Delhi Sultanate Continued

Timur

Invastion

Timur 1398 AD

During the reign of Mahmud Tughlaq who fled the city. He assigned Delhi to Khizr Khan & hence Sayyid dynasty was born.

Sayyids

Khizr Khan

Khizr Khan’s reign as well as that of his successors, Mubarak Shah, Muhammad Shah & Alauddin Alam Shah was spent trying to control the rebellious leaders (esp. Khokhars led by Jasrath).

Lodis

Bahlul Lodi

First dynasty to be headed by Afghans. Principal event of Bahlul Lodi’s life was the annexation of Juanpur kingdom.

 

Sikander Lodi

Contemporary of Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat & Rana Sanga of

Mewar. The rent rolls of his reign formed the basis during Sher Shah Suri period. Imposed the Jaziya. The Bahluli coin remained in circulation till Akbar’s rule. He was the only sultan to be killed in the battle field.

 

Smaller States

Assam

Ahoms – Greatest ruler during this peiod was Suhungmung

Gujarat

Muzaffar’s Shah grandson, Ahmad Shah I founded new capital Ahmedabad. Was the first sultan to levy Jaziya on hindus of Gujarat. *Mahmud Begarha* was the greatest

Mewar

Rana Kumbha. His grandson was Rana Sanga.

Amber

Under Prithviraj who fought under Rana Sanga at Khanua

Jaunpur

Under Sharquis. Jaunpur is in eastern U.P.

Kashmir

*Zianul Abidin*. Abolished Jaziya. Got Ramayana & Mahabharata translated into Persian. Allowed Kashmiri pandits to return to the state.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mughal Empire

Babur

1526-30

Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur. Ascended throne of Farghana. Daulat Khan Lodi, govenror of Punjab invited him to dethrone Ibrahim Lodi but later retracted. Ibrahim Lodi perished in 1526 at Panipat. Battle of Khanua in 1527 against Rana Sanga in which Babur won by effective use of artillery & mounted archers. Died around 1529 & burried at Kabul. Introduced Char Bagh (symmetric gardens).

Himayun

1530-56

His early fight was with Bahadur Shah of Gujarat whom he defeated but did not depose. In Bihar the Afghans rallied under Sher Shah Suri. At the battle of Chausa in 1939 Himayun was defeated by Sher Shah. He finally left India in 1544 for the Safavid court. A decade after the death of Sher Shah, Himayun occupied back Delhi but died within seven months after a fall from the steps of his library.

Sher Shah

1540-45

Son of a small Jagirdar from Jaunpur. Defeated Raja Maldeo of Marwar in the battle of

Samel in 1544 & also won Chittor. He realized Jaziya from Hindus. Revived system of Dagh & Chehra. Introduced a system of crop rates form the first time. Introduced uniform standard gold, silver & copper coins replacing the debased coins & introduced uniform weights. Maintained army through Sawars. Died in 1545 (5 years rule).

Akbar

1556-1605

Born in Amarkot. Bairam Khan invited Hemu (Afhan assumed title of Hemchandra

Vikramaditya) in 1556 at the second battle of Panipat in which Hemu was slained. Later Akbar discharged Bairam Khan & married his widow. Akbar’s foster mothers son Adam

Khan won Malwa defeating Baz Bahadur. Won at Gondwana, Chittor (Udai Sing),

Ranthambor & Marwar. Rana Pratap ascended Mewar after the death of Udai Singh. In 1576 the Haldi ghati war between Man Singh (grandson of Bhara Mal of Amber who entered imperial services) & Rana Pratap. In 1571 Akbar shifted his capital to Fatehpur Sikri. Later marched against Ahmedabad, Kabul (deposed Mirza Hakim). In 1585 he trasnferred his capital to Lahore. Later won Baluchistan, Qandhar, Ahmadnagar (Chand Bibi), Khandesh (Akbar’s last major miliary campaign). In 1579 he abolished Jaziya. He issued Mahzar which entitle him to choose one of the interpretations of Muslim law. Only Raja Birbal accepted Din-i-Ilahi. Todar Mal, Bhagwan das, Man Singh declined it. He abolished the position of wazir after Bairam khan. Revived chehra & dagh.

