increase trade relations with South East Asian countries.

– The community development program in India was started at the experimental level on October 2, 1952. In order to improve the system of agricultural programs and communication system in the country, community development program was implemented for the purpose of adequate rural health, cleanliness and rural education. In the first five year plan, only 248 blocks were implemented. Which was implemented in phases in 1964 all over the country.

– A.K. Day called as Chief producer of community development in India. He was the first Coopration and the Panchayati Raj Minister of India. Jawaharlal Nehru was prime minister at that time when the Government of India started his community development program in 1952.

– The community development program was prepared for the path of organization of Panchayati Raj.



– Asylum insurance scheme was launched on October 10, 2001. The purpose of this scheme is to provide security to the affected employees due to work or job loss.

– Under the National Rural Health Mission, launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, the main functions of the trained community health worker Asha include: Providing information to the community about nutrition and training, providing pre-natal care to women Take the Health Facilitation Center for investigation, Preliminary information on pregnancy To Rapt include work etc. I hope to use pregnancy test kit. It is not their job to deliver a child.

– The National Health Policy was announced in the year 1983 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. It is notable that at present, the Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry has declared a National Health Policy 2017 to improve the health sector.

>> Poverty

– Poverty refers to the inability to reach the basic necessity; that is, when a person can not meet his basic needs, then he is poor.

– The poor are seen in two forms: absolute poverty and relative poverty.

– Absolute poverty shows how many people are living in poverty.

– Absolute poverty measurement is also called the Head Conver method because it tells the number of the poor.

– In this method, the consumption of expenditure or minimum requirement is determined by the poverty line based on the nutritional level, those people are considered poor, whose consumption expenditure is below the poverty line.

– Indicates the status of distribution of income and property in the relative poverty economy.

– There are two main methods of measuring relative poverty – the larange curve method and the Guinea coefficient.



– Lorenz Curve was rendered in the year 1905 by Max Lawrence.

– It is a graphical representation of the distribution of national income, in which every point of the larval curve shows distribution in the national income population.

– The Lorenz Curve performs the distribution between the cumulative percentage of total income and the cumulative percentage of the population.

– Absolute poverty measurement is also called the Head Conver method because it tells the number of the poor.

– In this method, the consumption of expenditure or minimum requirement is determined by the poverty line based on the nutritional level, those people are considered poor, whose consumption expenditure is below the poverty line.

– Indicates the status of distribution of income and property in the relative poverty economy.

– There are two main methods of measuring relative poverty – the larange curve method and the Guinea coefficient.

– Lorenz Curve was rendered in the year 1905 by Max Lawrence.

– It is a graphical representation of the distribution of national income, in which every point of the larval curve shows distribution in the national income population.

– The Lorenz Curve performs the distribution between the cumulative percentage of total income and the cumulative percentage of the population.

– Guineen Coefficient = Area of the middle of the whole number line and Lorenz curve / total area of the center of the whole parity line.

– Guinea coefficient is between 0 and 1.

– When its value is zero, then it means the full equality of national income. That is, each person is getting the same income.

– When it has a value of 1, it implies a completely unequal distribution of national income. That is, the same person is earning the full income, nothing else can be done.



>> Poverty In India

– The first official effort of poverty measurement in India was done by the Planning Commission in the year 1962, in which per person suggested ₹20 usage expenditure per month as the line of poverty.

– In the year 1977, the Working Group formed by the Planning Commission defined poverty as a daily minimum food based on energy.

On this basis, 2400 calories per day per day for rural areas and 2100 calories per day for urban areas is considered as poverty line.

– Formed in 1989, Prof. The DT Lakkwala Committee, which presented its report in 1993, suggested different poverty line for all the states.

– Different price indexes were adopted for rural and urban areas.

– Consumer price index for agricultural workers for rural areas and consumer price index for industrial workers for urban areas has been adopted.

– It is worth remembering that the figures of domestic consumer expenditure released by the National Sample Survey Organization for poverty estimation in India are used.

– In order to determine the method of poverty measurement in India, the Suresh Tendulkar Committee was formed in the year 2005. In November 2009, this committee presented its report.

– The Tendulkar Committee considered poverty as a multi-dimension, and this committee considered the family expenditure on the food market, education and health services of caloric appetite as the basis of poverty measurement.

– In this committee, MRP was adopted in place of URP in the method of measuring poverty, under which consumption expenditure was to be taken within 30 days of memory period.

– Under the MRP, 5 items (clothes, shoes / slippers, education, durable goods and institutional health expenditure) for 365 days of memory period, while remaining items are consumed for the 30 days memory expenditure.

– According to the technique of this committee, there is 21.9 percent poverty in India in 2011-12. In rural areas of India 25.7% and 13.7% in urban areas were also registered.

According to this technique, the poverty line in rural areas of India is 816 per person per month or 27.20 per person per day.

– While the poverty line for urban areas is 1000 per person per month or Rs 33.3 per person per day.



According to the Tendulkar Committee, the state with highest percentage of poverty is Chhattisgarh, while the state with the poorest population is Uttar Pradesh.

– According to Tendulkar’s technique, in the Union Territories with minimum poverty reduction, the state is in the Andaman and Nicobar Deep Group (1%) and Goa is 5.1%.

– Expert workforce was constituted under the chairmanship of C. Rangarajan in June 2012 for the re-examination of the poor assessment, which submitted its report in June 2014.

– Considering poverty as multidimensional in this committee, consider the poverty line based on adequate nutrition, clothing, housing rent, traffic, education and other non-food.

– In nutritious measurements, they have taken food basket, in which the protein and fat along with calories are also given place.

– In rural areas, 2155 kilograms of calories, 48 grams of protein and 28 grams of fats per day, whereas for urban areas, 2090 kilograms of calories, 50 grams of protein and 26 grams of fat per day per person.

According to Rangarajan Technologies, in the year 2011-12, there were 29.5% of people in poverty in India.

– 30.9% in rural areas, 26.4% in urban areas are living below the poverty line.

According to the Rangarajan technique, the poverty line in rural areas is Rs 972 per capita per month or Rs 32.4 per person per day per person.

– For the urban areas, the poverty line is considered as 1407 rupees per month or Rs 46.90 per person per day.

– According to this technique, the highest number of Indian states recorded in Chhattisgarh was 47.9 percent.



– Uttar Pradesh is the state with the highest number of poor.

– According to the Rangarajan technique, the Union Territories and States of Andaman Nicobar Deep group with minimum poverty percentage is 6% state and Goa is 6.3%.

– Rangarajan technique estimates are based on MMRP.

– Consumption expenditure in MMRP is divided into three parts based on its nature – for low memory items (clothing, shoes, education, health and durable goods) for a memory period of 365 days, while high frequency items (edible oils) , Eggs, fish / meat, vegetables, fruits, spices, processed food, paan, tobacco etc.) for the memory of 7 days and remaining items remaining food items and light house rent etc. 30 days of memory is taken for the duration.

– Among the economically backward states of India, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh as well as tribal groups of Maharashtra, poverty rate was the highest in the 90s, compared to other social groups.

– The Planning Commission constitutes an expert team to calculate the population of the diarrhea below the poverty line. Which uses data collected by National Sample Survey Office for this purpose. Consumption of poverty estimates in India is the consumption expenditure of the family.

– Economist Ragner Nakrse, while reviewing the concept of vicious cycle of poverty in his book Problem of Capital Formation in Underdelped Countries published in the year 1953, expressed the view that poor countries remain poor because of the vicious cycle of poverty. They argue that less is saved than the income which discourages investment potential. Less investment, its productivity and income remain low and poor remain.

– Planning Commission in India was the nodal agency for estimation of poverty on national and state level. At present, the Planning Commission has replaced the Planning Commission.

– Both Suresh Tendulkar Committee and Lakdawala Committee have been related in the estimates of poverty in India.

– From the time of the Sixth Five Year Plan, the Planning Commission is going to determine poverty at the national and state levels. Several committees have been formed from time to time to determine poverty estimation and poverty estimation in India. These committees are headed by Alhagh Committee, Lakravala Committee, Tendulkar Committee, and C Rangarajan Committee.



– In order to determine the new standard of population estimation of living below the poverty line, the committee set up by the Indian government in the year 2005 was Suresh Tendulkar.

– During the 11th Five Year Plan period, there was a target to reduce the poverty ratio by 10% by creating seven crore new jobs.

– In the 12th Five Year Plan, poverty was also targeted for poverty reduction of 2% per annum and 10% in 5 years.

The reason behind backwardness in the state of Bihar is its social, economic and political conditions. In Bihar state backwardness is present due to lack of education, inequality of income, social norms, lack of industry and lack of political will. Regional variation is also present in the level of development in Bihar, but it is not the reason of Bihar’s backwardness but its consequence.

– In the 1960s, the public distribution system was started like a price subsidiary program.

Its main objective was to provide essential items at subsidized prices.

– Food subsidy is included in India – subsidy given to farmers by support price and FCI subsidy to cover the cost of the consumer subsidy given by the operation of the Indian Food Corporation, Public Distribution System and all these costs.

– The aim of the Public Distribution System is to provide food security.

