Project Tiger

About –

Project Tiger is a Tiger conservation programme for in-situ conservation of wild tigers in designated tiger reserves.

  • Project tiger was launched in Palamau Tiger Reserve on the 1st of April, 1973 by the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
  • Tiger species –
  • Traditionally eight sub-species of tigers have been recognized, out of which three are extinct.
  • The Indian sub-species is Panthera tigris, Bengal Tiger.
  • Why save tigers?
  • Tigers are terminal consumers in the ecological food pyramid.
  • Their conservation results in the conservation of all trophic levels in an ecosystem.

Objectives –

  • To ensure a viable population of tigers for economic, scientific, cultural, aesthetic and ecological values
  • Limit factors that leads to reduction of tiger habitats and to mitigate them by suitable management

Challenges facing wild tiger conservation –

  • protection against poaching
  • fragmentation of habitat
  • securing inviolate space for tiger to facilitate its social dynamics
  • addressing tiger-human interface
  • restoration of corridors
  • eliciting public of local people by providing ecologically sustainable options

Implementation –

  • Project Tiger is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is a statutory body.
  • Project tiger is implemented in 18 states –
  • Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Telangana,  Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal
  • Fund –
  • 100% central assistance is provided for non-recurring items of expenditure to the states
  • 50% matching grant for recurring items (90% for North Eastern States), based on the Annual Plan of Operation of tiger reserve.
  • Other functions –
  • voluntary relocation of people from core/critical tiger habitats
  • Addressing the human-wildlife conflicts, within the ambit of the wildlife (protection) Act, 1972
  • The habitats covered under Project tiger are –
  1. Siwalik-terai conservation unit
  2. North East conservation unit
  3. Sunderbans conservation unit
  4. Western ghats conservation unit
  5. Eastern ghats conservation unit
  6. Central India conservation unit
  7. Sariska conservation unit

Strategy –

  • The various tiger reserves were created n the country based on core-buffer strategy
  1. Core area
  • The core areas are freed of all human activities.
  • It has the legal status of a national park or wildlife sanctuary
  • It is kept free of biotic disturbances
  • Forestry operation like collection of minor forest produce, grazing and other human disturbances are not allowed within.
  1. Buffer area
  • The buffer areas are subjected to conservation-oriented land use
  • It comprises forest and non-forest land.
  • It is multi-purpose use area with twin objectives of

providing habitat supplement to spillover population of wild animals from core conservation unit

providing site specific co-developmental inputs to surroundings villages for relieving their impact on core area

Facts –

  • The number of tigers has improved to 2226 as per the latest census report released on January 20, 2015
  • The all India tiger estimation is carried out once in every four years.
  • Rajaji National Park, Uttarakhand is India’s 48th Tiger Reserve

Project Snow Leopard

About –

  • The Project Snow Leopard is an Innovative project that help to arrest species declines in the Indian high altitudes
  • Snow Leopard is a globally endangered species as well as the most important flagship species of the mountain region.
  • They suffer the most on account of relatively smaller population size and also because of man-animal conflict.
  • snow Leopard has been included in the list of species under Recovery Programme to be funded by the scheme of Development of Wildlife habitats
  • species such as snow leopard, Asiatic Ibex, Tibetan Argali, Ladakh Urial, Chiru, Takin, Serow and Musk Deer will particularly benefit from this project

Background –

  • In 1972 the IUCN placed the snow leopard on its Red list of Threatened species as “Endangered”
  • IN 2003, the convention on Migratory species included snow leopard as a concerted action species under its Appendix I
  • The initiative project snow leopard was announced in February 2009 by the ministry of environment and forests.

Conservation –

  • There are more than 26 protected areas in the Himalayas landscape where snow is reported.
  • The project will be operational in five Himalayas states
  • Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh
  • Major portion of the project area falls in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The project is supported by
  • Wildlife institute of India and Nature conservation foundation, Mysore
  • The project unlike other wildlife projects stresses on participation and benefit of the local population

Facts –

  • With just 4000 animals in the world, Ladakh is home to about 400 such animals, which is over 60 percent of the estimated 700 animals in the country.

National Bamboo Mission

About –

  • National Bamboo Mission (NBM) is a 100% Centrally sponsored sub scheme implemented under a scheme called mission for integrated development
  • Implemented by department of agriculture & cooperation (DAC) ministry of agriculture.