Jehangir

1605-27

Jehangir’s elder brother Khusrau revolted thrice against Akbar & was blinded. He became the first ruler to conquer Kangra. Amar Singh, Son of Rana Pratap at Ajmer also surrendered. The Persians got control of Qandhar back in their second attempt. Deccan (ruled by Malik Ambar of Ahmadnagar) was subdued again by prince Khurram. Jehangir ordered the murder of fifth sikh guru Arjun Dev (the first to be murdered by Mughals). Visited dargah of Moinuddin Chisti several times. Married Iranian widow (Mehrunisa), who was given the title Nur Jahan.  Nur Jahan’s brother was Asaf khan whose daughter Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Banu) was married to Shah Jahan.    

Shah

Jahan

1628-58

Sent his two sons Dara  Shukoh & Aurangzeb as hostages to his fathers court. He was helped in his throne capture by his father in law, Asaf Khan. Ordered execution of his brothers & their sons after accession. Increased control over Bundelkhand (Ruled by Jehangir’s hard core friend Bir Singh Deo’s son Jujhar Singh). Qandhar was capture for a brief period but lost back to the Safavids. His Peacock throne & capital Shahjahanabad are remembered. Reformed the zat & sawar system. Iranis & Turanis dominated the nobility. Instituted month scales on the basis of difference between official estimate of income (Jama) & actual amount collected (hasil).

Aurangzeb

1658-1707

War of succession between Dara, Shah Shuja, Auranzeb & Murad – all sons of Mumtaz Mahal. Mir Jumla was deputed by Aurangzeb to restore authority in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa.

Later in Assam Ahom king agreed to be a vassal of Mughals. He banned Nauroz, the

 

Persian new year, banned painters, musicians, drinking & women pilgrimage. Pilgrimage tax on Hindu abolished by Akbar reinstated. Destroyed the Keshava Rai Temple at Mathura built by Bir Singh Bundela. Reimposed Jaziya tax. His son prince Akbar revolted & was sheltered by Maratha ruler Sambhaji. Aurangzeb lay seize on Bijapur & Golconda & won. He was also known as Alamgir.

Shivaji

Shivaji tutor was Dadaji Kond-deva. Shivaji killed Afzal Khan (general of Ali Adil Shah II) while meeting. Later he almost defeated the governor of the Deccan, Shaista Khan who was replaced by Prince Mauzzam on orders of Aurangzeb. Raja Jai Singh was given the responsibility of tackling Shivaji who won & conducted the treaty of Purandhar. Later Shivaji visited mughal court & was captured but escaped. 

Later

Marathas

Shivaji – Sambhaji – Rajaram (Sambhaji’s brother). In the meanwhile Sambhaji’s son Shahu was taken to the Mughal household. Later when Rajaram died, his widow Tara Bai declared her four year old son Shivaji II, king & herself the regent. Later Shahu was released by Bahadur Shah I who appointed Balaji Vishwanath as Peshwa. Baji Rao I succeded who was the most charismatic leader in Maratha history after Shivaji.He conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand & even raided Delhi. He was succeded by his son  Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Saheb – different from the later Nana Saheb, adopted son of Baji Rao II) who defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Maratha however received a terrible blow at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 at Panipat. 

 

Selective Treaties & Battles

Treaty of Purandhar

Jai Singh defeated Shivaji. Shivaji had to surrender 23 out of the thirty five forts held by him.

Treaty of Palkhed

Nizam of Hyderabad was forced to recognize Maratha claimsto chauth & sardeshmuhi in the Deccan (durin Baji Rao I’s tenure).

Treaty of Warna

Claims of Tara Bai settled by granting her Kolhapur

Treaty of Bhalke 

Marathas won large parts of Khandesh by invading Karnataka. 

Battle of Talikota (1565)

Between Vijayanagara Empire (Rama Raya, son of Achutya Raya) and Deccan sultanates, resulted in Vijayanagar’s defeat.

 

Books of Medieval Period

1.