– Although under the 5th Five Year Plan, for the first time, national development programs were started for the first time with the declared objective of poverty alleviation, to meet the minimum requirements of the poor class. However, India’s first woman Prime Minister, Smt. Indira Gandhi, slammed the poverty eradication in the beginning of the sixth scheme. Was there.



– Differentiated interest rate scheme was started by the central government in 1972. The objective of the scheme is to make the weaker sections of the society available at a concessional rate of 4.0%.

– The highest assessment of the physical quality of life is infant mortality and literacy. It was developed for the Overseas Development Council by the middle Maurice Davis in the 1970s.

Physical quality of life = literacy rate + infant mortality + life expectancy / 3

– Insufficient growth rate, high growth rate of population and unemployment are accountable for poverty.

– In the year 1952, India launched the world’s first national family planning program, in order to stabilize the population at the level of the national economy, emphasizing family planning to the extent necessary to reduce the birth rates.

– The main function of the District Rural Development Agency is to help reduce poverty in rural India. These agencies ensure inter-sectoral and inter-departmental coordination and cooperation for effective implementation of anti-poor programs. It also ensures effective implementation of monitoring of funds created to overcome poverty.

>> Foreign area

>> International Trade

>> Balance of Payments

– The annual statement of the overall financial transaction with the rest of the world’s inhabitants is called the balance of payments.

– Financial transactions refers to transactions of goods, services, properties and capital.

– Balance of payments is an accounting, it is always balanced, because the current account deficit is completed by loan on the capital account.

– Balance of payment is shown on two accounts – Current account and capital account.

– The current account records the transaction of all the goods and services.

– Details of loans and investment are recorded on the capital account.



– In the current account, accounting is done in 2 items – invisible item and visible item.

– In the visible item, the import and export of goods is recorded, whereas in the invisible accounts, services and other income and expenditure are recorded.

Note – The difference between the import and export of the visible item is called trade deficit.

– The current account transaction gap is called the current account deficit.

– The following are the major remedies to overcome the imbalance in the balance of payments:

1- Promotion of exports by foreign exchange rates and discouraged imports.

2 – Depreciation of the currency.

3 – Decrease in fiscal deficit.

4 – Decrease / termination of export duty, export subsidy.

5- To impose import duty, import quota etc.

6 – Attraction of foreign investment

7 – Receipt of foreign aid etc.

>> Direction of Indian Trade

– India’s biggest business is with Asian countries. 49.9% of gross exports while gross imports remained with 60% Asian countries.

Maximum Export in India







North America(17.3%)




South America(2.6%)




Import in India







North America(7.6%)



Saudi Arab(5.2%)

South America(4.5%)



>> Top Items of Indian Import

– Petroleum(22.6%)>Capital Goods(20.9%)>Jewellery and Ornaments(14.00%)

>> Items of Indian Export

– Engineering goods(24.4%)>Jewellery and Ornaments(15.7%)>Chemical and including products(14.2%)

>> Top countries with which India’s trade balance is positive –

America >United Arab Emirates >Bangladesh >Nepal >United Kingdom

>> Negative balance of Business

– China >Switzerland >Saudi Arab >Iraq >South Korea

>> Foreign Investment in India

– Foreign investment is meant to be invested in India by an institutional investor abroad, because in India individual investors are not allowed to invest.

– Foreign investment comes in two forms – portfolio investment and direct investment.

– Portfolio investment – Such investment, which comes into the stock of a company and is not a direct partner in the management of the investing company, such investment is called portfolio investment. This investment comes through the stock market.

– Foreign Direct Investment – In direct foreign investment the investor directly participates and affects the management. It comes in two forms –

1 – Greenfield Direct Investment – When the investor establishes a brand new company, such investment is called Greenfield FDI.

2- Baunfield FDI – When the investor either participates in a company already established or buys it, such foreign investments are called Brown Field Investments. It is notable that FPI is considered to be FDI when buying more than 10% of a company.



>> Profit from FDI

– 1 – Is a permanent investment and it comes with its technique, capital and innovative system.

2- FDI-based structural improvements and new jobs are created from this.

3- It promotes competition, which increases the quality of the goods and the prices are lower. This increases consumer welfare.

4 – This leads to economic development of the country because efficient technology and management resources make optimum utilization.

>> Loss From FDI

– 1 – Companies take dividends to their country.

2- The local infantry industry collapses, which leads to unemployment.

3 – In the long run, these companies get monopoly and consumers are exploited.

4- Increases the country’s dependence and foreign intervention in official functioning.

>> FDI In India

– The highest FDI in India is in the arrival services sector. This is followed by the location of telecom and computer software and hardware respectively.

– Most FDI in India comes from Mauritius followed by Singapore, Japan and UK.



>> FDI in Multibrand Retail

– 51% FDI has been granted in the multibrand retail sector by the Government of India, but there are certain conditions for that too –

1 – Minimum investment of 100 million.

2- Half of this must be done on the construction of the base infrastructure.

3- Establishment will be established only in cities with population of 100 million or more.

4 – 30% of the items must be taken from local industries.

5 – The use of any kind of middleman is forbidden

>> devaluation

– Depression is in the relative reduction of foreign exchange in the value of the country currency.

– Depression value is a different concept from depreciation.

In value depreciation, where the price of two currencies is reduced by the market, in the same devaluation, the intention of the government is to decrease the value of the currency.

– India has been devalued 3 times so far.

1st September 1949

June 2 – 1966

July 3 and July 3, 1991

– With the devaluation, the export becomes cheaper and the import is expensive due to the encouragement of export but discouraging imports.

– It is used to remove trade deficits.

>> Exchange Rate

– Exchange rate refers to the rate of mutual conversion between the two countries’ currencies. (E.g. dollar = ₹60)

– It is also determined by the countries and also by market forces.

– Nowadays, most countries have adopted the market system to determine the exchange rate.

– The exchange rate is determined by the demand and supply of foreign currency within the country and not in the international market.

In India too, the rate of exchange rate is determined by market forces, but RBI also provides necessary interventions from time to time.

– In the year 1972-73 and in the year 1976-77, trade balance was favorable to India. The resource savings in year 1972 – 73 were Rs 176 crore and in the year 1976, the resource savings were 525 crore rupees. In the financial year 2017-18, India’s trade deficit was approximately $ 162 billion.

– In the long term view of the Department of Commerce, India is to be established as a major participant in the world trade by 2020.

– Closed economics refers to an economy that is different from foreign trade. In such an economy, there is neither export nor importation with other economies. In other words countries with closed economies do not have exchange of goods, services, capital etc. with other countries.

– The difference between monetary value of import and export between the two countries is called trade balance. For any country, when the export value is higher than the imported value, the country is in a trade surplus, when the country is in a trade deficit situation when the import is much higher than the export. Trade balance involves only items or goods of business items. On the contrary, in balance balance, along with visible items (insurance and banking services, payment of freight, royalty etc., loan interest related, etc.) is included.

– India’s trade balance was negative for the entire period of 1949-50 to 2015- 2016 except for 2 years of 1972-73 and 1976-77.



– Top three imported items in 2016-17 are a –


Rupee in crore

Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants


Capital Goods


Non-iron Goods



– One important component of new economic policy acquired by India since 1991 is liberalization. Under this regulation of Indian economy is liberalized, that means economic activities are given the freedom to operate according to the market. The reduction in import duty is also an important policy instrument.

– For imports of goods, the importer has to apply to the Exchange Control Department of the Reserve Bank of India for the receipt of foreign exchange. On receipt of the application of the physician, the department approves it.

-Qatar is the nation’s largest LNG supply provider. India primarily imports LNG under long-term contracts from Qatar and Australia and is trying to diversify its natural resources. According to the BP Statistical Review, June 2018, India is the fourth largest LNG country in the world according to the highest import in India during the year 2017-18, respectively, from Qatar, Nigeria and Australia.



– The import cover tells the number of months that the import of the month can be paid by the country’s international reserve. By the end of March 2017, India’s import cover was 11.3 months. While by the end of December 2017 or 10.8 months.

The main items to be imported from Haldia port in West Bengal are fertilizer, essential raw materials for fertilizer, food grains sugar, newsprint, cooking col, petroleum angle, limestone, iron and steel, machinery, scraps, vegetables etc.

– After the independence, the United States has been the most prominent nation for India in terms of imports.

–  The letter of credit in international trade is a credible document relating to ensuring payment, which is issued by the financial institution on the request of the importer.

– The importer first applies to the Reserve Bank of India for foreign exchange exchanges for import. After accepting foreign exchange, the importer gives orders for supply to the exporter through the order. From which the importing process begins.

– India imports fruits, dried fruits and palm oil from the countries of Middle, Middle East Asia.

– Modernization of a country’s economy implies growth in its industrial uplift. An increase in the end of manufactured products in India’s export structure is indicative of the fact that the structural transformation of Indian economy is happening in favor of modernization.

– In July 2003, the Union Textile Minister laid the foundation of the first garments park in Tirupur, Tamilnadu, with the objective of export promotion of stitched garments. Textile exports from here to countries in the world. It is called Manchester of South India. Apart from this, it is also known as Dollar CT, Net City, Cotton City today.

– Japan is a major importer of Indian iron ore. Iron Ore obtained from Balladila Khan is exported to Japan. United Kingdom is prominent among the major importers of Indian tea. Leather goods are exported to Russia while USA is the largest importer of cotton textiles.



