Mauryan Rulers

Chandragupta Maurya

         Established a strong centralized state with an administration at Pataliputra

         Liberated north-western India from the Greek rule and conquered Magadha from the Nandas

         Reign : 322-303 BCE

         Made alliance with Seleucus Nikator for his daughter

         Belongs to kshatriya clan of the moriyas of pipphalivana

         spent his early life and education at Taxila

         Other names

§  Sandrocottus

§  Androcottus

§  Vrishala

§  Kulahina

§  Maurya putra

§  Piyadasi

§  Simhasena

         Chandragupta abdicated the throne and retired to Srabvanbelgola in Karnataka

  • Religion
  • Jainism
  • Followed his teacher, the Jain ascetic Bhadrabahu

Bindusara

  • son of the first Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya and his queen Durdhara
  • Reign 301-269 BCE
  • He brought sixteen states under the Mauryan empire
  • Bindusara did’t conquer the friendly Dravidian kingdoms
  • Other names
  • Simhasena
  • Bindupala
  • Allitrochdes
  • Arnitrachates
  • Religion
  • Ajivikas

Ashoka (sorrow-free)

  • Reign 272-232 BCE
  • Parents
  • Father – Bindusara
  • Mother – Janapada Kalyani or Subhadrangi
  • Conquests
  • Kalinga was conquered by Ashoka
  • Served as Viceroy of Ujjain and Taxila
  • Crushed revolts in Ujjain and Taxila
  • Divyavadana tells the story of a revolt in taxila
  • After Kalinga War
  • Sent out missionaries to travel around Asia and spread Buddhism to other countries
  • Dharmamahamatras were appointed to both preach people and act as judge
  • Embraced the teachings of Buddhism, and renounced war and violence
  • Undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country
  • Implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor
  • Titles
  • Priyadarsi
  • Devanampriya
  • Ashokavardhan
  • Religion
  • Buddhism
  • Edicts of Ashoka
  • collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls
  • edicts were deciphered by james prinsep
  • states his policies and accomplishments
  • Edicts
  • fourteen major rock edicts
  • Minor rock edicts
  • pillar edicts
  • minor pillar inscriptions
  • Script
  • Afghanistan – Greek and Aramaic languages
  • Pakistan – Prakrit, written in Kharosthi script
  • All other areas – Prakrit language, written in brahmi script
  • Pillars
  • Single Lion Capitals
  • Ranipurva I
  • Laurya – Nandanagarh
  • Vaishali
  • 4 Lion capitals
  • Sarnath
  • Sanchi
  • Elephant
  • Rajgriha
  • Horse capital
  • Lumbini
  • Bull
  • Rampurva II
  • Wheel capital
  • Pataliputra
  • Ox-capital
  • Sravasti
  • Facts
  • First king in the Indian History to leave his records engraved on stones

Brihadratha

  • Last ruler of maurya dynasty
  • assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade by the Brahmin general Pushyamitra Sunga
  • led to a wave of religious persecution for Buddhists, and a resurgence of Hinduism

 

Mauryan Empire Departmental Heads

Adhyakshas

  • Ministers next to tirthas
  • Heads of Departments

Major Adhyakshas

  • Akaradhyaksha – mines
  • Akshapatladhyaksha – Accounts
  • Asvadhayaksha – Cavalry
  • Ganikadhyaksha – Prostitutes and dancers
  • Hastyadhyaksha – Elephants
  • Kupyadyaksha – minerals
  • Lakshanadhyaksha – mint
  • Lohadhyaksha – Iron
  • Manadhyaksha – weights
  • Panyadhyaksha – Commerce
  • Pautvadhyaksha – Weights and measures
  • Rathadhyaksha – Chariots
  • Sulkadhyaksha – Customs , tolls
  • Suradhyaksha – Superintendent of Excise
  • Sitadhyaksha
  • Lands
  • in charge of the cultivation of crown lands
  • Rajjukas – official to measures land and fixup boundaries
  • Sutradyaksha – Textile
  • Sansthadyadsha – Market
  • Sunadhyansha – Slaughter house

 

Mauryan Empire Coinage

Punch marked coins

Only silver and copper

Denominations

  • Pana
  • silver coins
  • 1, ½, ¼, 1/8
  • Masika
  • Copper coins
  • 1, ½ , ¼, 1/8

Engravings

  • Elephant
  • Stupa
  • Branches
  • Snake
  • Sun
  • Scorpion
  • Weapons
  • Human figures
  • Mountains
  • Tree-in railing

 

Mauryan Empire Tax structure and Governance

Tax Structure

  • Bali
  • Voluntary offerings
  • Bhag
  • Land Tax
  • one-sixth to one-fourth
  • levied on agriculture produce and the cattle at the rate of one-sixth
  • Also called the king’s share
  • Vastu
  • Rural tax
  • Durg
  • Urban Taxes
  • Kara
  • Orchard tax
  • Vivit
  • Tax for pasture land

Governed by

  • Samahartha
  • chief tax collector
  • Sannidhata
  • Chief treasurer
  • Vachabhuvikas
  • tax collectors for tribes
  • Sthanika
  • Tax collector in rural areas

Tax Exempted for

  • Brahmins
  • Women & children
  • Armourers
  • Blind, Deaf and other Physically disabled
  • King’s men

Mauryan Empire Census and Court Visitors

Court visitors

  • Megasthenes
  • Sent by Secleucus Nikator
  • Court of Chandragupta Maura
  • Deimachos starbo
  • Sent by Antiochus I
  • Court of Chandragupta maurya
  • Dionysios
  • Sent Ptolemy II
  • Court of Bundusar

Census

  • A register of immigration and emigration of foreign travellers, or students, was maintained
  • Probably the first mention of census in the world
  • There was a regular dept, of census
  • Census officer of the cities was called nagaraka

 

Defence in Mauryan empire

Army

  • Infantry
  • Cavalry
  • Chariots
  • Elephantry
  • Navy
  • Governing body
  • Senapati
  • Prasasta
  • Nayaka
  • Mukhya
  • Completely funded by central government

Espionage

  • Pulisanj
  • Public relations officers
  • Directed by kings themselves
  • Pativedaka
  • Special reporters to kings
  • Samantha
  • Kapadika – Disguised disciples
  • Udasthita – reduses
  • Vaidehaka – Merchants
  • Tapasa – Ascetics
  • collected intelligence for both internal and external security purposes
  • Gudha-Purusha – Secret agents
  • Sancharah (Wandering spies)
  • Satri – Classmates
  • Tikshana – Firebrands
  • Rashda – Poisoners
  • Visha Kanya – Women spies
  • Bhikshukis – Mendicants
  • Vrishalis – Courtesans
  • Cara – Secret agents

Mauryan Empire Establishment and Literary Sources

Establishment

  • 322 BC
  • Chandragupta Maurya
  • Predecessor
  • Dhana Nanda
  • Nanda Dynasty

Literary Sources

  • Megasthenes
  • Seven castes of Indian society
  • Absence of Slavery
  • Absence of money lending
  • Kautilya
  • Artha sastra
  • Economic and political conditions
  • Hemchandra
  • Parisistparvan
  • Chandragupta mauryas conversion to Jainism
  • Jatakas
  • Social and economic conditions
  • Vajika
  • Kaumudi Mahotsava
  • Buddhist texts
  • Dipavamsa
  • Mahavamsa
  • Ashokas support to Buddhism
  • Vishakadutta
  • Mudrarakshasa
  • Barabar Hills
  • Cave Inscriptions
  • Ashokas support to Ajivikas