Modern Period

 

Later Mughals

1707-12

Bahadur Shah I

1712-13

Jahandar Shah

1713-19

Farukk Siyar

1719-48

Muhammad Shah Rangila

1748-54

Ahmad Shah

1754-59

Alamgir II

1759-1806

Shah Alam II

1806-1837

Akbar Shah II

1837-57

Bahadur Shah II

 

Later Mughal Rulers

Bahadur Shah I

1707-1712

After the death of Aurangzeb, prince Muazzam, Azam & Kam Bakhsh fought in which Mauzzam emerged victorious & assumed the title of Bahadur Shah I. Banda Bahadur who killed Wazir khanwas defeated by him. Was referred to as ‘Shah-iBekhabar’. 

Jahandar Shah

1712-13

Later after Bahadur Shah’s death, his son Jahandar Shah came to power after killing his other brothers with the help of Zulfikar Khan. He made peace with the Jats, Shahuji & honoured rajput kings.

Farrukh Siyar

1713-19

Nephew of Jahandar Shah, Farrukh Siyar killed him with the help of Sayyid brothers – Abdulla Khan (Wazir) & Hussain Ali Khan (Mir Bakshi). Farrukh Siyar tried to check the powers of Sayyid brothers but the latter got him killed & crowned two princes Raffi-ud-Darajat, Raffi-ud-Daula in quick succession. Later they made Muhammad Shah (Grandson of Bahadur Shah I) as the king. After his accession the Sayyid brothers fell victim to the intrigue of Turani Amirs.

Muhammad

Shah Rangila

1719-48

During his tenure most the independent kingdoms were established: Nizam-ul-Mulk (Deccan), Saadat Khan (Awadh) & Murshid Quli Khan (Bengal). Iranian King Nadir Shah invaded in 1739 on invitation of Saadat Khan (Awadh). The latter was imprisoned by Nadir Shah for not able to pay the promised ransom. Nadir Shah took the peacock throne & the Kohinoor diamond with him.

Ahmad Shah

1748-54

Son of Muhammad Shah. During his reign Ahmad Shah Abdali (claimed himself ruler of Kandhar after the assassination of Nadir Shah by Persian in 1747) repeatedly attacked. Later Ahmad Shah was killed & deposed by his own Wazir Imad-ul-Mulk.

Alamgir II

Actual name Aziz-ud-din. Frequency of Abdali attacks increased. [1754-59]

Shah Alam II

1759-1806

Akbar Shah II

1806-1837

Bahadur Shah II

1837-57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other Contemporary States

Bihar

After Saadat Khan, *Safdarjung* became the king  who was an impartial ruler & carried out many reforms & was made the wazir of mughal empire. Shuja-ud-Daula succeded him to throne. He was also made the wazir of mughal empire but he sided with Ahmad Shah Abdali in the Third Battle of Panipat.

Bengal 

Murshid Quli Khan was an able ruler. Later his son in law Shuja-ud-din & his son

Sarfaraz came in that order. Sarfaraz was defeated by Alivardi Khan of Bihar. Later Alivardi Khan was defeated by Raghuji Bhonsle & forced him to surrender Orissa. After the death of Alivardi khan his grandson Siraj-ud-daula tool over who lost to

Britishers under Lord Clive.

Hyderabad

Nizam-ul-mulk Asaf Jah founded the state of Hyderabad in 1724.

Mysore &

Haider Ali

Since the downfall of the Vijaynagar empire Wodeyar dynasty was ruling. But in the 18th century two minister Nanjaraj & Devaraj usurped power early reducing the King Krishna Raj to a puppet. Haider Ali rose to become the Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore army & became the sultan after Nanjraj’s death. He was defeated by Peshwa Madhav Rao.

Tipu Sultan

He defeated the combined forces of Marathas & Nizam in 1787 & soon after claimed himself Padshah at Seringapattam. He attempted to reduce the custom of jagirs & hereditary possession of poligars (small chieftans). He was a staunch muslim. He donated money to hindus but later got the temples abolished.

Travancore

Martanda Verma

Rajput States

Marwar (Ajit Singh), Amer (Sawai Jai Singh)

Rohilkhand

Area between Agra & Awadh. Muhammad Khan Bangash ruled who was defeated by Maharana Chhatrasal of Bundelkhand with the help of Marathas.

Sikhs

Ruler of one of the 12 Misls called Sukarchakiya. He with the help of his brave commander Hari Singh Nalwa won Multan, Kashmir & Peshawar. 