– In the year 2017-18, the highest export share of Indian leather was USA (24.8%), Germany ranked second (14.67%) and remained third with UK (10.94%).

– In view of economic activities, foreign nationals will be considered for the arrival of arrival in India to see the 19th Commonwealth Games. The income received from this arrival will come under tourism which is an invisible item under the export account.

– Export of services in the economy is called invisible export. Tourism, insurance today is included in the business of business services only.

– Entry port is in the context of goods floated for trade re-export.

– Duty drawback is a full or partial withdrawal of the fee, which was paid to the government in the form of a limit or excise duty on imported items for export purposes.

– The latest foreign trade policy is from April 1, 2015 to 31 March 2020.

– Independent trade policy is the policy where the business and the charges are not charged. It is often seen in the regional agreement that members of the group interact with tariffs and other businesses, but each member country maintains its tariff, trade restrictions and commercial policies with non-member countries.

– In the new export import policy, foreign trade has been made more pre-requisite than before. The GATT Agreement (General Agreement on Trade and Tariff) and subsequently came into existence, WTO has played an important role in the liberalization of the economy.

India is the first country in Asia to set up the export processing sector in Kandla in the year 1965, under the objective of effective growth in exports.



– Free or independent business area is the area where specialty of construction of goods, export processing etc. The above mentioned areas are also free from custom duty, excise duty etc. Which encourages exports

– In the Nandigram region in West Bengal, the Salim Group was specifically allowed for James and Jewelery under SEZ policy.

– The Special Economic Zones Act in India was passed by Parliament in May 2005 and it was received by the President on June 23, 2005. It came into effect on February 10, 2006.

– The export processing sector is being used as an effective instrument for the promotion of manufactured goods. The purpose of establishing these areas is to create a suitable environment for the country’s exporting commodities so that they can make their place in international competition. An EPZ was established in Surat in 2000, which is India’s first private sector EPZ.

– The SEZ Act came into force with effect from the year 2006. Its main objectives are:

1- Generation of additional financial activities

2- Promotion of exports of goods and services

3- Investment promotion from domestic and foreign sources

4- Generating employment opportunities

5- Development of infrastructure

– The establishment of the Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation was established in the year 1957 for the risk cover of credit related to export of goods and services in the name of export risk insurance corporation. It was converted to ECGC in 1964. It is related to export business related financial and insurance.

– India Brand Equity Fund was set up by the Ministry of Commerce in the year 1996. Its purpose was to make the brand global. India Brand Equity Fund became a public private partnership in the year 2002, when Indian industry received participation in it.



– Margan Stanley gave India third place in emerging markets in the year 1998. In this estimation of Marge Stanley, Brazil was the first and Mexico had second place.

– Mikimoto Kokchi of Japan invented the technique of pearl production from pearls. Only after this invention, the use of culture pearl production in Japan has grown rapidly.

– In the 2009 survey of famous international magazine Travel and Laser, from the point of view of tourism, Udaipur was chosen as the best city in the world. The second place after Udaipur in this list was in Cape Town of South Africa.

– According to the updated status of July 2018, readers of travel and leisure selected the city of Udaipur at third place in the world’s top 15 cities. This is the only Indian city that has made its place in the list. Both of the cities receiving the first two places are from Mexico.

– Nathula Pass connects Sikkim State and Tibet with India. In ancient times it was called the Silk Route. It was closed in 1962 after the India-China war, which was re-opened for business in 2006.

– E-Business means business through internet.

– Super 301 is a section of the U.S. Trade and Competition Act, 1988, under which economic action is taken against the United States of any country.

– E-Bij Portal is related to single access for government services. E-Bija is being operated by Infosys in the direction of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. Its aim is to improve the business environment in the country by enhancing the online accessibility of the G-TO-B services.

– The balance of payment of the details of residents of one country, usually with the residents of other countries of the world, during the first year, those who have international economic transactions or transactions, are the balance of payments.

– In the balance of payments, visual trade, invisible business and debt all include. Under the visible trade, the import of goods and the export of services under invisible trade is included. The transaction of these two displays the current account of the balance of payments. While the balance of the balance of payments reflects global investment and debt transactions.

– Foreign trade involves both import and export. Therefore, it can not be related to the properties of imports or the properties of exports. Whereas the foreign trade multiplier indicates how much increase in national income has resulted in the increase in exports. Balance of payment is an account of the international transaction of a country for a specific period of time.



– Convertibility of rupees means that rupees are made in foreign currencies and foreign currency is possible without any interference in rupees, independently of change. There will be no restrictions on foreign capital coming into India and going to India from the full convertible rupee. Consequently, adoption of full convertibility of rupees by India will increase the confidence of foreign investors in the Indian economy and as a result, the inflow of foreign capital in India will increase.

– The Reserve Bank of India appointed 6 member committee under the chairmanship of former Deputy Governor SS Tarapore to prepare a roadmap on implementation of full convertibility of rupee, flow exchange rate in capital account on March 20, 2006. The purpose of the formation of this committee was to present its recommendation on the assessment of the implementation of the declaration in India and the timing of its implementation.

In the budget of the year 1994, the government had announced a full change class of rupees on the current account on February 28, 1994.

– Due to devaluation, the relative value of foreign currency of the country’s currency falls, due to which depreciating country’s exports are cheap and import becomes expensive. As a result, there is a decline in imports and imports of depreciated countries.

– The devaluation of the currency implies the rupee depreciation relative to the foreign currencies. Indian Rupee has been devalued three times so far.

– The convertibility of the capital account refers to the right to be transferred from other countries to financial assets without interruption at market-based regulation rates. It implies that money is coming from and coming out of the country of monetary funds / financial assets. In India, however, there was no convertible on capital account, but in relation to various capital transactions, the RBI has adopted a very liberal policy which is like the complete convertibility in effect. Such as the liberalization of an EFC account, expansion of the ECB, allowing foreign investment in MF etc.

– In July 1991, Rupee was devalued 3 times. Firstly, 9.5% of rupee was devalued in July 1991, again on July 3 and July 15, 1991, 5% and 2% were devalued. Thus in July 1991, about 20% of the rupee was devalued.



– The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, dated July 9, 2015, is effective from September 30, 2015 between India and the US.

– Start (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) is a bilateral treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. Start Another Treaty Treaty was held in July 1991 and 1993 respectively. At one time, President George Bush was President and Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union while President George Bush and President Boris Yeltsin of the Soviet Union were at the time of the start-up.

– Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd. has been awarded the status of prestigious gem in 2015. IREDA is a non-banking financial institution which is a public limited company established in 1987 under the administrative control of the Ministry of New and Nuclear Power for the promotion, development and financial support of schemes on renewable energy and energy conservation, its purpose is eternal energy. Its other main purpose is –

1- Providing financial assistance for schemes and schemes specific to energy conservation for renewable and renewable sources of power generation and energy efficiency.

2- Maintaining its position as a leading organization to provide efficient and effective financing in Renewable Energy Efficiency / Protection Project.

3- Increasing the share of IREDA in renewable energy sector through intensive financing etc.

4- Improve efficiency of the services provided to consumers through continuous improvement in systems, processes and resources.

– Security has been provided by registering a total of 169 geographical indicators under the Geographical Boundary Act 1998. Lucknow’s Chicken Craft, Banarasi Sari, Tea of Darjeeling and Surkha Guava of Allahabad are all registered under this Act.

– Economist Hotrhe interpreted the true monetary theory of business cycle. According to the Hatre, there is a business cycle and an absolute monetary problem; it is the turn of the merchandise demand flow from the traders and as a result, there is prosperity and recession in the economy.

– The Foreign Exchange Management Act came into force on June 1, 2000 instead of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act. Its purpose is to facilitate trade and payments and to promote the well-developed development of the foreign exchange market in the country.



– Under the provisions of the Indian Trust Act 1822, the National Investment and Infrastructure Fund is a registered and registered institution in the form of a trust investment.


>> International Institutions

>> International Monetary Fund

– The IMF was established on 27 December 1945.

– was the founding member of India.

– There are currently 189 members in this.

– Its 189th member is Nauru.

– The IMF is headquartered in Washington, DC.

>> Work

– Solving the problem of international payment related liquidity.

– Autonomy in exchange rates.

– Providing loans to countries to rate payments balance (short term)

>> Membership

– There are two requirements for membership of the IMF –

– Being a member of the World Bank

– Deposit to the prescribed contribution in IMF.

– Note – The quota in IMF is determined by the share of the country’s global trade, per capita national income and economic growth.

– The country has to pay its quota in 25% hot currency and 75% in its currency.

– The accounting currency of the IMF is called special drawing rights. Its value is determined by 5 currencies- Dollar, Euro, Yen, Pound and Yuan.

– The IMF publishes the World Economic Scenario.

India’s IMF has 2.7% quota and it is the eighth largest quota holder country.

World Bank Group

World Bank have Five Organisations


Established Year


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development


Loan for development and reconstruction

International Development Agency


Loan for development

International Financial Corporation


Loan to Private sector

Multilateral Appropriation Guarantee Agency


Investment Guarantee for non-trade risks

International organizations to resolve investment disputes


Resolve Disputes



– IRBD and IDA are jointly called World Bank.

