Defeated joint forces of Chera & Pandyas. Also conquered Sri
Lanka. Capital was at Puhar (Kaveripattanam)
Capital at Madurai & port at Korkai. Defeated Cholas & Cheras
Cheras are also known as Keralaputras. Nedunjeral Adan & Sengutturan were the greatest king.
Kings & their Court Jewels
Mahendrapala I (Pratihara)
Parsva, Vasumitra, Ashvaghosha, Charaka, Sushruta, Nagarjuna
Kalidas, Fa-Hien, Varahamihira
Monuments of Ancient Period
During Chandragupta’s reign at Vidisha, M.P.
Pala King Dharampala
Kailash Temple (Ellora)
Rashtrakuta king Krishna I
Rathas of Mamallapuram
Mahendravarman I (Pallava King)
Martanda temple (Kashmir)
Gommateswara (Son of Rishabnath)
Chamundaraya, Minister of the Ganga King, Rajamalla
Hoysalesvara Temple (at Halebid)
Ketamalla, a minister of KingVishnuvardhana (Karnataka)
Ujjayini & Mahishmati
Kusinagar & Pawa
Rajgriha or Giriraj
Taxila & Pushkalavati
Vishaya or Bhoga
Kottams or Vallandadu
Jargon of Ancient Period
Head of district Administration
Chief of a Guild
Chief of artisans
Governor of Bhukti
Unit of currency
Initiation into education
Unit of currency
Revenue officer in the Mauryan period.
Term used for coin
Land measurement & fixing land revenue
Assembly of few select ones
Most important post created by Asoka.
- The Sangama literature [0-400AD] consists of 30,000 lines of poetry divided into two main groups, Patinenkilkanakku (older) & Pattupattu (newer). Established by Pandyan kings of Tamil region.
- The credit to complete the chart of Ashokan alphabets goes to James Prinsep.
- Most of the modern scripts of India including Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Nagari, Gujarati, Bangla have developed from Brahmi script. Ashokan inscription of Shahbazgari & Manashera are written in Kharoshthi.
- The earliest coins were punch marked silver & copper coins. They bear only symbol & no inscription or legend. Kushanas (Vima Kadphises – figure of Siva standing beside a bull) issued mostly gold coins.
- Buddha did not visit Taxila in his life.
- Some of the important rock painting sites are Murhana Pahar (U.P), Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, Lakha Juar (M.P.) & Kapagallu (Karnatka).
- The extent of Indus valley civilization was Sutkagendor (Baluchistan), Alamgirpur (Meerut), Daimabad (N. Maharashtra) & Manda (J & K). Harrapan civilization is often referred to as Bronze Age civilization.
No unambiguous depiction of horse found on any seal. The largest number of seals depict unicorn.
- Inscription was from right to left but if more than one line than alternated to left to right & vice versa.
- Yoga was in vogue in Indus civilization. Shiva, Mother goddess, trees, linga, yoni were worshiped. Chanhudaro is the only city without a citadel & Surkotada is the only site where the actual remains of a horse have been found.
- Decline of Harrapa: Wheeler (Barbarian Aryans attack), John Marshall (environment degradation).
- The Nadisukta hymn of Rig Veda mentions 21 rivers which include Ganga in the east & the Kubha
(Kabul) in the west. Saraswati is considered to be the most important. Zero was known in rig vedic times
- In the vedic age the varnas were not rigid but they became so in the later vedic period & became birth based rather than profession based. Untouchability had not yet reared its ugly head. Jati had not become a rigid system. Bali which was a voluntary gift to chief earlier became a regular tax in the later vedic age.
- Moksha can be acquired by Gyan, Bhakti & Karma. Four dynasties stand out prominently in the sixth century B.C are Haryankas of Magadha, Ishvakus of Kosala, the Pauravas of Vatsa & the Pradyotas of Avanti.
- During the time of Ashoka, Pataliputra was administered by a city council of 30 members divided into a board of 5 members each. Sales tax on goods was 10 %. The Ashokan Pilar with Lion Capital is located at Lauriya Nandangarh, Pillar capital from Rampurva & Capital from Sarnath. Seven rock cut chaitya caves in the Barabar & Nagarjuni hill show that the tradition of rock cut caves in India began with the Mauryas.
- The indo-Greeks were the first whose coins carried the portraits of kings & their names. Also they were the first rulers to issue gold coins.
- In the south the old phase is known as the megalithic phase with the burials being marked by abundance of iron tools & a Black & red pottery. It appears there was an abrupt change from Neolithic to iron age, without any significant Chalcolithic or Bronze age.
- Anuloma (marriage between male of higher varna & female of lower varna) was considered better than Pratiloma (vv). Grihasta ashram had the duties of yajna, adhyayana & dana.