 

The Peshwas

1713-20

Balaji Vishwanath 

Shahu appointed him as the Peshwa.

1720-40

Baji Rao I

Baji Rao I succeded who was the most charismatic leader in Maratha history after Shivaji.He conquered Malwa, Bundelkhand & even raided Delhi.

1740-61

Balaji Baji Rao

Son of Baji Rao I  Balaji Baji Rao (Nana Saheb – different from the later Nana Saheb, adopted son of Baji Rao II) who defeated the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Maratha however received a terrible blow at the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761-Panipat

1761-72

Madhav Rao I

Defeated Nizam, Mysore, Rohillas, Rajputs Jats. In 1771 he confined the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II  by giving pension.

1772-73

Narayan Rao  

Short tenure. Tussle with Ragunath Rao over Peshwa claim.

1774-95

Madhav Rao II

Became Peshwa after treaty of Salbai supported by Nana

Phadnavis.  In the meantime Mahadji Scindia who had brought Shah Alam under his control became the actual ruler of Delhi till his death in 1794.

1796-1818

Baji Rao II

Incompetent son of Raghunath Rao (who was had earlier stuggled with Narayan Rao to become Peshwa & sided with Britishers)

 

 

 

Important Battles

1744-48

First Anglo-French Carnatic war. Madras returned to British by the treaty of Aix-laChappalle. In battle of St. Thome, a small French Army defeated Nawab Anwar-uddin’s large one.

1748-54

Second Anglo French Carnatic war. The French sided with Muzaffar Jang (grandson of

Asaf Jah) & Chanda Sahib (in Carnatic) while the Enlish supported the claims of Nasir Jang (son of late Nizam, Asaf Jah) & Anwar-ud-din (Carnatic) Initially the French under Dupleix had success (& stationed officer Bussy at Hyderabad) but later the English got hold. Treaty of Pondicherry signed.

1757-63

Third Anglo French Carnatic war. French captured Fort St. David. Lally did the mistake of recalling Bussy from Hyderabad. Later the French were badly routed at Wandiwash by the British under Sir Eyre Coote.

1757

Battle of Plassey. British under clive & treacher Mir Jaffar routed Siraj-ud-daula. Mir Jafar was made Bengal but later replaced by his son-in-law Mir Kasim. He revolted & was again replaced by Mir Jafar.

1760

Battle of Wandiwash. French decisively defeated 

1761

Third Battle of Panipat. Marathas defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali

1764

Battle of Buxar. Mir Kasim, Shuja-ud-daula & Shah Alam II defeated by Major Munro. Treaty of Allahabad signed which gave the diwani of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa & Bihar to the Enlish & trading rights in Awadh. Shah Alam on pension of 26 laksh/annum.

1767-69

I Anglo Mysore war. Both the British & Haider Ali returned each others territories The britisheres committed to help Haider against a third party invasion

1775-82

First Anglo Maratha war. The British army was defeated. The humiliating convention of Wadgaon was concluded in which the company was required to give up all the advantages of Treaty of Purandhar. Peace was at last restored by treaty of Salbai signed between Warren Hastings & Mahdji Scindia whereby salsette & Bassein were given to the British.

1780-84

II Anglo Mysore War. In 1782 Haider Ali passed away due to illness leaving the struggle to Tipu. War concluded by treaty of Mangalore

1790-92

III Anglo Mysore war. Tipu signed the treaty of Seringapattam

1799

IV Anglo Mysore war. When the subsidiary alliance was offered to Tipu Sultan he flatly refused & hence the war happened in which the Marathas & the Nizam helped the Britishers. Tipu died fighting the war. 

1803-1805

Second Anglo Maratha war. Marathas defeated.

1814-16

Anglo Nepal war. War came to an end by treaty of Sagauli

1817-19

Third Anglo Maratha war. Marathas decisively defeated

1823-26

First Anglo Burmese war. Buremese defeated & conducted Treaty of Yandahboo

1839-42

First Anglo Afghan war. The Britishers were defeated.

1845-46

First Anglo-Sikh war. Sikhs defeated & Treaty of Lahore conducted

1848-49

Second Anglo Sikh war. Sikhs defeated & Punjab annexed to British. Maharaja Dalip Singh given an annual pension of 50,000 pounds & sent to England for higher studies & later converted to Christianity. The Kohinoor was gifted to Queen Victoria.

1852

Second Anglo Burmese war. English successful

1878-80

Second Anglo Afghan war. English suffered losses.