– It has 189 members and in 189 the member is Nauru.

– Provides loan for base structure, construction capacity, development research and development and good governance activities.

– IDA is called the World Bank’s soft loan window because it lends on very generous conditions.

– The World Development Report is published by the World Bank.

>> World Trade Organization

– Establishment

– The WTO was established on 1 January 1995.

– Its headquarters is in Geneva.

– Currently there are 164 members of this organization.

– 164 members are Afghanistan.

>> Objective

– To make qualitative improvement in the lives of the people by ensuring skillful use in world resources through world trade.

Under the organization, the following are the major agreements:

1- Agriculture and settlement

2- Non-agricultural market access

3- General Agreement on Trade for Services

4- Business related to intellectual property.

– Green Box Blue Box and Red Box Subsidy Items

– Subsidy is allowed on items coming in the green boxes and blue boxes, while the subsidy on red-box items has been abolished.

– Amber Box subsidy also has to be phased out.

– Are under intellectual property-

1- Rights on patent industrial products

2- Copyright non-material compositions

3- Geographical indicator from a particular location

4- Trademark business sign

– The first world summit was organized on social development in Copenhagen (Denmark) between 6 and 12 March 1995.

– The World Development Report publishes the International Reconstruction and Development Bank.

– The basic theme of the World Development Report of the year 2018 is Learning to Relieve Education Promise (learning to make education word real) while the original theme of the 2019 World Development Report is the Changing Nature of Work.

– Trade facilitation index is issued every year from the year 2003 by the World Bank. Ranking is given to the countries of the world on the basis of the basic changes made to facilitate trading in this index.



– The index of trade facilitation index is issued every year from the year 2003 by the World Bank. The rankings of the countries of the world are ranked on the basis of the basic changes made to facilitate trading in this index.

– The World Economic Prospects report is more than twice the year released by the World Bank.

– The World Bank had established the India Aadhaar Club in 1958 to provide specific financial assistance to India, after which it has been converted into an India Development Forum. The World Bank continues to provide long-term financial support to improve the establishment of Indian states.

– The National Innovation Project, operated by ICAR, in collaboration with the World Bank, was launched on July 26, 2006. It has four components-

1- Strengthen the role of ICAR as a catalyst in the emerging agricultural innovation system.

2- Research in agricultural production for the consumer system.

3- Research on continuous rural livelihood security.

4- Basic and Strategic Research in Agricultural Sciences.

– Formally, the World Bank was established in the year 1945, but it actually started functioning from the year 1946. Its headquarters is in Washington, D.C.

– The International Monetary Fund and the IRBD were set up in the United States of America under the agreement of 1944, because both of them were established under Bretton Woods, so both of them were known as the Twin of the Brettonwoods and Washington, due to being known as the Washington Twin is.

– The paper is the special drawing authority of the Gold International Monetary Fund. The IMF started this system in the year 1970. Considering the rarity of gold in it, the SDR was accepted as a credit in place of gold. That is why the paper-gold was given to it.

– World Economic Outlook is published by the International Monetary Fund. The publication of the Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Program is published by the World Economic Forum, publication of Global Competitiveness Report and World Development Report published by the World Bank.

– Developing basic trade and investment agreements is a free trade agreement between India and the European Union. This agreement came into effect in the year 2007.

– The Global Financial Stability Report is prepared and published by the International Monetary Fund. There is a half-yearly report released by the IMF in which estimates of global financial mechanism and markets are presented. In this report, analysis of key issues affecting current market position and financial stability is also presented.



– Trims is an agreement of the World Trade Organization. Its full name is Trade Related Investment M / s. Trims relates to certain conditions or restrictions that a country applies to foreign countries in relation to their own country.

– The first Ministerial Conference on WTO which was held in Singapore, was signed on the commerce on information technology in member countries.

– Under the GATT, the most favorable share of nation terms means that if a country offers any facility in foreign trade of another country, then the special facility will be made available to all the member countries of GATT.

– GATT refers to general agreement on tariff and trade. A meeting of 53 countries in Geneva was called in 1948 for the purpose of increasing trade and reducing tariff. 30 countries agreed on the agreement, thus, on January 1, 1948, the GATT became operational based on the agreements between 23 countries.

– Agreement on Agriculture, Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Pathosanitary Measures and Peace Clauses relates to the World Trade Organization.

– The human development report is published by the UNDP. The Human Development Report for the first time was published by UNDP in the year 1990, in the year 1990.

– In the Human Development Report of the year 1996, the United Nations Development Program called economic development path of developing countries as unemployed, insectless, harsh, voiceless and futureless. UNDP had also appealed to policy makers of countries to pay attention to the above facts while making the policy.

– ASEAN is with Southeast Asian nations.

– Brunei is a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, established in the year 1967.

– India, a group created by Brazil and other developing countries to interact with the World Trade Organization in future, is called G77. It was established on June 15, 1964 and its purpose is to preserve the economic interests of developing countries.

– Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership is a proposed Free Trade Agreement between ASEAN’s 10 countries and those six countries with which ASEAN already has FTA. RCEP negotiations were formally launched in ASEAN summit in Cambodia in November 2012.

– Initially, G7 was an organization of 7 industrialized developed non-socialist countries in the world, which included the United States, Canada, Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Japan. After moving towards the market-oriented economy, Russia also became a member of this organization in the year 1997. So it started to be known as G8 It is notable that due to the suspension of Russia’s membership, it has been called G-7 again.

– G-15 is an informal organization established to enhance mutual cooperation in developing countries. It was founded in September 1989 at the ninth Nirguna summit in Belgrade. The G15 secretariat operates from the technology service facility located in Geneva.

– SAFTA was established in Dhaka on April 11, 1993 and it came into effect from December, 1995.



– ISLFTA was signed in 1998 and it came into effect in March 2000. (India and Sri Lanka)

– SAFTA was signed in January 2004.

– CECA was signed on June 29, 2005. (India and Singapore)

– Mekong-Ganga Cooperation was established in Laos in 2000. Its objective is to establish relationships based on mutual cooperation in the two delta regions delineated by Ganga and Mekong. In the Ganga region, the Mekong Ganga Cooperation Initiative has been started by five countries from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam from India and Mekong region. Initially, four areas of mutual cooperation have been identified as cultural, tourism, human resource development and education and transport and communication.

Regional Economic Organisation

Formation year











– Members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization are China, Russia, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan.

– The world’s largest emerging market economies – Brazil, Russia, India are the group of China. The term was rendered in 2001 by Goldman Sachs economist Jim O’Neal.

– Grain Storage Research and Training Center was established in Hapur in year 1958.

Operation of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional) was formed on December 8, 1985. Its headquarters is in Kathmandu. Its 8 member countries are India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan. Afghanistan became its eighth member country at the Fourteenth Conference of SAARC. (April 2007) UNICEF, IMF and WHO are global organizations while SAARC is a regional organization of 8 countries in South Asia.

– Organizations of petroleum producing countries – it was established in the year 1960. OPEC’s special emphasis is on petroleum production and petroleum prices. Currently, this organization has 14 country members. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Qatar, Libya, Ecuador, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Gaban.

– The five permanent members of the UN Security Council are China, France, Russia, Britain and America.




New York








– The Indian Development Forum was first known as Bharat Aid.

– UNSC is from the United Nations Security Council. There are five permanent and 10 temporary members of this. This is an important part of the United Nations.

– The International Monetary and Financial Committee has been set up by the suggestion of the IMF Board of Governors. The IMF Board of Governors is advised by two ministry committees and the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development Committee. IMFC has 24 members, the main function of the IMFC is to discuss all issues that affect the global economic system and to give advice to the Board of Governors. This meeting takes place twice a year. In its meetings, the World Bank looks like an observer.

– The crystal award is given by the World Economic Forum to the artists who show remarkable commitment in terms of improvement in world conditions.




Prohibition of the use of quantitative restrictions in normal business.


Providing financing to balance the balance in payment balances.


Increasing cooperation between South Asian countries


Acceptance of flexible loans



– The Universal Agricultural Heritage System program was launched in the form of an initiative to promote and preserve global agricultural cultural heritage in the year 2002 by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Its main goal was to identify such an agricultural system that is to cooperate and protect those who preserve and nurture biodiversity and genetic resources, rural and traditional knowledge, Sanskrit and their related scenario.

>> Miscellaneous

In the World Summit for Social Development organized in Copenhagen in 1995, the United Nations defined poverty in two forms of absolute poverty and overall poverty. The situation of severe deprivation from access to basic human needs such as food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, housing, education and information is defined as absolute poverty. In addition, being in situations like malnutrition, temporary and inadequate livelihood, illness situation, residence in polluted environment, etc., which have adverse judgment and adverse civil social and cultural life, have been defined as the overall poverty.

– The Competition Commission in India was formed on October 14, 2003 under Competition Act 2002.

– Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Limited manufactures milk, which is a well-known product of Amul.

– In order to pursue the development of oil and natural gas in India, the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was set up on August 14, 1956, but it got legal recognition in October 1959. Its headquarters are in Dehradun, Uttarakhand.

– The country’s first investment and manufacturing zone is going to be built in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh.

– The Line Committee relates to the simplification of exports and imports, but not indirect taxes, which gave its report in 1992.