- Hinayana was the old order. Mahayana introduced concept of Bodhisttavas, worship of Buddha as god (Hinayanists considered him just a great teacher), salvation of all beings, Sanskrit as new language. The development of Mahayana philosophy is ascribed to Nagarjuna who propounded Madhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy popularly known as Sunyavada.
- The Mathura & Gandhara schools of art flourished during Kushana period. Mathura school had the distinction of producing the first image of Buddha & Gandhara school was a hybrid of Indo-Greek form.
- The Stupas as Sanchi, Sarnatha, Amaravati, Bharhut are the best examples. I-tsing came to India in 7th century after spending several years in Sumatra & Sri Vijaya learning Buddhism.
- In south India, among the Nayannar saints, Tirumular’s Tirmurais are prominent. Saiva saints
(Nayannars) were 63 in number. Lingayat (founded by Basava – Kalachuri) was other important sect of Saivism in south India influenced by both Sankara & Ramanuja. Vaishnave saints known as Alvars are traditionally 12 in number. Collection of their work is known as Nalayiraprabandham.
- The first Jaina council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the beginning of third century BC & resulted in compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas. In the sixth century A.D. the second Jaina council was held at Valabhi under Devaradhi Kshamasramana & Jain canon was defined.
- The avatars of Vishnu are matsya, kurma (tortoise), varah (boar), narasimha, vaman (dwarf), parasurama, rama, Krishna, Buddha (the enlightened one) & kalki (to appear).
- West Bengal was known as Gauda & East Bengal as Vanga. Utkala (Orissa), Pragjotishpur (Assam).
- The king of Suvarnadwipa (modern Malaya), Balaputradeva erected a monastery at Nalanda & requested Devapala to donate five villages for the maintenance.
- The philosophy of Sankaracharya (Adi Sankara) is known as Advaita meaning ‘non dual’. He believed that absolute reality called ‘Brahma’ is non dual. Jyotirmatha at Badrinath, Sharadapitha at Dwakra, Govardhanamatha at Puri & Shringerimatha in south. He organized Ascetics in ten orders – Giri, Puri (city), Bharati (learning), Vana (wood), Aranya (forest), Parvata, Sagara, Tirtha, Ashrama & Saraswati.
- Angkorvat temple dedicated to Vishnu & the famous Borobudur stupa in Java. The Sailendra dynasty ruled over SE Asia & followed Mahayana Buddhism.
- Eastern King (Samrat), Western King (Suvrat), Northern king (Virat), Southern King (Bhoja). After partition of India the largest number of Harappan settlements have been found in Gujarat.
- The utensils of the Harappan people were made of clay. Lead was not known to the Indus valley people.
The Aryans came from Central Asia is widely accepted. The Vedic Aryans first settled in the region of Sapta Sindhu.
- The Gayatri Mantra is addressed to Savitri (associated with sun god). Two highest gods in the Vedic religion were Indra (war god) & Varuna (ocean god). Division of vedic society The oldest mention of varna system (four classes) is in the Purusha sukta of Rigveda. The dasas & dasyus mentioned in the Rig Veda refer to non-Aryans.
- The Hindu social sacraments such as marriage are performed on the basis of ritual described in the Grihyasutras. The symbols associated with the five great events of the Buddha are birth (lotus & lion), great renunciation (horse), attainment of knowledge (banyan tree), first sermon (wheel), death (stupa & foot prints). According to Buddha the cause of all sorrows is Trishna (attachment).
- Vinayak Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, Abhidhamma Pitaka contain teachings of the Buddha. Jatakas are stories of Buddhas previous life. Outside India, Buddhism was first accepted in Sri Lanka.
- The Mauryan sculptors had gained highest perfection in the carving of Pillars & the most striking feature is their polish. Two great Buddhist stupas rebuilt during the Sunga (were Brahmanas) Period were Dhammekh stupa at Sarnath & the stupa at Sanghot.
Chandradeva*. Jaichandra fought Muhammad Ghur
Chandellas of Jejakabhukti/Bundelkhand
*Vidyadhara* & Yashovarman
Paramaras of Malwa
Vakpati Munjal & *Bhoja*
Chahamanas/Chauhans of Sakambhari
Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva, *Prithviraj III* (Chauhan)
Kalachuris of Tripuri
Kokalla, Gangeyadeva & *Karna* (Rajshekhara)
Chalukyas/Solankis of Gujarat
Bhima I & *Jayasimha Siddharaja*
Avantivarman (supplanted Karkota dynasty to which belonged Lalitaditya Muktapida.