1885-87

Third Anglo Burmese war. English annexed Burma

1919-21

Third Anglo Afghan war. English though victorious did not benefit from the war.

 

 

Important Treaties

Treaty of Pondicherry

After the II Carnatic war. Muhammad Ali, son of late Anwar-ud-din was accepted as the Nawab of Carnatic.

Treaty of Mangalore

1784

Signed between Tipu & British in 1784. Under this Tipu withdrew his army from Carnatic & English withdrew theirs from the Carnatic.

Treaty of Seringapattam

1792

After III Anglo Mysore war. Tipu had to pay heavy war indemnity & send as hostages his two sons to the English. Half of his territory was ceded. He paid the war indemnity & his two sons were released.

Treaty of Amritsar 1809

Signed between British & Ranjit Singh in which the latter recognized their rights in the Cis-Sutlej areas.

Treaty of Sagauli

After Anglo Nepalese war. The Gurkhas gave up their claim over the Tarai region & ceded claim over the areas of Kumaon & Garhwal to the British.

Treaty of Lahore

After the first Anglo Sikh war. The territories lying to the south of river Sutlej  were given to the company.

 

Land Settlements

Zamindari System (19%)

Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, division of NW provinces & northern Carnatic. 90 % of the revenue went to government & 10 % to Zamindar (British)

Mahalwari System (30%)

Major parts of NW provinces, Central provinces & Punjab. Responsibility of paying revenue was with the entire village or mahal. (Based on traditional Indian system of economic community)

Ryotwari system (51%)

Bombay & Madras presidencies, Assam, Berar & certain other parts. Land revenue was fixed for 20-40 years at a time (French in Origin)

 

Books/Articles & Authors (Modern)

Ghulamgiri (challenged superiority of Brahmins)

Jyotiba Phule

Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists in Persian)

Raja Rammohun Roy

Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishvara & Life of Shivaji

Jyotiba Phule

New Lamp for the Old (Series of Articles criticizing Congress)

Aurobindo Ghosh

Doctrine of Passive Resistance (Articles in Bande Mataram)

Aurobindo Ghosh

Indian War of Independence (seized by British)

V.D. Savarkar

Loyal Muhammadans of India

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Tahaib-al-Akhlaq

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Asbab-e-Bagawar-e-Hind (Held Bahadur Shah II as fool for revolting)

Sayyed Ahmad Khan

Neel Darpan

Dinbandhu Mitra

How did America get Freedom

Ram Prasad Bismil

The activities of Bolsheviks, The wave of the Mind, Colour of Swadeshi, Revolutionary Life

Ram Prasad Bismil

Systematic History of Ancient India

V.A. Smith

Hindu Polity

K.P. Jayaswal

Political History of Ancient India

H.C. Raychaudhary

A History of Ancient India; A history of South India

K.A. Nilkant Shastri

Hindu Civilization; Chandragupta Maurya; Asoka; 

Fundamental Unity of India

R.K. Mookerji

History of Dharmashastra

P.V. Kane

The Wonder That was India

A.L. Basham

Socio-Religious Reformers & their Organizations

Atmiya Sabha (1815)

Raja Rammohun Roy

Brahmo Samaj (1828)

Raja Rammohun Roy.

Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839). Later merged with

Brahmo Samaj in 1842

Mahrishi Devendranath Tagore. 

Indian national Social Conference

M.G. Ranade

Harijan Sevak Sangh

Mahatma Gandhi

Satya Shodhak Samaj (1873)

Jyotirao Phule (fight caste oppression)

Shri Narayana Dharma Partiplana Yogama

Shri Narayan Guru (fight caste oppression)

South Indian Liberal Federation (later became justice party & then Dravida Kazhagam)

T. Teagaraja & T.M. Nair (Self respect)

Prarthana Samaj (1867)

Atma Ram Pandurang

Arya Samaj (1875)

Swami Dayanand

Servants of India Society (1905)

Gopal Krishna Gokhale (Rejected Knighthood)

Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha (1893 at

Nasik)

Chapekar Brothers – Damodar & Balakrishna. 

Abhinav Bharat

V.D. Savarkar

New India Association

V.D. Savarkar

Anushilan Samiti

Aurobindo Ghose, Barindra Kumar Ghose, B.P.