Taj-ul-Maasir

Hasan Nizami

2.

Tabaqat-i-Nasiri

Minhaj Siraj

3.

Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi (Most important work of sultanate period)

Fatwah-i-Jahandari

Ziauddin Barani

4.

Futuh-us-Salatin (establishment of Bahmani Kingdom)

Isami

5.

Tarikh-i-Firuzshahi

Afif

6.

Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi

Yahya Sirhindi

7.

Akbar Nama

Abul Fazal

8.

Tabaqat-I-Akbari

Nizammudin Ahmad

9.

Muntakhab-al-tawarikh

Badauni

10

. Badshahnama/Padshahnama

Abdul Hamid Lahori

11

. Muntakhab-ul Lubab (Aurangzeb’s reign)

Khafi Khan

12

. Mirat-i-Ahmadi

Ali Muhammad Khan

13

. Padmavat (on Padmini – wife of Ratan Singh, King of Chittor)

Malik Mohammad Jaisi

14

. Tughluq Nama, Tarik-i-Alai, Nuh Sipihr, Ashiqa

Amir Khusro

15

. Marwar ra Pargani ri Vigat (Info on Rajasthan)

Munhta Nainsi

16

. Chandayan

Maulana Daud

17

. Himayun Nama

Gulbadan Begum

18

. Bhavartha Dipika

Gyaneshwara

19

. Safarnama or Rihla

Ibn Batuta

20

. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri (Autobiography)

Jehangir

21

. Tarikh-i-Shershahi

Abbas Sarwani

22

. Tuzuk-i-Baburi/ Baburnama (in Turkish –Autobiography)

Babur

23

. Shahjahannama

Inayat Khan

24

. Dayabhaga

Jimuta Vahna

25

. Periya Puranam (12th book of Tamil Veda called Tirumurai)

Shekkilar 

26

. Sur Sagar (Life of Krishna)

Sur Das

27

. History of Aurangzeb, The fall of the Mughal Empire

Jadunath Sarkar

28

. Mahmud of Ghazni

Mohammad Habib

29

. The Administration of the Delhi Sultanate

I.H. Qureshi

30

. Foundation of Muslim Rule in India

A.B.M. Habibullah

31

. Agrarian System of Mughal India

Irfan Habib

 

Monuments of Medieval Period

College of Ajmer (Converted to Adhai din ka Jhompra)

Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva

Rudra Mahakala temple, Siddhapura

Jayasimha Siddharaja 

Jagannath Temple at Puri

Anantavarman Chodaganga

Sun Temple, Konark

Narasimha I ( E. Gangas)

Brihadesvara/Rajarajeswara temple at Thanjavur

Rajaraja the Great

Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, Delhi

Qutbuddin Aibak

Adhai din ka Jhompra

Qutbuddin Aibak

Himayun’s Tomb

Akbar’s step mother Haji Begum

Tomb of Sher Shah at Sasaram

Sher Shah

Agra Fort

Akbar

Buland Darwarza (commemorate Gujarat victory)

Akbar

Shalimar Garden

Shah Jahan

Badshahi Mosque at Lahore (largest in subcontinent)

Aurgangzeb

Man Mandir, Gwalior

Man Singh

Hauz Khas

Alauddin Khalji

Akbar’s Mausoleum at Sikandara

Akbar. Completed by Jehangir.

Madrasa at Bidar

Mahmud Gawan

 

Kings & their Court Jewels

1.  

Lakshmansena

Jayadeva, Halayudha, Sridharadasa.

2.  

Vikramaditya VI (Chalukya)

Bilhana (Vikramanankadevacharita) Vijnanaeshvara (Mitakshara)

3.  

Sharqis of Jaunpur

Malik Muhammad Jaisi

4.  

Akbar

Tansen, Todar Mal, Tulsidas (just contemporary)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prominent Foreign Travellers

1.  

Marco Polo

Venetian Traveller visited Pandya kingdom

2.  

Ibn Batuta

Muhammad bin Tughlaq

3.  

Nicolo Conti

Italian visited Vijayanagar during the reign of Deva Raya I

4.  

