Pandya Dynasty Expeditions and end of dynasty

Expeditions

  • Raids by Malik Kafur
  • a dispute for pandyan throne led to invasions by Sultan’s forces
  • Led by Malik Kafur in 1311
  • Defeated Sundara Pandyan in a battle near Tiruchirapalli
  • Looted Tiruchirapalli and Tiruvarangam
  • Siege of Madurai
  • Malik Kafur managed to breach the wall after weeks of siege
  • demanded the treasure of Madurai Meenakshi temple from Vira Pndyan
  • Malik Kafur promised to return Sundara Pandyan and Safety of the deities in the inner sanctum of the Meenakshi Temple
  • Expedition by Khilji Sultanate
  • led by Khusro Khan in 1314
  • led by Ulugh Khan in 1323

End of Dynasty

  • Sayyid Jalal-ud-Din Ashan was appointed as Governor by Muhammad bi Tughluq
  • In 1333, Sayyid declared his independence and created Madurai Sultanate
  • Vijayanagara Empire conquered Madurai and replaced the Sultanate by Nayak governors in 1378
  • Madurai Nayak Dynasty ruled up to mid 18th century until before the arrival of British forces

Facts

  • Early pandyan dynasty was established by Koon Pandiyan
  • First Pandyan dynasty was established by Kadungo
  • Their flag bears fish symbol
  • Pandyas were the longest ruling dynasty of Indian history
  • Pandyan territory is also as pandyan country or “Pandya Nadu”
  • Pandya kings were called either Jatavarman or Maravarman Pandyan
  • Legendary Malayadwaja Pandya fought with the Pandvas in the Kurushetra War

 

Pandyan dynasty Architecture Religion and Coinage

Pandyan Architecture

  • Rock cut and structural temples are prominent
  • Vimana, mandapa and sikhara were built in early temples
  • Vimanas were developed in the later stage
  • gopurams were given more importance than Shikharas
  • Meenakshi Temple in Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple were built by Pandyas

Religion

  • Initially Madurai was a stronghold of Saivism
  • Jainism gained a foothold after invasion of Kalabras
  • Finally Bhakti movements revived Saivism and Vaishnaivsm

Pandyan Coins

  • Coins of Pandyas bear the legend of different Pandyas rulers
  • issued silver punch marked and die struck copper coins
  • coins bore the image of a fish, bow, conch, discus etc
  • The coins of Pandyas were basically square
  • silver and gold coins were in Sanskrit while the copper coins bore the Tamil legends

 

Pandya Dynasty Important Rulers

Kadungon

  • Revived the dynasty in 6th century
  • defeated Kalabras

Rajasimha II

  • last pandyan king of first pandyan empire
  • defeated by Parantaka Chola I

Jatavarman Kulasekaran I

  • captured Madurai from cholas
  • defeated by cholas in a short time

Maravarman Sundara Pandyan

  • brother of Kulasekaran I
  • Invaded cholas
  • drove the cholas away from Tanjavur and Uraiyur
  • revived the dynasty for second Pandyan empire

Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan

  • Conqueured Ceylon
  • Called as Second Rama for Plundering Srilanka
  • Fought battles with Kakatiya dynasty

 

Pandya Dynasty Geographical Extent

Extent

  • Achankovil river in the west to Vaigai river in the east
  • Pudukkottai in the north to Kannyakumari in the south

Capital

  1. Korkai (3rd BC to 1345)
  • Commercial capital
  • Centre of pearl trade
  1. Tenkasi (1345-16th century)
  2. Tirunelveli (1345-17th century)

Madurai

  • Cradle of Tamil snagam literature
  • established on banks of river vaigai
  • Meenakshi temple was built after Thatathagai alias Meenakshi
  • Meenakshi is the daughter of Malaydwaja Pandya and his queen Kanchanamala
  • Megasthenes, Pliny, Strabo and many others have mentioned Madurai in their works