Mitra, Abinash Bhattacharya & Bhupendra Dutta

Patriotic Association

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Muhammad Anglo-Oriental Defence Association

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Bahiskrit Hitkarni Sabha (1924)

B.R. Ambedkar

Akhil Bharatiya Dalit Varg Sabha

B.R. Ambedkar

 

Movements/Organizations

Aligarh Movement

Sir Sayyed Ahmad Khan

Deoband

Movement

Represented by Mohammad Qasim Nanautavi & Rashid Ahmad Gangohi. Nanautavi founded the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madrasa at Deoband. This movement was strictly based on Islamic tradition unlike liberal Aligarh movement.  The also promulgated a fatwa against Sayyid Ahmad’s associations. In 1919, Mufti Liyaqat Ullah Sahib founded the, ‘Jamaitul Ulema-i-Hind’ to further work in this direction. His role was prominent in the Khilafat movement.

Muslim League

Nawab Wakar-ul-Mulk presided over a gathering at the invitation of Nawab Salim Ullah of Dacca. Muslim league was the result. The constitution of the league was prepared in 1907 at Karachi. The first session of the league was held in 1908 at Amritsar. The same year Aga Khan became the president. The league supported partition of Bengal & was a loyalist organization. After 1913 Aga Khan left the league which led to the emergence of new leaders like Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali & M.A. Ansari.

Home Rule League

Estd by Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. She was the president & other members included Arundale, P.C. Ramaswamy Iyer, V.P. Wadia.

Balgangadhar Tilak had estd another Home Rule League in April 1916 at Pune.

Champaran

Satyagraha 1917

European planters forced the farmers to cultivate Indigo on atleast 3/20

(Tinkathiya) parts of their land. Rajendra Prasad, Mazhur-ul-Haq, J.B. Kriplani, Mahadev Desai accompanied him. An enquiry was set up to alleviate miseries of which even Gandhi was a member.

Kheda Satyagraha

Kheda peasants refused to pay revenue due to failure of crops. After Satyagraha

 

1918

the government issued instructions to collect revenue only from those who could afford to pay. Indulal Yagnik & Vallabh Bhai Patel supported Gandhi.

Ahmedabad Mill

Problem 1918

Mahatma Gandhi considered 35 % increase in salary as just. He undertook a fast unto death & the strike came to an end. Ambalal Sarabhai’s sister Anasuya Behn was main lieutenant of Gandhi here.

Rowlatt Act

In March 1919, the Britishers passed the Rowlatt Act according to which any Indian could be arrested on the basis of suspicion. A nationwide satyagraha was organized which involved arrest of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr Satyapal, Dr. Saiffuddin Kitchlew & Arya Samaj leader Swami Shradhananda (shoot if you can rally).

Jallianwala Bagh

Massacre

Demanded to know the whereabouts of Satyapal and Kitchlew throught the reciting of  the poem ‘Fariyad’ on the day of Baisakhi (13th April, 1919). Martial law was proclaimed later at Lahore, Gujarat & Layal with curfew at Amritsar. An enquiry was setup under Hunter. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his title.

Khilafat Movement

Sultan of Turkey was the Caliph. The allied powers were arrayed against Turkey.

Mulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saiffudin Kitchlew, Maulvi Abdulbari,

Hakim Ajmal Khan & the Ali brothers were prominent leaders. British signed the Treaty of Tibers, partitioned Turkey & its Sultan was made a prisoner & sent to Constantinople. 

Non Cooperation 

1920-22

Approval at Congress session in 1920. Leaders like Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant & Bipin Chandra Pal not in agreement & left the congress. Students took their names off school. Kashi Vidyapeeth, Bihar Vidyapeeth, Jamia Milia Islamia were set up. No Congress leader contested for elections. Mass demonstrations before Duke of Connaught & Prince of wales. Tilak Swarajya Fund was established. Moplah rebellion was the ugly face. Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, UP incidence led to its recall. Congress leaders like Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das formed as separate group within the congress known as Swarajya Party with a purpose not to let the movement lapse. 

AITUC 

1920

Formed in 1920 with Lotvala’s help. M.N Roy, Muzzafarabad Ahmad, S. A Dange & Shaukat Osmani led the trade unionist movements. The Britishers leveled the kanpur/Meerut conspiracy against them. 

Swaraj Party

Suspension of Non Cooperation movement disoriented the leadership. Chittaranjan Das & Motilal Nehru were called ‘Pro-Changers’ & did not support the non cooperation movement. The other group was ‘no-changers’ & included C. Rajgopalachari, M.A. Ansari. In 1923 Das & Nehru formed the Swaraj Party at Allahabad with a view to take part in the 1923 Council elections. The swaraj party got clear majority in the Central legislature & Provincial legislatures except Bengal. After the passing away of Chittaranjan Das in 1925 the party weakened & further some of the leaders became corrupt. Therefore in the election of 1926 it suffered miserable defeat in all the provinces except Madras. 