Abdur Razaq

Visited the court of Zamorin in Calicut & travelled to Vijaynagar during the reign of Deva Raya II

5.  

Nikitin

Russian, visited Bahmani kingdom & Gujarat

6.  

Nuniz

Portuguese, stayed at Vijayanagar during Krishna Deva Raya

7.  

Ralph Fitch

British during Akbar’s reign

8.  

William Hawkins

English merchant. Received a mansab from Jehangir

9.  

Thomas Roe

Ambassador of English King James I to Jehangir’s court. Obtained trade concessions. Wrote “Embassy”.

10.  

Peter Mundy

English traveller during Shah Jahan’s reign.

11.  

Tavernier

French jweller. Aurangzeb’s reign.

12.  

Bernier

French Physician. Most important account of all European. Aurangzeb’s reign. Wrote ‘Travels in the Mughal Empire’.

13.  

Nicolo Manucci

Italian. Aurangzeb’s reign.

 

Jargon of Medieval Period

Mamluk

White slaves

Ur

Common village assembly (Chola  period)

Muqaddam

Village head

Nagaram

Assembly of merchants (Chola  period)

Sondhar 

loans

Sabha

Assembly of Brahmins (Chola  period)

Khots

Village head 

Khutba

A sermon made in Friday mosque

Sharia

Muslim law

Madad-i-Maash

Tax free grants of land

Subas

Provinces

Waqf

Grants to muslim religious establishment

Mir Bakshi

Military department

Pargana 

Around Hundred villages.

Ummah

Muslim believers

Sadr us sadur

Ecclesiastical affairs

Mir Saman

Supply department

Qanungos

Keeper of revenue records 

Shiqdar

Headed Pargana.

Zabt

Revenue based on land measurement

Amils

Revenue officer

Ibadat Khana

House of worship (Fatehpur Sikri)

Hundis

Bills of Exchange

Diwan

Function of finance (Akbar’s time)

Dhimmis

Non-Muslim people

Wujuhat

Taxes on cattle,grazing,orchards.

Vimans

Towers of temple

Shaikhzadas

Indian Muslims nobility

Din

Religion

Peshwa

Prime minister (Shivaji)

Ganj

A grain market

Amatya

Revenue minister (Shivaji)

Gomashta

Commercial agent

Sumant 

Foreign minister (Shivaji)

Hun

A gold coin

Bargir

Cavalrymen (horse belonged to leader)

Dam

Coin (1/4th of rupee)

Nankar

Portion of revenue given to Zamidar

Sarkar

A number of Paragana

Diwan-i-Arz

Ministry of Military Affairs

Khums

Tax on plunder

Diwan-i-Insha

Ministry of Royal Correspondences

Zawabit

Non Shariat state laws

Diwan-i-Risalat

Religiour affairs

Faujdar

Incharge of Sarkar

Diwan-i-Kul

Wazir or chief imperial fiscal minister.

Malfuzat

Sayings of sufi saint

Diwan-i-Wizarat

Department of finance

Tankah

Silver coin

Khalisa

Land revenue directly for imperial treasury

Kanqah

Sufi lodging 

Wilayat

Spiritual territory of a sufi

Misl

Sikh Regions  (12)

Umra

Collective term for nobility

  

Watandar

Desais & Deshmukh (collective term)

Extent of Mughal Empire at Akbar’s Death

 

Miscellaneous Facts:

1.Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 AD. The Quran alongwith the Hadith (sayings of the prophet) is venerated as supreme sources of authority in Islam. Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina is known as Hijra & the muslim calendar commences from this year. At the battle of Badr Muhammad first wielded sword to assert his prophethood. Quibla the direction to be faced during prayer changed from Jerusalem to Mecca.

2.Prophet’s son-in-law Ali was regarded as lawful immediate by some section (shiis) while other group considered his close followers Abu Bakr, Umar & Uthman as legal heir (came to be known as Sunnis).