– Gadgil Committee report and Kasturirangan Samiti report relate to ecological conservation of Western Ghats. Gadgil committee president Madhav Gadgil had submitted its report on August 31, 2011, while Kasturirangan Samiti whose President K. Kasturirangan submitted his report on April 15, 2013.

Dutt Committee

Industrial Licencing

Baanchu Committee

Direct Tax

Rajamannar Committee

Centre-State relations

Chakrwarti Committee

Monetary System


– SEWA (Self Employed Women Association) is a trade union registered from the year 1972. This is an organization of poor self-employed women workers. This institution is engaged in providing small loans to health and life insurance and children’s care activities. It represented India in the small loan summit in 1997. The 18th Summit was held in Abu Dhabi between 15 and 17 March 2016.

Bisuness working wome


Jiya Modi

AZB & Partner

Anuradha J.Desai

Venkateshwar Hechreez

Billu Morawala Patel

Awestha Jengren Technologies

Meena Kaushik

Quantm Market Research



– The World Economic Forum was established in 1971. Its founder was Professor Klaus Schwab of the University of Geneva. By 1987, it was known as the European Management Forum. The World Economic Forum was started in 1987. This is a non-profit organization.

– Nobel Prize for economics of the year 1998 was received by Indian economist Amartya Sen. He received this award for his contributions to welfare economics.

– Indian Economy – Indian Blueprint, a book written by former Prime Minister of India Chaudhary Charan Singh.

– The Central Hindu College was established in the year 1915 by Mrs. Annie Besant in Banaras. This college became the Banaras Hindu University in 1916, which was a reward for the meaningful efforts of Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya ji.

– When India had to have gold in foreign banks then then the Prime Minister of India was Chandrasekhar.

– The report of India’s Controller and Auditor General (CAG) is done by the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament. The committee, which has 22 members (from the 15 Lok Sabha to the 7th Rajya Sabha) examines the expenditure and gives its report to the Parliament.

– The Global Gender Gap Report is released by the World Economic Forum. It contains the following criteria:

1- Economic partnership and opportunity

2- Educational Achievements

3- Health and survival

4- Political empowerment

– The Protection of India Act 1986 is for education and protection. There is no provision for exemption in the rates of goods and services.

– POCSO law is related to children – its full form is Proton of children from Sexual Offenses.

– In the view of conservation of biodiversity in India, the names of 12 major Acts are as follows:

1-Fisheries Act 1897

2- Dangerous Insect and Fleas Act 1914

3- Indian Forest Act of 1927

4- Agricultural Products (Grading and Marketing) Act, 1937

5- Bharti Kaahwa Act of 1942

6- Import and Export (Control) Act 1947

7- The Rubber Production and Marketing Act of 1947

8- Tea Act 1953

9- Mining and Mineral Development Act, 1957

10- Prevention of Cremation to Animal Act 1960

11-Customs Act 1962

12-Cardamom Act 1965

– Gadgil-Mukherjee is given the maximum weight population (1971) under formulas which is 60%.

1- 60% on the basis of population of 1971

Based on 2-25% per capita income

Based on 3- 7.5% tax attempts and fiscal management

4- 7.5% on the basis of specific problems

– National Agriculture Economic and Research Center is located in New Delhi. It was established in year 1991 by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

– Samsung Corporation and LG are multinational companies in India. Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Consumer goods manufacturer is the headquarter of the Indian company located in Mumbai.

– National Disabled Finance and Development Corporation was established on 24 February 1997 by the Government of India, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.

– Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship Development is located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. It was established in the year 1983 as an autonomous and non-profit institution.



National Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Institute is located in Noida. This institute is an institution under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, which is specially coordinating and supervising the activities of various institutions / agencies engaged in the development of entrepreneurship of small scale industries and small business. This institution, constituted by the Government of India, is registered as a society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. This Institute has been functioning from 6th July, 1983.

Khadi and Village Industries Commission is headquartered in Mumbai. It was formed in 1956. This commission is a statutory body of the Government of India, which functions under the Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises. Its 6 zonal offices are in Delhi, Bhopal, Kolkata, Mumbai and Guwahati.

Vidyajejali is an initiative of the Human Development Ministry, under which the quality of education given in government schools will be increased with the assistance of private sector and community. Under this, in the individual level, retired teachers, retired government officials / employees, etc. and any other person and government-level semi-governmental or any private institution at the institution level can contribute to improve the quality of education.

Indira Gandhi National Human Museum and Bharat Bhawan are located in Bhopal.

The advanced Bharat Abhiyan is related to rural development. Under this, a strategy has been drawn to address the challenges of rural development by addressing the higher education institutions with rural development activities. For this, an agreement has been reached between Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Rural Development and Ministry of Panchayati Raj. It is important that with the participation of higher education institutions in the formulation of rural strategy, the efficiency and participation of development schemes will increase.

On October 24, 2016, Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation of Energy Ganga Gas Pipeline Project in Varanasi. Under the Energy Ganga scheme, 40 kilometer long Jagdishpur Haldia and Bokaro Dhamra natural gas pipeline have to be constructed. On completion of this plan, facility of supply of natural gas to Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand states will be facilitated.



The Haryana Rural Program (under the guidelines issued from 1st April 2003) relates to the support of water harvesting management program. Under this program under the Integrated Water Sanatorium Management Program, steps are being taken to prevent water from various sources and increase greening.

In the chairmanship of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, on November 5, 2015, the Union Cabinet gave its approval to the scheme, proposed by the Ministry of Power, the bright discom assuredance scheme or the Uday Yojna. Uday Yojna is being implemented by the Power Ministry. This scheme is being run by the Ministry of Power of the Government of India. Adoption of the scheme is voluntary for the states. The goal of this scheme is to ensure financial reform and revival of power distribution companies and to solve their problems.

Digi Locker or Digital Locker Digital India is an important initiative. Under this, digital lockers are made available for people’s documents certificate (eg election card, driving license, school certificate, etc.), to ensure the access to these documents, under it, It is provided so that documents (skein copy or received from the institute) are kept. It is important from the point of establishment of paperless rule.

Under the Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana, five basic services have been kept in primary health care, primary education, rural housing, nutrition and drinking water. To improve the standard of living of the people of rural areas. Rural electrification was added later as an auxiliary service. 100% foreign investment is allowed in power generation transmission and distribution. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand and West Bengal signed the MOU with the 14 states in the Central Power Ministry again.

E Choupal – India’s first multinational company, ITC, is an internet-based rural project started. It started in India from July 2000 to Madhya Pradesh. This project has also received the first prize of the World Business Award, established in support of the United Nations Centrally Sponsored Development Goals.



Sensex is a scheme announced by the Ministry of Defense to provide loans to ex-servicemen. Rajasthan provides loans under the scheme of Rajasthan Finance Corporation.

Bhakra Nangal is a joint project of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan states. Under this, 2 dams have been constructed on the river Sutlej in Bhakra Nangal, through which a comprehensive system of hydro-power and irrigation etc. has been started. This is India’s largest multi-purpose project.

Golden Quadrilateral is a National Highway Project, which started in 2001. Through this it was to connect four major metro cities (Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata) by road. Its total length is 5840 kilometers.

The highest cotton fabric in the country is prepared in the power loom sector. Over 60% of the country’s total textile production is contributing. This is followed by the contribution of Hosiery Sector, Handloom Sector, Mill Sector respectively.

According to the World Energy Statistics issued by British Petroleum, the most oil-rich country is Venezuela (300.9 billion barrels). Its share in the entire world oil reserves is 17.6%. After this, Saudi Arabia (15.6%), Canada (10%) Iran (9.3%) and Iraq (9.0%) is the country with the highest oil fund.

The market is an economic trend that creates a trend toward consumerism. Consumerism is a form of capitalism.

The fulfillment side economics refers to the study of the economic approach of those who supply goods, i.e. products.

Demand for the object and the proportion of the value of the object, while the fulfillment of the object and the price of the object is inversely proportional to it. Therefore, if there is an increase in supply with stable demand in the context of the general market and general goods then the price will be likely to decrease. The following conditions are in this context –

1 If the demand increases and the supply is stable then the price will increase

2 If the demand decreases and the supply remains constant, the price will decrease

3 If the supply decreases and demand is stable then the price will increase.

A market where the seller is more than a purchaser is called the buyer’s market. Fulfillment in this market will be higher than demand, resulting in lower value of items.

The Belt and Road Initiative or the Forest Belt and Road Initiative is an economic strategy agenda of the People’s Republic of China. Through this, several steps are being taken to connect China from Europe, Africa and Oceania. This initiative has two parts –

1 First land based Silk Road Economic Package



2nd Sea Maritime Silk Road

The Gandhi economy is based on the principle of trust. It has been granted judicial permission by incorporating Uttar Pradesh Jmidari Abolition and Land Reform Act 1950, in the ninth Schedule of the Constitution. The voting age of Indian citizens was reduced from 21 to 18 years in 1988, in 1988. The farming organization was formed by Sharad Joshi in 1979.

The Universal Service Obligation Fund is related to the adjustment of liabilities of telecom companies.

India has been divided into total 9 pin zones, in which 8-pin area belongs to the States / Union Territories of India and 9th Pin Regional Army is for Post Office and Field Post Office.

