Indo-Parthian Kingdom


  • Other name : Pahlavas
  • They belong to Iranian tribes
  • Also called as Gondophares Dynasty
  • Only a small glimpse of this Kingdom is available from their coins and inscriptions


  • Gondaphares
  • First ruler of this kingdom
  • lost his empire to Kushanas
  • succeeded by Spalirises

Indo-Greek Rule


  • Indo-greeks were called as “Yavanas” in India
  • Greek coins were the first coins to carry the portraits of kings and their names
  • Greeks were also the first rulers to issue gold coins

Antiochus II

  • Governor of bacteria
  • Defeated the king Subhagsena of Kabul

Demetrius I

  • Led the first major Indo-Greek expansion
  • He made modern day Sialkot as his capital
  • His coins were written in Greek and Prakrit


  • Ruled Gandhara and parts of Afghanistan
  • He ruled from Sialkot
  • His territory extended from Afghanistan to Uttar Pradesh in east and Gujarat in the west
  • Converted to Buddhism by Buddhist monk Nagasena
  • Milindapaho is a dialogue between Menander and Nagasena
  • His coins are engraved with Dharmachkra
  • He issued silver and Gold coins

Harsha Kingdom


  • Harsha ascended the Pushyabhuti throne after the death of his brother Rajyavardhana in A.D. 606


  • Banabhatta
  • Harshcharita – life of Harsha


  • Hiuen-Tsang

Wrote in great detail about Harsha and his rule


Pallava Dynasty


  • Theories
  • Branch of Pahalvas from North India
  • Feudatories of Satavahanas
  • a lineage of chola and Naga rulers


  • Sivaskanda Varman
  • First pallava to be recorded
  • Simhavarman
  • Also called as Simhavishnu
  • Ascended the throne in 570 AD
  • expanded the territory beyond Kanchipuram
  • also controlled parts of western chalukya kingdom and kalinga
  • Mahendravarman I
  • Son and successor of simhavishnu
  • Fought battle with Pulidesi II
  • Built cave temples at Pallavaram
  • Narsimhavarman I
  • Son and Successor of Mahendravarman I
  • defeated pulikisin II
  • assumed the title Vatapikonda
  • Huen Tsang visited his court
  • Nripatunga
  • defeated Pandya king shrimara