Mission Objectives –

  • To promote the growth of the bamboo sector through as an area based regionally differentiated strategy
  • To increase the coverage of area under bamboo in potential areas, with improved varieties to enhance yields
  • To promote marketing of bamboo and bamboo based handicrafts
  • To establish convergence and synergy among stake-holders for the development of bamboo
  • To promote, develop and disseminate technologies through a seamless blend of traditional wisdom and modern scientific knowledge
  • To generate employment opportunities for skilled and unskilled persons, especially unemployed youths

Strategy –

  • Adopt a coordinated approach covering production and marketing to assure appropriate returns to growers/producers
  • Promote Research and Development (R & D) of varieties and technologies for enhanced production
  • Enhance acreage and productivity of bamboo through varietal change and improved agriculture practice
  • Promote partnership, convergence and synergy among R&D and marketing agencies in public as well as private sectors, at all levels.
  • Promote where appropriate, cooperatives and self-help groups to ensure support and adequate returns to farmers
  • To generate employment opportunities for skilled and unskilled persons, especially unemployed youths
  • Set up National State and sub-state level structures, to ensure adequate returns for the produce of the farmers and eliminate middlemen, to the extent possible


Forests Rights

Background –

  • Before Independence
  • Initially there was no forest policy in India
  • British introduced the first “Scientific forest management” for sustained commercial production of the timber
  • In short time forests were declared as state property and the rights of the forest dwellers were denied
  • In 1884 forest department was established

it exercised monopoly and marginalized tribal form almost all kinds of rights over forest produce

  • In 1894, the first Indian forest policy was adopted t give high priority to hilly regions
  • To consolidate the state’s property rights over those forests
  • Indian forest act, 1927
  • sought to consolidate and reserve the areas having forest cover, or significant wildlife
  • regulated the movement and transit of forest produce, and duty leviable on timber and other forest produce
  • It also defines the procedure to be followed for declaring an area to be reserved forest, a protected forest or a Village forest
  • After Independence –
  • Forest Policy Resolution 1952
  • for the protection of wildlife and preservation by demarcating the forests for sanctuaries and national parks
  • Finally transformed into wildlife protection act in 1972
  • Forest Policy 1988
  • For the first time forest goods were classified as Non Timber forest produce (NTFP)A
  • This policy also set the target of increasing India’s forest cover to 33%

Forest Rights Act 2006 –

  • Scheduled Tribes and other Traditional forest dwellers (Recognition of forest Rights) Act, 2006
  • It is the forest legislation passed in India on 18 December 2006
  • Also called as –
  • Forest Rights Act
  • Tribal Rights Act
  • Tribal Bill
  • Tribal Land Act
  • Rights conferred –
  • Right to hold and live in the forest land under the individual or common occupation for habitation or for self-cultivation for livelihood
  • Common rights such as nistar
  • Right of ownership, access to collect, use and dispose of minor forest produce
  • Other community rights of uses of entitlements such as fish and other products of water bodies, grazing
  • Rights for conversion of pattas or leases or grants issued by any local council or any state Govt. on forest lands to titles
  • Right to settlement and conversion of all forest villages, old habitation, unsurveyed villages and other villages in forest, whether recorded, notified or not into revenue villages
  • Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forest resources which they have been traditionally protecting and conserving for sustainable use
  • Right of access to biodiversity and community right to intellectual property and traditional knowledge related to biodiversity and cultural diversity

Minor Forest Produce –

  • MFP includes the items such as
  • Tamarind, Mahuwa flower, Mahuwa seed, Tendu leaf, Bamboo, Sal Seed, Myrobalan Chironji, lac, Gum karaya, Honey, seeds of Karanja, Neem and Puwad
  • Bamboo is also a Minor forest produce since 2006
  • In Tamil Nadu, collection of minor forest produce is leased out to cooperatives societies of SCs and STs

Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA) –

  • It authorizes the states to give the gram sabhas power to regulate and restrict the following
  • Powers
  1. Ownership of minor forest produce
  2. Sale/consumption of liquor
  3. Power to prevent alienation of land and restore alienated land
  4. Power to manage village markets and controlling money lending to STs
  5. Executive functions to approve plans of the village panchayats, identify beneficiaries for schemes and issue certificates of utilization of funds