Yamuna Expressway is also known as Taj Express Way, which is 165 km long connecting it to two more cities of Uttar Pradesh, Greater Noida and Agra.

LPG weight is 19 kg in domestic gas cylinder whereas domestic gas cylinders have 14.2 kg APG.

Keeping in mind the geographical environmental culture of Rajasthan, the tourism sector should give natural significance so that development can be ensured.

In the year 1995, Priya Exhibitor Pvt Ltd and Village Road Shows Limited jointly launched the first PVR multiplex in Saket in 1997. The full name of PVR Cinema is Priya Village Road Show.

1 barrel of oil is equivalent to 42 American gallons or 158.9873 liters (approximately 159 liters).

Ecomark is given to those Indian products that are suitable for the environment of perfection, it started from the year 1991. Its logo is a pottery.

In the context of Indian tourism, Agra is located in Delhi and Jaipur in the Golden Triangle. The name has been given on the map due to the shape of the triangle by Delhi Agra and Jaipur.

In the medieval Vijayanagar empire, the Geo Revenue Department was called Athvana. An efficient geo-revenue system was implemented in the Vijayanagar empire, under which classification of land holdings (submerged lands, uninterrupted lands, garden etc.) was imposed on these lands.

Agmark is a sign that is imposed on agriculture / food products in India. These products come from the standards set by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection of the Government of India. Agmark is used under the Agricultural Produce Act, 1937, it is known that it has been amended in the year 1986.



On the basis of the existence of developed and economically backward states and progress in different areas of each state, it is also called regional asymmetry where Punjab, Maharashtra, Haryana, Gujarat, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu are economically forward-looking states. Madhya Pradesh is an economically backward state like Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Odisha and Bihar.

Net metering is a billing system whereby credit can be obtained in return for the electricity grade created from the solar plant on its roof. For this, 1 meter is installed with solar plant. This meter is given by the electricity distribution company, it is connected with the discom connection. How much electricity was made in the solar plant, how much was done and how many grades went into the meter, all were accounted for. It is also accounted for how much electricity the consumer has taken in the disco, ie net metering will reduce bills, the amount of electricity earned is also sold.

Globalization is related to foreign investment and older companies, copy of such small industry Being optimistic is not logical.

Vision 2025 is related to the increase in food production.

Expected national fixed contribution is from the action plan created by countries of the world to face climate change. This term is used in the context of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It is notable that under the Paris Convention held in Paris, average temperature rise by the end of this century would be to a maximum of 2 degree Celsius To prevent the level of all countries, the goal of reducing the emissions of their domestic greenhouse gases has come INDC is called.

The Government has notified the National Food Security Act, 2013 passed by the Parliament on September 10, 2013, for the purpose of living a dignified life, providing adequate amounts of good quality food at affordable value to the people. Provide nutritional security. Under this target’s targeted public distribution system, 75% rural population and 50% of the urban population have a provision to get the state-supported foodgrains, thus total 67% of the population will be brought under its purview.

The web portal is related to DACENET agriculture. This is an e-Governance project of the Department of Agriculture and Co-operation. Which is being performed by the Center for Rural Information Science.



The committee                                       related

Chakravarti committee                     Financial sector improvement

Narasimhan Committee                   banking sector improvement

Tendulkar Committee                     Poverty estimation

Cheilya Committee                         tax reform

The idea of fading women, given by economist Amartya Sen, gave new ideas in comparison to the sex ratio in Europe and Asia in the year 1990.

Corruption works as a barrier in economic development. It does not contribute to its economic development.

Economists in the classical school, which came from Adam Smith, Recorder, Mill, Marshall, JV, supported the management of the market based economy, rejecting government intervention in the economy.

In the event of any loss and injury in the context of compensation or damages, that amount is to be filled. Works on non-life insurance policies, such as health, motor, fulfillment. Under this cover is provided to cover damage to insurance property.

Economics is the book of politics science by Kautilya.

Supermarket is a type of retailing organization. There are various types of product line available.

Book Planning and the Poor is written by BS Minhas.

The author of the book Enquiry into Nature and College of Wealth of Nation, published in 1776, was the noted economist of Scotland, Adam Smith. It is considered to be the fundamental book of the art of economics.

The captive dilemma is known as a problem under sports or sports theory. One theory of game theory economics was rendered by John von Neumann and Oscar Morgaston.



The concept of trustees was presented by Mahatma Gandhi.



Local finance inquiry committee


Mercury inquiry commission

1953- 54

Rural urban relations committee

1963- 66

National Commission on Urbanization

1985- 88


>> Demographics

>> India population

The year 2011 was used for the population of indigenous peoples under our census Our future 2011 was the country’s 15th National Census.

Demographic transition is a theory that reflects changes over time as well as in the population. This theory is based on the interpretation of demographic history developed by American demographer Warren Thomson in the year 1929. It clearly defines four levels of population growth that passes back in the nations with their socio-economic development.



Phase I – This phase is typically seen in underdeveloped countries. Where the mortality rate is higher with higher birth rate, due to which the population becomes stable.

PHASE ll – Birth rate is higher with the process of development, but due to improved food supply and advanced public health facilities, mortality is low.

Phase III – In this phase the birth rate also decreases, but the population continues to increase as there is a large number of people in the generation income group due to high fertility of previous generations.

Fourth phase – With a low birth rate and low death rates but with the level of higher social and economic development, once again get the stable population. Although the population is stable in this, however, more in the first phase.

In the state of permanent population structure, both the birth rate and the mortality rate are maintained and maintained at the rate below, ie both changes occur at the same rate, which keeps the population growth rate constant.

During the British rule, the first census of the modern system was done during the reign of Lord Mayo in the year 1818, but a gradual assessment of the census means that the first regular census was considered in the reign of Lord Ripon in 1881.

According to the 2011 census, the population growth rate was 17.8% in the 2001 to 2011 decade whereas the population growth rate in 2001 and 1991 census was 21.5% and 23.87%. In the 2001 Census, India’s population was 1028.73 million, which increased to 1210.85 million in the 2011 census.






Decade Growth Rate(2001-2011)

Provisional Figures


Final Figures



The highest percentage change in the population of India was found in 1971. At present, the decade growth rate was 24.8%. Whereas in 1981, 24.66%, 23.85% in 1991 and 21.54% in 2001. According to the 2011 census, the decade growth rate is 17.7%.


Population (in millions)

















In the 2011 census, a group of ministers was constituted under the chairmanship of then Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee to consider the issues related to the caste and Scheduled Tribes among other castes, who gave their consent in this context.

According to the final figures of India’s 2011 census, India’s population is 1210854977, in which the population of males is 623270258 and the females 587584719. India’s population density is 382 persons per square kilometer and sex ratio is 943 per thousand men.

The descending order of the top five states based on the final figures of 2011 is as follows –

Uttar Pradesh> Maharashtra> Bihar> West Bengal> Andhra Pradesh


Population (2011)

Uttar Pradesh






West Bengal


Andhra Pradesh




Madhya Pradesh







According to the 2011 census, there is a sequence of five states with the highest decimal growth rate of the population –

Meghalaya> Arunachal Pradesh> Bihar> Jammu Kashmir> Mizoram

In the history of Indian census, the year 1921 has been the only census year, in which the decade of growth of population is negative -0.31%, hence 1921 is said to be the year of great division.

The highest average annual exponential growth rate in India’s population was recorded in 2.22% in the decade of 1971-81. Whereas the average annual exponential growth rate recorded in the 2001-11 decade was 1.64%.

According to the final figures of census 2011, the descending order of the states with the highest population density is low –

Bihar (1106)> West Bengal (1028)> Kerala (860)> and Uttar Pradesh (829)




Population Density

















Andhra Pradesh












According to Census 2011, five states with minimum population density are respectivel:

Arunachal Pradesh (17), Mizoram (52), Sikkim (86), Nagaland (119) and Himachal Pradesh (123)

According to the provisional data of census 2011, the percentage of literacy in India was 74.04%. According to the final figures of the census released on April 30, 2013, literacy rate in India is at 73.0% (male 80.9% female 64.6%), which is 8.2% more than 2001.

According to the final figures of census 2011, Uttar Pradesh’s most literate district is Gautam Buddhanagar (80.1%).

According to Census 2011, Uttar Pradesh has the right descending order of 4 districts having the highest literacy rate –

Ghaziabad (85.0%)> Gautam Buddhanagar (82.2%)> Kanpur Nagar (81.3%)> Auraiya (80.2%)

According to the final figures of census 2011, there are five states with the lowest literacy rate –

Bihar (61.8%), Arunachal Pradesh (65.4%), Rajasthan (66.1%), Jharkhand (66.4%) and Andhra Pradesh (67%)

According to the current census, Bihar is India’s most illiterate state and Kerala is the most literate state.

According to the provisional data of census 2011, the state’s sex ratio (child sex ratio) is as follows :-

Uttar Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh








According to the final figure of census 2011, the child sex ratio –

Uttar Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh














According to the 2011 census, the child mortality rate in the country is 44/1000.

States with lowest infant mortality rate in the country are Goa and Manipur.

The state with the highest infant mortality rate is Madhya Pradesh 49 per thousand, after which the infant mortality rate in Uttar Pradesh and Orissa is the highest of 57/1000.