Hindustan

Republic

Associaiton 1924

Established in October 1924 in Kanpur by revolutionaries like Ramprasad Bismil,

Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad and Sachindranath Sanyal. The Kakori Train Action was a notable act of terrorism by this group but trial prooved to be a major setback.However, the group was reorganized under the leadership of Chandrashekhar Azad and with members like Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Sukhdev on 9 and 10 September 1928- and the group was now christened Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged in March 1931.

Communist Party

Was declared illegal in 1934. This ban continued till 1942 when there was an

 

of India 1925

agreement that the communist will support British in the war effort & sabotage the quit India movement. In a memorandum to the Cabinet Mission in 1946, they put forward a plan for the division of India into 17 sovereign states. 

Bardoli Satyagraha

In Bardoli district of Surat under Vallabh Bhai Patel. The government had raised the tax rate by 30% despite famine.

All India States

People Conference

Formed in 1926 whose first session was held under the presidentship of the famous leader of Ellore, Diwan Bahadur M. Ramachandra Rai.

Simon

Commission

The purpose was the review the Act of 1919 after a gap of ten years. The 7 member commission was labeled ‘White Men Commission’. Huge demonstration under Govind Vallabh Pant at Lucknow & Lala Lajpat at Lahore. The report of Simon Commission was published in May 1930. It  stated the constitutional experiment with Dyarchy was unsuccessful & in its place recommended the establishment of autonomous government. It recommended special powers to governor general & governors to look after the interest of minorities, strengthening the centre, increasing electorate base on communal basis, Indianization of defence forces, delink Burma from India & Sindh from Bombay. The Indians rejected the report as it gave no regard to Dominion Status. It became a basis for the Govt of India Act 1935. 

Nehru Report,

1928

Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead challenged the Indians to produce a constitution that would be acceptable to all. A meeting held at Bombay set up a 8 member committee headed by Motilal Nehru & others included Bose, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Sir Ali Imam, Shahib Qureshi, Sardar Mangal Singh, MS Anney & G.R Pradhan. The report was placed before Congress Session in Calcutta in 1928 where it was adopted unanimously. It recommended reservation for minorities instead of separate electorates. Jinnah & President of Central Sikh league, Sardar Kharak Singh rejected it. Later Jinnah convened an All India Conference of Muslims & drew up a list of 14 point. Jawahar & Bose were not happy with the dominion status. 

Dandi March 

April 1930

Reached Dandi after marching with 78 handpicked followers & formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the Salt laws. Many muslims kept themselves aloof but in the NWFP an organization of Khudai Khidmatgar (Servants of Gods – Red Shirts) under Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (Frontier Gandhi) participated in full. 

I Round table Conference 

Nov 1930

Held under the Chairmanship of Ramsay MacDonald. Failed to resolve any issues as it was opposed by congress.

Gandhi Irwin Pact

March 1931

As per it Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement & participate in the Second Round Table conference but most of the leaders did not like this pact.

II Round Table

Conference 1931

At London. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India as no agreement could be reached. In January 1932 the civil disobedience movement was resumed. 

McDonald

Communal Award

1932

The British PM Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement according to which the depressed classes were considered as separate community. Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast unto death in Yeravada Jail. An agreement was reached with the consent of Mahatma Gandhi & Ambedkar which came to be known as ‘Poona Act’. The British government also approved it. Accordingly 148 seats were reserved in different provincial legislatures in place of 71 as per communal award. 

III Round Table

The congress once more didn’t take part in it. None the less the British

 

Conference 1932

Government issued a white paper which became basis for Govt of India Act 1935.

Individual Civil Disobedience was launched in 1933

Congress Socialist

Party 1934

founded in 1934 by Jai Praksh Narain & Acharya Narendra Deva within the Indian National Congress. Its members rejected what they saw as the Communist Party of India’s loyalty to the USSR as well as the anti-rational mysticism of Mohandas Gandhi. Although a socialist, Jawaharlal Nehru did not join the CSP. After independence, the CSP broke away from Congress, under the influence of JP Narayan and Basawon Singh (Sinha), to form the Socialist Party of India.

August Offer 1940

Envisaged that after the war a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new constitution. 

Individual

Satyagraha 1940

Started in October 1940. In it Vinoba Bhave, Jawahar Nehru & Brahma Dutt were the first 3 satyagrahis. 