Committees –

  • Maharaj Muthoo committee –
  • MOEF constituted a National working group to frame the policy guidelines for certification of timber and Non-timber forest products
  • Certification and Eco-labelling are the new strategies to enhance the product position and better forest management practices
  • T Haque Committees
  • The committee was constituted to evolve a mechanism for fixing the minimum support price for the collections of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs)
  • It recommended a competitive multi-pronged system to empower tribes who do not get even minimum wages for collecting minor forest produce (MFPs)

Joint Forest Management

About –

  • In 1990 Government of India created a massive people’s movement involvement of village committees for the protection, regeneration and development of degraded forest lands.
  • This gave impetus to the participation of stakeholders in the management of degraded forest situated in the vicinity of village.
  • JFM started in consonance with the National Forest Policy 1988

Implementation –

  • Legal backup to the JFM committees
  • at present, the JFM committees are being registered under different names in various states as per the provisions contained in the resolutions
  • It is necessary that all the state government register the JFM or village committees under the societies registration act, 1860 to provide them with legal back up
  • Participation of women in the JFM programme
  • i) Atleast 50% members of the JFM general body should be women
  • for the general body meeting the presence of atleast 50% women members should be a prerequisite for holding the general body meeting
  • ii) Atleast 33% of the membership in the JMF executive committee/management committee should be filled from amongst the women members
  • Extension of JFM in good forest areas –
  • JFM programme should cover both the degraded as well as good forests
  • In good forest areas, the JMF activities would concentrate on NTFP management and no alternation should be permitted
  • The JFM committees will be eligible for benefit sharing for timber, only if they have satisfactorily protected the good forests for a minimum period of at least 10 years
  • Sharing percentage should be kept limited to a maximum of 20% of the revenue from the final harvest.
  • A certain percentage of revenue from final harvest be ploughed back in the silviculture & management of the forests
  • The extent of good forest areas to be allowed will depend upon the number of village household and should be restricted to a maximum limit of 100 ha
  • Recognition f self-initiated groups –
  • The community groups in many places in Orissa, Bihar, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are performing the essential functions of forest protection
  • These groups need to be identified, recognized and registered as JFM committees after proper verification of records and enquiry
  • Conflict resolution –
  • State Government may constitute division and state level representative forums or working groups to resolve conflicts in the functioning of JFM committees


About –

Eco-Mark is an eco-labelling scheme constituted by the Government of India is 1991 for easy identification of environment friendly products.

  • Objectives
  • To provide an incentive for manufacturers and importers to reduce adverse environment impact of products
  • To reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impacts
  • To assist consumers to become environmentally responsible in their daily lives
  • To encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environmental impacts
  • Ultimately to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources.

Eco-Mark Logo –

  • Eco-Mark logo is an earthen pot

Scope of Eco-Mark –

  • The Eco-Mark scheme initially covered about 16 product categories covering a wide range of products
  • Criteria for evaluating products under these categories were initially analyzed and identified

Facts –

  • It is mandatory to meet the quality requirements of BIS to get Eco-Mark
  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is a member of GEN (Global Ecolabelling Network) and has been a member since 2000

UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List

About –

  • UNESCO established its lists f Intangible Cultural Heritage to protect the important intangible cultural heritages worldwide
  • The programme compiles two lists
  1. The longer Representative list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity
  2. The shorter list of intangible cultural heritage in need of urgent safeguarding
  • Representative list servers to raise awareness of intangible heritage and provide recognition to communities traditions
  • Shorter list represents the need of urgent safeguarding of cultural elements that require urgent measures to keep them alive

List of India –

  1. Sankirtana, ritual singing, drumming and dancing of Manipur
  2. Kutiyattam, Sanskrit theatre
  3. The tradition of Vedic chanting
  4. Ramlila – the tradition Performance of the Ramayana
  5. Ramman: religious festival and ritual theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas
  6. Mudiyett: a ritual theatre of Kerala
  7. Kalbelia : folk songs and dances of Rajasthan
  8. Chhau dance: a tradition from eastern India
  9. Buddhist chanting of ladakh: recitation of sacred Buddhist texts in the trans-Himalayas Ladakh region, Jammu and Kashmir, India