According to census 2011, the number of Buddhists in states –


Buddhist Population





Uttar Pradesh





India is counted as a demographic dividend country because the working population here is more than the percentage of population aged 15 to 64 years.

Demographic Bonus refers to the increase in the productive age group in the population. Demographic bonuses in India are helpful in production growth.

Increasing the size of the working population, population growth is not an adverse effect, but it is favorable for population growth. Due to population growth, the size of the working population increases in progress, whereas decrease in the size of the stock, increasing unemployment and decrease in availability of grains is adverse effects of population growth.

According to 2011 census, sex ratio


Sex ratio







Uttar pradesh










Himachal pradesh


Dadra nagar haveli


Daman & diu


Arunachal pradesh












Uttar pradesh






Jammu & kashmir


According to the census 2011, the lowest sex ratio is Haryana (879) whereas Sikkim (890) Punjab (895) and Jammu & Kashmir (899) are states with more sex ratio.

According to the 2011 census, the religious communities given in India are based on their sex ratio.



Religious community

Sex ratio










According to the 2011 census, the minimum sex ratio (618) is of suppression and diu.

According to the 2011 population Puducherry has a sex ratio of more than 1000 ie 1037

Census year

Sex ratio in India







2011( last)



According to the 2011 census, the percentage of infant population in some rural areas of some states













According to the final figures of census 2011, the highest concentration of the population of India is found in Uttar Pradesh, whose population is 199812341, while Bihar is the most dense state (1106) in the country and the other densely populated state of West Bengal (1028).

Under the National Population Policy, a 10-year work plan has been included in the high level of the self-help group for 6 to 14 years of free compulsory education and compulsory registration of marriage and pregnancy has been included. The policy also provides for special types of prizes for women who use infinite family planning measures.

According to the provisional data of census 2011, infant sex ratio (0-6 age group) in some states is as follows










According to the final and final figures of census 2011, descending (in descending order) of state and union territory in sex ratio is as follows

1 Kerala

2 Puducherry

3 Tamil Nadu

4 Andhra Pradesh

According to Census 2011, the population of 65+ age group in the total population is approximately 4.8 percent.

According to the 2011 census data, the proportion of Scheduled Tribes in the total population of the country is 8.6 percent.

According to Census 2011, four states with the highest percentage of population of Scheduled Tribes are in descending order –

1 Punjab (31.9%)

2 Himachal Pradesh (25.2%)

3 west bangal (23.5%)

4 uttar Pradesh (20.7%)

According to the final figures of census 2011


Number of people of scheduled castes



Uttar Pradesh


West bangal






According to the final figures of 2011 census, the highest tribal population in the Indian state is in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.


Tribal population

Madhya Pradesh














Uttar Pradesh




According to the final figures of Census 2011, the highest literacy district is Sirchip (Mizoram) with literacy percentage of 98.76%, with the lowest literacy district, Alirajpur of Madhya Pradesh is 37.22%.

According to the final figures of census 2011, India’s 5 most literate districts


Literacy rate

Sarchip ( Mijoram)


Aizol (Mijoram)


Mahe (Puducherry)


Kottayam (Kerala)





The literacy rate in India is calculated from the population of 7 years and above.

According to the provisional and final figures of census 2011, the interval of male and female literacy rate in India is as follows







Male literacy rate



Women literacy rate



Literacy interval





Literacy rate according to 2011 census of some states.





Uttar Pradesh






According to the provisional figures of census of 2011, female literacy rate is highest and lowest in Kerala and Rajasthan, while according to the final figures, this condition fulfills both Kerala and Bihar.

In 2011, the female literacy rate of the states







Madhya Pradesh





According to Census 2011, India’s total fertility rate is 2.4

According to the final figures of census 2011, there are only five states in terms of literacy.

1 Kerala – 94%

2 Mijoram – 91.3%

3 Goa – 88.7%

4 tripura – 87.2 %

5 Himachal Pradesh – 82.8%

The names of five areas of progressive population resources in India are as follows

1 West Bengal Delta

2 Deccan Trap (Maharashtra Gujarat)

3 Tamil Nadu

4 Punjab Maidan and Ganges Yamuna Doab

5 southeast Karnataka Plateau

The National Literacy Mission was started on May 5, 1988 by former Prime Minister Late Rajiv Gandhi. Under the mission, the target was set to be 30 million in the age group of 15 to 35 years, to 50 million by 1995, and to 75 percent of threshold literacy by 2007.



The state/territories wise population are as follows


Population (2011)









There are three types of households in the census.

Normal House Hold – This group of individuals who normally live with and uses shared kitchen.

Institutional House Hold – A group that has no relation with each other but lives with such boarding house hostel prisons and orphanages etc.

Homeless House hold – People who live in not bears or census homes such as pavements, railroads, platforms, bridges, etc.

                                               According to census 2011


Size of house holds

Uttar Pradesh


Jammu and Kashmir


Bihar and lakshdeep


Meghalay and Rajasthan




According to census 2011, 5 districts having lowest sex ratio.

Daman and diu


Leh ( Jammu & Kashmir)


Tavang (arunachal Pradesh)


North Sikkim (Sikkim)


Dadra and nagar hevali



Equality in the population of Perimid of the population is known as the dependent population of 0 to 14 years, except for those 65 years of age or older, it is also considered dependent population whereas in the age group of 15 to 64 years as working population Is calculated.

According to the 2011 census, the percentage of people aged 20 years and above is approximately 59.29 percent in India’s total population.

According to the provisional data of census 2011, the percentage of women in India’s population was 48.40%, as per the final figures, 48.53%.

According to the final figures of census 2011, 65% of India’s population was under 35 years of age. According to this census, the population in the total population is below 65 years of age, 65.6 percent.

Population structure, education, health, economic status etc. are major factors of social change. Similarly, the reproduction of working women is less than those of non-working women.

In the population density of states (per square km)


Population density

West bangal






Aandhra Pradesh




According to 2016 statistics, infant mortality rate per thousand live births per thousand live births in some states


Infant mortality rate

Uttar Pradesh








Madhya Pradesh



Under the Bimaru states, 4 states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh come in these states as per the 2011 population density.


Population density (2011)



Uttar Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh




According to Census 2011, the population density of India has increased to 382 persons per square kilometer and the average annual exponential growth rate of the population is 1.64%.

Minimum infant mortality rate is found in Kerala, according to the data in the urban areas of Kerala in the year 2012, infant mortality rate of 10, Maharashtra

13 in urban areas, 14 in urban areas of Tamilnadu and 19 in urban areas of Gujarat.

The first count of death in India was initiated by Karnataka State.


Sociologist TK Omen, honored with Padmabhushan Bhushan, has laid down the following models to clarify the urban families:

1- Pattern in income instruments and emerging or changing values

2- Structure of power

3- The basis of urban social environment and social ecology

Two factors are accountable for urbanization. One attraction and second repulsion. High quality of cities, high basic amenities, employment opportunities etc. are covered under the attraction. On the other hand, there is a reduction in employment opportunities in the village, lower life expectanity etc. The high number of migratory migrations towards the urban areas in the village and the increasing number of educational institutions in the cities are the natural hallmarks of urbanization whereas a high level of living in rural areas inhibits the process of urbanization.



According to the Economic Review 2015-16, inclusive development can be seen as a progress in social involvement and financial inclusion. Despite a planned economic development of decades, a large part of the population like landless agricultural workers, marginal farmers and scheduled castes / scheduled tribes face social and financial exclusion. Therefore, this marginal class is at the center of inclusive development program. People living in semi-urban areas are not included in these marginal sections, because both the rich and the poor reside in the inhabitants of this region.

According to the 2011 census, India’s population is 1210.85 million, in which 377.1 million population reside in the cities. Where the number of 10 lacs cities was 35 in 2001, it increased to 53 in 2011, which proves that after the year 2001, there has been a sharp increase in urbanization in India. The use of mobile in India has started at the global level in the number of telephone networks in the last 20 years since the beginning of 1995. The tele-density of the Indian telecom industry has increased from 3.58% in February 2001 to 78.13% in February 2015.

The period from 1931 to 1961 is called the period of mid-urbanization in India. During this, the urban population increased by 45.46 million, while the percentage of urbanization rose from 12.2 to 18.3.



The following conditions must be met in order to declare a tribal as a urban area in India –

1- At least 5000 population

At least 75% of the male working population are employed in non-farm business.

3- Density of at least 400 people per square kilometer

The urbanization has increased the consumption of people’s facilities. It is easy to provide services in a systematic way through proper electrical, health, traffic and communication systems. If the system is good, catering services are available as per the requirement, then both birth rate and mortality decreases.

Based on the final figures of 2011 census-

Most urbanized states – Tamil Nadu

Maximum urban population – Maharashtra

Maximum population density state – Delhi

State with lowest population density – Arunachal Pradesh

According to the 2011 census, the order of the most urbanized states –











In the census department of the Government of India, the urban centers have been classified into six parts on the basis of population –

1- First class towns – 100,000 more population

2- Secod class town – 50,000 से 99,999 Population

3- Third class town – 20,000 से 49,999 Population

4- Fourth class town – 10,000 से 19,999 Population

The number of women is expressed in the form of gender equality in comparison to 1000 men. The sex ratio of the metropolis is as follows:

Chennai – 985

Kolkata – 935

Delhi – 868

Mumbai – 863

According to the 2011 census, there are urban conglomerates having more than 40 lakh population in India – according to the large Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune and Surat population 2011, the total population of the city is approximately 42.6 percent of the population of the city. Lakhai lives in the cities.

