Chola Dynasty

Origins

  • Cholas are also known as the Choda
  • In Tamil lexicon Chola or Soazhi or Saei denotes a newly formed kingdom
  • Literary sources
  • Tamil Sangam literature
  • Periplus of the erythraean Sea
  • Pillars of Ashoka
  • Mahavamsa

Early Cholas

  • ruled during Sangam period
  • Karikala Chola
  • Won many battles against Cheras and Pandyas
  • Defeated both Pandyas and Cheras in Battle of Venni
  • Built Kallanai or grand Anaicut to divert Cauvery river for irrigation

Transition period

  • Kalabhras displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled during the time

Imperial Cholas

  • Vijayalaya Chola
  • revived the empire
  • ruled from Tanjvore
  • Built Soleswara Temple
  • Aditya Chola I
  • Son and successor of Vijayalaya chola
  • defeated pallavas and annexed Kanchi to the Chola empire
  • Maintained friendly relations with cheras
  • Parantaka Chola I
  • Captured Madurai from Pandyas
  • assumed the title Maduraikondan
  • succeeded by Gandraditya Chola
  • Rajaraja Chola I
  • By the year 1014 AD, he expanded his empire to a great extent
  • Captured Karnataka from Ganga kings
  • Conquered Vengi From chalukyas
  • he destroyed Anuradhapura and captured half of Sri Lanka
  • Brihadeshwarar temple was built by him – now an UNESCO heritage site
  • Built a strong navy
  • Rajendra Chola
  • Son and successor of Rajaraja Chola I
  • captured remaining part of Sri Lanka by 1018 AD
  • Defeated Jayasimha II in Battle of Maski
  • Captured Srivijay with his Naval army
  • Built Gangaikonda Cholapuram to commemorate his victory over north India
  • He assumed the title “Gangaikondan”
  • Rajadhiraja Chola
  • Son and Successor of Rajendra Chola I
  • Performed Ashwameda Yajna
  • defeated and killed by Chalukyas at Battle of Kuppam
  • Rajendra Chola II
  • Declared himself as Monarch after Rajadhiraja
  • defeated the Chalukyas at Battle of Kuppam
  • Virarajendra Chola
  • defeated Chalukyas and built a pillar of victory at Tungbhadra
  • defeated the chalukya king Someshwara I
  • Married his daughter to Vikramaditya Vi
  • Adhirajendra Chola
  • Last ruler of Vijayalaya Chola dynasty

Later Cholas

  • Kulottunga Chola I
  • led military campaigns in Kalinga
  • fought battle with Vikramaditya VI
  • Vikrama Chola
  • recovered vengi from Chalukyas
  • Kulottunga Chola II
  • Son and successor of Vikrama chola
  • Rajaraja Chola II
  • Airavateswarar temple was built during his period
  • Rajadhiraja Chola II
  • many civil uprinsings were recorded
  • conflicts with Pandyas increased gradually
  • Kulothunga Chola II
  • Defeated Pandyas, Cheras and Hoysalas
  • fought with Jatavarman Kulasekaran and sacked Madurai
  • Sundara panyan defeated cholas and regained the empire
  • Rajaraja Chola III
  • Chola territory reduced drastically
  • depended upon Hoysalas for survivial from Pandyas
  • Rajendra Chola III
  • Hoysalas turned hostile
  • defeated by Pandyas
  • chola empire came to an end