Hardening of Oil (Hydrogenation)
Oil, an unsaturated fat when heated with nickel catalyst and hydrogen gets converted into a solid mass, called ghee, a saturated fat.



This process is called hardening of oil and is carried out through hydrogenation in the presence of nickel as a catalyst.

Ores –
Those minerals from which the metals are extracted commercially and economically and with minimum effort are called Ores of Metals.
For Example :-
1. Aluminum (Al)
Ores are (a) Bauxite (b) Corundum (c) Kryolite
Al2O32H2O Al2O3 Na3AlF6

2. Iron (Fe)
Ores are (a) Hematite (b) Magnetite (c) IronPyrite (d) Siderite
Fe2O3 Fe3O4 FeS2 FeCO3


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3. Copper (Cu)
Ores are (a) Copper Pyrite (b) Copper Glance (c) Malachite
CuFeS2 Cu2S 2CuCO3Cu(OH)2

4. Zinc (Zn)
(a) Zinc Blende (b) Calamine
ZnS ZnCo3


5. Sodium (Na)
Ores are (a) Rock Salt (b) Sodium Carbonate
NaCl Na2CO3


6. Potassium (K)
Ores are (a) Karnalite (b) Salt Petre


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KClMgCl6H2O KNO3


7. Lead (Pb)
Ores are (a) Galena (b) Anglesite
PbS PbCl2



8. Tin (Sn)
Ores are (a) Tin Pyrites (b) Classiterite
Cu2FeSnS4 SnO2

9. Silver (Ag)
Ore is Silver Glance Ag2S


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10. Gold (Au)
Ores are (a) Calve rite (b) Sybarite
AuTe2 AgAuTe2

11. Mercury (Hg)
Ores are (a) Cinnabar (b) Calomel
HgS Hg2Cl2


12. Magnesium (Mg)
Ores are (a) Dolomite (b) Karnalite
MgCO3CaCO3 KClMgCl26H2O


13. Calcium (Ca)
Ores are (a) Lime Stone (b) Dolomite
CaCO3 MgCO3CaCO3




14. Phosphorous (P)
Ores are (a) Phosphorite (b) Floreopetite
Ca3(PO4)CaFe2 3Ca3(PO4)CaFe2