According to Census 2011, the total number of towns in the first class is 468. The population of these towns is 364.9 million, which is 70% of the total urban population.

According to the 2011 census, Gwalior is also 10 lakshi city

Faridabad – 1404653

Jamshedpur – 1337131

Shrinagar – 1273312

Dhanbaad – 1195298

Ranchi – 1126741

According to census 2011, the state with the highest urban population

Maharashtra – 50818

Uttar Pradesh – 44495

Tamilnadu – 34917

Urbanized position of state –

Tamilnadu – 48.4%

Maharashtra – 45.2%

Gujrat – 42.6%

Karnataka – 38.7%

Punjab – 37.5%

According to the final figures of census 2011, the urban population density is as follows.

Maharashtra – 5594

Punjab – 4136

Tamilnadu – 2561

West Bengal – 5683



According to the final figures of census 2011, the five most urbanized states in the country respectively –

Goa – 62.2%

Mizoram – 52.1%

Tamilnadu – 48.4%

Keral – 47.7%

Maharashtra – 45.2%

Sikkim is the state with the least urban population in India. According to the 2011 census, the urban population of Sikkim is 153578. After this, Arunachal Pradesh respectively! Less urban population is found in Nagaland and Mizoram.

According to the final figures of Census 2011, the number of urban congestion city having a population of one lakh and above is 64 in Uttar Pradesh.


Percent of the urban population (Provisional)

Percent of the urban population (last)




Jammu and Kashmir






Madhya Pradesh





Business characteristics of the population are reflected in work force, dependency, employment and unemployment. The business structure of the population expresses the distribution of executive population in various professions.

According to the 2011 census, there are 10 cities in Uttar Pradesh, the following are the 10 lucky cities of Uttar Pradesh.

1- Kanpur – 29.20 lakhs

2- Lucknow – 29.01 lakhs

3- Ghaziabad – 23.58 lakhs

4- Agra – 17.46 lakhs

5- Varanasi – 14.35 lakhs

6- Meerut – 14.24 lakhs

7- Prayagraj – 12.16 lakhs

In the 2011 Census, the minimum age of a person is 15 years for the photograph, finger mark and the pupil of the eye. This is part of the work done under National Population Register.

According to the 2011 Census, the number of villages in the Union Territories is Daman and Diu, where the number of villages situated is 25, compared to 27 in Lakshdeep, 70 in Dadar Nagar Haveli and 95 in Puducherry.

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission started in December 2005. It was a 7 year program. The government had given an extension of 2 years. It focused on the upgradation of urban infrastructure, the creation of large number of housing and basic services for the poor, to promote inclusive growth.



The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission included two sub-missions –

1- Sub Mission for Urban Infrastructure and Governance – Its aim is to revitalize the infrastructure of water supply and sanitation, sewerage, solid waste management, road network, urban transport and old city areas.

2- Submission for basic services to the urban poor – this is an integrated development of slums. Clarity: Urban electrification is not relevant under JNNURM scheme. This mission was initially for a period of 7 years by March 2012, which was extended till March 2014 to complete the already approved projects. During the month of March 2013, the mission period was extended to 1 year till March 2015 to complete the ongoing works.

3- According to the census of 2011, according to the 2011 census, the descending order of the top five states in terms of the number of slum-counted cities – Tamil Nadu (507), Madhya Pradesh (303), Uttar Pradesh (293), Karnataka (206) and Maharashtra (189).

4- According to the 2011 census, there is a descending order of 5 states having highest share in Slum (Slum) population – Maharashtra (18.1%), Andhra Pradesh (15.6%), West Bengal (9.8%), Uttar Pradesh (9.5%) and Tamil Nadu (8.9%)

Increasing urbanization and industrialization and rapid growth in the urban population also promote many types of social crimes, as it provides adequate facilities to lead to relative infringement. Due to this, there is also the dissolution of cultural and traditional family values.

In Census 2011, the total urban households in Mumbai, 41.30% of the slums are slaughtered, the highest in India is 65494604 in the slums in India, which is about 5.4% of the total population of India whereas 17.4% of the total urban population is.

The relation of the city corridors with the extension of the transport facility is to extend the city activities.



World population and urbanization

According to Meadows, one of the authors of the Limits to Growth book published in the year 1972, the continuity of current trends of the subsequent industrialization, pollution, etc. of the world population will result in prosperity over the next 100 years, which will result in hunger and economic and social risk. will increase. This limit has been reduced to 30 years by Meadows in 2004.

The idea of urban urban continuity was developed by American cultural anthropologist Robert Red Field. For this, he studied Mexico’s Marida Yucatan and the villagers Maya communities.

The process of primary urbanization in the treatment of Red Sand and Singer is done as special envoy to the development of bread tradition, he presented the idea of doing political economic and cultural

Born on October 31, 2011, the child born of Indian baby girl Nargis, the Philippines, Daniica Kameko, daughter of Sri Lankan girl Vattlage Muthumai, and Kalinigard of Rupk, Pyotri Nikolaeva, has been symbolically symbolized by various organizations as 7 Arbanas, but by the United Nations now officially Until the child of any of these countries has not been given the status of 7 Arab people in the world.

World population was observed on July 11, 2015 The subject matter of the World Population Day of 2015 was an unsafe population in the emergency. The subject matter of 2018 was family planning, a human rights issue.

The fear of declining sex ratio in the world is due to the increase in testing of sex determination.

As the process of development is progressing in the third world, the rate of urbanization is also reflected in the trend of growth. This rapid increase in the rate of urbanization is being given the number of new population bombs in the third world.

According to the 2011 Annual figures of population, India’s population is 17.5% in the world population, whereas the world’s largest share of population is China. The United Nations population is 753.4 million in 2017, while India’s population is 1339.2 million (17.78% of the world population).

According to the UN Habitat report on the status of the cities of the world, the basis for determining the prosperity of cities is productivity, quality of life, equality etc. but not optimum population.

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa (South Africa is the most populous country in the world after the prudence of Sudanese Sudanese country (in the year 2015), India is the most populous country of black people in the world. In the year 2100, India and China (the first second respectively) Nigeria will be the third most populous country in the world.


Population density 2017





North Korea


South Korea




According to the 2015 United Nations data, the population of some countries is given below.


Population 2015



Saint kites


Marshel deep





According to the World Development Indicators, the urban population( year 2014)


Percentage of urban population (year 2014)











In 2014, 100 percent of urban population was registered in Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Hong Kong, Macau, Monaco, Singapore and St. Martin.


According to the UNFPA population in 2016 (in million)










According to World Population Potential 2017 Revision, South America’s most populous country is Ecuador (66).

The population growth rate in Africa is higher than all other continents, with a population growth of 2.14%, 1.28% of the Asia-Pacific, 1.11% of the Americas, 1.19% of South America and 1.2% of Oceania. According to the Revision of 2017, population growth rate between 2010-2015 was 2.59% in Africa, 1.05% in Asia and 1.53% in Oceania.

The process of urbanization of developed countries in the twentieth century was intense, but due to population explosion and rural urban transit in the second half, this process has become intensified in developing countries. According to the United Nations, more than a third of the annual growth rate in the population of cities of the world is the result of rural urban transfers. According to an estimate, by 2030, 60% of the world’s population will live in urban areas, while by the year 2050, 70% of the world’s population will live in the cities.

According to the World Development Indicator, life expectancy at the time of birth in 2014 is highest in Hong Kong and Japan, while life expectancy at birth was at least in Switzerland in 2014. In the year 2014, life expectancy in Denmark is 81 years in the United States and 79 years in Switzerland and 83 years in Switzerland.



According to the World Population Prospects in 2011, the population density in the following continents was as follows:


Population density (person per square kilometer)



South America


North America







According to the United Nations National Fund, in 2008, more than half of the world’s population was urbanized in the first place in history.


Average annual change rate of population 2010- 2016










Nil river is called the boar of Mishra. Due to availability of water of Nil river, intensive agriculture along the banks of river Nil, due to the availability of agriculture, population density is the highest.


Population (in caror) 2016












Mass density(2015)







Shri Lanka











As per the Revision of World Population 2017, the population density in South Asian countries in the year 2017 is Maldives (1454) Bangladesh (1265) India (450) Sri Lanka (332) Pakistan (255) Nepal (204) Afghanistan (54) Bhutan (21) .


Number of Men per 100 Womens (2015)











According to the CIA World Factbook 2012, the sex ratio of countries is rising


At the time of birth















The situation of the country’s maternal mortality rate is as follows.


According to 2015










Fertility rate according to the United Nations Population Department of the country.


2015 – 2020










Annual growth rate of population of regions


2010 – 2015

Central Asia


West bangal


South Asia


South East Asia




International migrant stock as a percentage of total population (Year 2015





United Arab Emirates


Saudi Arabia





Women’s labor force participation rate as a percentage of those aged 15 years and above







South Korea



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