3.Mahmud of Ghazni was the son of Subuktigin (founder of Ghaznavid dynasty). Subuktgin had defeated the Hindhshahi ruler Jaipal. Utbi was the court historian of Ghazni. Mahmud raided 17 times which included Nagarkot, Mathura, Kanauj & Somanath temple (1025 AD when Chalukya king Bhima I was ruling Gujarat). He patronized Al-Beruni.

4.Muhammad Ghur first invasion was against Multan which he won easily. His invasion of Gujarat ended in a crushing defeat at the hands of the Chalukyan forces. Then followed Battle of Tarain I & II, invasion of Ghadavala ruled by Jaichandra. After Ghur’s death his senior slave Tajuddin Yalduz occupied Ghazni, Qubacha occupied Multan, Ali Mardan took Lakhnauti (Bihar-Bengal) while Aibak took Delhi. At the same time Bhaktiyar Khalji, another slave raided province of Bihar destroying monasteries of Nalanda & Vikramshila & even attacked the Bengal ruler Lakshmanasena. Eastern Chalukyas ruled at Vengi.

5.Chola king Rajendra I captured whole of Sri Lanka & reasserted Chola soverignity over Kerala & Pandyan country. He conquered north upto Ganga & assumed the title of Gangaikonda. Marco Polo visited the Pandyan Kingdom around 1293 AD.

6.Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign saw the rise of two independent states in south – Vijaynagar &

Bahamani. The Tungabhadra doab had been a source of conflict between the Cholas & the western Chalukyas, between Yadavas & Hoysalas as well as between the Vijaynagar & the Bahmani Kindom.

7.The largest indigenous industry during the Delhi sultanate period was that of textiles. During Firuz Shah the slaves rose to an all time high. While India’s indigenous architecture is trabeate (space spanned by beams laid horizontally), the Islamic form is arcuate (arches are used to bridge a space).

8.All the Lodi rulers were buried on the Bagh-i-Jud known today as Lodi Garden. The coins of Mahmud Ghazni, Iltutmish, Nasirudin Mahmud, Balban, Alauddin Khalji bear the name of Abbasid Caliph.

  1. Mansabdars had dual ranks – zat (personal rank & expenses) & sawar (cavalry rank). Land revenue systems were batai (crop divided between state & the peasant), hast-o-bud (official inspection for estimation), kankut system (estimation of land & yield), nasaq system (based on previous estimates).
  2. The sants of the Vithoba cult & their followers called Varkari emphasized annual pilgrimage to

Pandharpur (Mahrashtra). The most important saint was Jnaneshvar. Saguna Bhakti (Tulsi Das, Chaitanya, Surdas, Mirabai, Nimbarka & Vallabha) believed in doctrine of incarnation while Nirguna bhakti (Kabir) worshiped formless aspect of divinity.

  1. Guru Angad developed the Gurmukhi script. Guru Arjun Dev completed Adi Granth. Guru Hargobind constructed the Akal Takht at the Golden Temple & asked his followers to built the fort of Lohgarh. Enraged Jehangir had the Guru imprisoned for 2 years.
  2. Of the various Sufi orders in India the Chishti (founder was Moinuddin Chisti) & Suharawadi (Shaikh Bahauddin Zakariya whose Khanqah at Multan became an important pilgrimage centre) orders (silsilas) were the most prominent. Other prominent saints were Shaikh Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki & Nizamuddin Auliya. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (Naqshbandi order) was contemporary of Jehangir.
  3. There was no Maratha in Akbar’s nobility & only one in that of Jehangirs. In Aurangzeb’s time the

Marathas increased considerably & foreign nobility declined. Dara Shukoh brother of Auranzeb got 52

Upanishads converted into Persian, the collective work being known as the Sirr-i-Akbar. Murshid Quli Khan was a talented revenue officer during the time of Shah Jahan who helped prince Aurangzegb streamline the revenues in Deccan. 