East & the North East
Bengal (Sena dynasty)
Lakshmanasena (last Hindu ruler of Bengal)
Avantavarman Chodaganga (Mother daughter of Rajendra
Chola) of Eastern Gangas & Narsimha I (sun temple)
Ahoms, a Shan tribe settled in mid 13th Century.
Deccan & the South
Chalukyas of Kalyani
*Vikramaditya VI* (Introduced Chalukya-Vikram era)
Bilhana’s Vikramanankadevacharita is based on him
Yadavas of Devagiri
Bhillama V*, *Simhana*
Kakatiyas of Warangal
Ganapati (ruled for 60 years)
Vijayalaya*, Rajaraja the Great, *Rajendra I*, Rajadhiraja,
Rajendra II, Kulottunga I
Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra
Nrpakama*, Vishnuvardhan, Ballala II & Ballala III
*Jatavarman Sundara.Pandya I*
Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD)
Bahram Shah & Masud Shah
Alauddin Alam Shah
Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimur
Mubarak Shah & Khusrau khan
Muhammad bin Tughlaq
Firuz Shah Tughlaq
Mohammad Khan, Ghiasuddin Tughlaq Shah II,
Abu Baqr, Nasiruddin Muhammad, Humayun
Nasirrudin Mahmud Tughlaq
Died while playing Chaugan. Aram Shah (short period)
He defeated Yalduz of Ghazni & Qubacha of Multan. Captured the fort of Ranthambor, Lakhnauti. Organized the iqta system (land assignment) & currency (introduced copper tanka & silver jital).
Married Malik Altunia (Governor of Bhatinda). Turkish Aamirs played the dominant role & after Razia, they enthroned Bahram Shah, Masud Shah & Nasiruddin Mahmud in that order.
Balban was Turkish slave of Iltutmish. He poisoned his master
Nasiruddin Mahmud. Killed the rebel governor of Bengal, Tughril Khan. He revived the practice of sijda (prostration) & paibos (kissing monarch’s feet).
Kaikhusrau, Kaiquabad & Kaimurs had short duration.
Descended at the age of seventy. Later Alauddin murdered his uncle & father in law Jalaluddin & seized the throne.
Lay seige to Ranthambor which was under redoubtable Hammir
Deva which continued till one year. Later Chittor under Ratan Singh (wife Padmini) fell & was renamed Kizhrabad. Malik Kafur campaigned against Kaktiyas (Warangal), Hoysalas (Dwarasamudra) & Pandyas. Mubarak Shah (son) & Khusrau khan had short rule.
Kharaj (land tax – 50%), Charai, Gharii (dwelling tax). First to introduce permanent standing army, dagh & chehra. Afghans & Sultan’s Indian officers rose to prominence.
Earlier called Ghazi Malik. Ghiasuddin had repelled mongol attack under khaljis before ascending throne. Attaked Kaktiyas & Bengal succesfully. Founded third city of Delhi – Tughlaqabad.
Open consorting with Hindus & Jogis. Killed Ulemas, qazis who rose in rebellion. Shifted capital to Devagiri (renamed Daulatabad), token currency (bronze coin-jittal). Shifted to Swargadwari during famine. At his death Barani commented, ‘at last the people got rid of him & he got rid of the people’. First sultan to visit the shrine of Moinuddin Chisti. Disciple of Shaikh Alauddin & Jinaprabha Suri.
Not a military leader. Conqured Thatta, Orissa (uprooted Jagannath idol), Nagarkot. Distributed iqtas, made them heritable increased salaries. Founded Fatehabad, Hissar, Firuzpur, Jaunpur & Firuzabad. Built canals. Influence of Ulema revived. First muslim ruler to impose Jaziya on Brahmins but abolished Ghari & Charai. Visited the shrine of Salar Masud Ghazi & became fanatical. Removed paintings from palace. Got many sanskirt works translated in Persian
These brothers were released by Muhammad Tughlaq & they laid the foundation of Vijaynagar empire (Sangama dynasty)
Deva Raya I
Succeded his father Harihara II. Lead a crushing defeat against Sultan Firuz Shah Bahmani. Constuction of dam across the Tungabhadra. Italian, Nicolo de Conti came during his period.
Deva Raya II
Sometimes called Immadi Deva Raya. One of the greatest Sultan.
Great king. Lost to Deva Raya I & abdicated throne in favour of his brother Ahmad Shah I who transferred Bahmani Kingdom capital from Gulbarga to Bidar. Later with the help of Iranian prime minister Mahmud Gawan, Ahmad Shah I expanded considerably. Later Bhahmani kingdom got divied into five regions – Golconda, Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar & Bidar.
After Deva Raya II came Suluva dyansty, which was replaced by Tuluva dynasty whose geatest ruler was Krishna Deva Raya. Ablest of Vijaynagar soverigns. After him Rama Raja succeded.