  1. Uprisings during Aurangzeb period were Jats (Gokula, Rajaram, Churaman & Surajmal-the adopted son of Badan Singh), Satnami, Sikhs (Guru Harkishan summoned to Delhi – Bangla Sahib is the site where he resided; Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded at present Sis Ganj Gurudwara site; Guru Gobind Singh born in Patna), Bundelas of Ochha (under Chhatrasal)
  2. On Baisakhi day in 1699, Guru Gobind Singh established the Khalsa panth. In the succession that followed after Aurangzeb, Govind Singh supported Bahadur Shah in the hope of getting justice against Wazir Khan (who killed Guru’s son) but all in vain. Gobind Singh appointed Banda Bahadur (later kille Wazir khan) to wage war against the mughals but he failed & was humiliated before being executed.
  3. Shivaji assumed titles of Chhatrapati, Gobrahmance Pratipalak (protector of cows & Brahmins). His consecration marked the commencement of a new era, the Rajyabhisheka saka.
  4. Bengal was the main silk centre. Land owner ship was Khudkhasta (Owner & land in the same village), Pahikashta (different village) & Muqarari raiya (He leased his spare land to tenants called muzarin). During mughal period there is no evidence of joint ownership of land. Slave trade focus shifted from Multan to Kabul. Freshly minted coins had a greater value than those minted in previous regimes.
  5. Thomas Roe went to Jehangirs court to get concessions for operation. Dutch obtained a farman from the Sultan of Golconda to operate at Masulipatnam.
  6. The Mughal school of painting began with Himayun & reached its pinnacle during Jehangir. Himayun also started the Mina Bazar for royal ladies.

 

Miscellaneous Facts from Mocks:

  1. Qutbuddin Aibak was not recognized by the Caliph of Baghdad. Kashmir was never a part of sultanate of Delhi. ‘Janam Sakhis’ are the biographical writings abouth the Sikh gurus. The utterances of Namdev, Kabir, Ravidas, Shaikh Fariduddin Masud (Sufi Saint), Dhanna have been included in Adi Granth.

Printing press was introduced in India by the Portuguese. 

  1. The most important system of land revenue was the Zabti system. The term ‘Urs’ referred to the death anniversary of a Sufi saint. The Sisodiyas of Mewar did not submit to Akbar during his reign. Shahjahan did not write his autobiography. Bairagis in India were a Vaishnavite sect.
  2. Portuguese-Dutch-English-French was the correct sequence of foreigners coming to India. In medieval period Polaj was the most fertile land & banjar the least fertile.
  3. Bijapur (Adil Shahi Dynasty), Ahmadnagar (Nizamshahi dynasty), Golkonda (Qutbshahi dynasty), Bidar (Barid Shahi dynasty).
  4. Delhi Sultanate reached its maximum limit during Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Invasion of Chengiz Khan

(Iltutmish reign), Invations of Tarmahirin (Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s reign), Invasion of Nadir Shah (Muhammad Shah) & Invasion of Timur (Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlaq).

  1. Mir Syed Ali, Daswant & Khwaja Abdus Samad were famous painters at the court of Himayun &

Akbar. Mansur & Bishan Das were leading court painters under Jehangir. The translation of

Mahabharata in Persian (Razmnama) was carried out during the reign of Akbar by Faizi. Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur s built over the tomb of Muhammad Adil Shah.

  1. The dominant form of decoration employed in the buildings of the sultanate period is called arabesque. Various regional languages of medieval India arose out of Apabhramsa. The pushtimarg was the philosophy of Guru Vallabhacharya (Surdas was his disciple).
  2. Moinuddin Chisti (Ajmer), Nizamuddin Auliya (Delhi), Farduddin Masud (Pak Patan, Pakistan) & Khwaja Syed Mudammad Gesu Daraz (Gulbarga) are the famous sufi shrines.
  3. Krittivasa translated Ramayana into Bengali. Kabir, Ravidas, Dhanna & other low cast bhakti saints were belived to be disciples of Ramananda. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of Golconda founded the city of Hyderabad. Arabs were not a part of Mughal nobility. Abdur Rahim Khan-i-Khanan was a mughal noble & poet under Akbar.
  4. The sufi silisilas were Suhrawadi, Firdausi, Shattari, Chisti, Qadiri & Naqshbandi. Amer was Jaipur, Marwar (Jodhpur), Mewar (present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand and Udaipur).