Cripps Mission

1942

Viceroy Lord Linlithgow expanded is Executive council by taking five more Indians into it. The Indians were dissatisfied as it did not like the rights of the princely states to join or stay out of the Indian constitution. The demand for Pak also not considered leading to Muslim league rejecting the plan. 

Quit India

Movement

1942-44

The fear of an impending Japanese invasion Gandhi launched this campaign. In the midst the government arrested all Indian leaders – Gandhi at Poona, others at Ahmadnagar fort. Rajendra Prasad was interned in Patna. The Congress Socialist Party whith its leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta Patwardhan played important role. Communist Party remained loyal to the British. The Muslims by & large remained indifferent. 

INA

Captain Mohan Singh founded it in 1942. In 1943 he reached Singapore & gave a the cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He was made the president of the Indian Independence League. The name of the brigades were Subhash, Gandhi, Nehru & Rani Lakshmibai. In Nov 1943, Japan handed over Andamans & Nicobar Islands to him. He named them Shaheed Island & Swaraj Island respectively. The army marched towards imphal after registering victory over Kohima. But later Japan accepted defeat & Subhas died in a plain crash after crossing Formosa Island.

C.R. Formula 1944

To resolve the constitutional impasse Rajagopalachari evolved a formula in March 1944. But it was rejected by Jinnah who would not settle without Pakistan. 

Wavell Plan &

Shimla Conference

1945

The main provisions were akin to Cripps mission proposals. It essentially dealt with the Indian demand of self-rule & reconstitution of viceroy’s executive council giving a balanced representation to the major communities. Executive council was an interim arrangement in which all but the Viceory & the Commander in Chief were to be Indians & all portfolios except defence were to be held by Indian members. Conference broke down because of Jinnah’s insistence that Muslim league alone represented Indian Muslims & hence no non league muslim members could be nominated to viceroy’s council.

Cabinet Mission

1946

Pathick Lawrence (secretary of state for India), Stafford Cripps & A.B. Alexander. Jinnah stuck his demand for Pakistan. It proposed the formation of Union of India comprising both British India & princely states (only foreign, defence & communication). A constitutional assembly was to be formed consisting of representatives of Provincial assemblies & princely states, elected on communal basis in proportion to the population of each province. Envisaged interim govt & said that until the constitution is framed & the govt estd British forces will not withdraw. The Congress & Muslim league accepted it in June 1946.

Elections

Following cabinet mission elections were held. Congress secured 205 out of 214

 

general seats & had support of 4 sikh members. The Muslim league got 73 out of 78 Muslim seats. Jinnah became greatly disturbed by the election results. He demanded separate constituent assembly & started instigating violent action. Later 16 August 1946 was fixed as direct action day to withdraw its acceptance of cabinet mission plan. Communal riots broke out in Bengal, United Province, Punjab, Sindh & NWFP. Interim government was formed with Jawahar Nehru as head & 14 members – 6 congress, 5 League, one each Christian, Sikh & Parsi.

However Muslim league kept out of the Interim government. 

INA Trails

Held at Red Fort in Delhi. Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, Tejbahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of three senior INA officers, Shahnawaz khan, P.M. Sehgal & G.S.

Gurudayal Dhillon led to their acquittal.  

RIN Mutiny 1946

Indians serving in the Royal Indian Navy mutined. Around 5000 naval ratings put up INA badges. 

Mountbatten Plan

Mountbatten came to India as Viceroy. He put forth the plan of partition of India in 3 June 1947. Punjab & Bengla would be divided into two parts with muslim & non muslim majority. Baluchistan had the right to determine which side to join. The power would be transferred on 15 August 1947. Referendum were to be held in NWFP, Sylhet (to join Assam or East Bengal). Legislative assembly of Sindh was to decide whether to join India or not. 

Indian Independece

Act 1947

The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence act on 18th  July 1947. Partition on 15th August. The act provided separate governor generals for the two dominions. Abolition of the post of secretary of state for India.  Pending the adoption of new constitution, the administration of the two dominions & the provinces would be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the government of India act 1935 though special powers of the Governor General & the Provincial governors would be ceased. Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan. 

Unification Drive

On 5th July 1947, Vallabhbhai Patel appealed to the Indian provinces to handover. He followed up his appeal with a hurricane tour of 40 days in which he invited all the native princes to join the Indian union by 5th August. In Kashmir Hari Singh sent his PM Meharchand Mahajan with the signed papers for the merger. In Hyderabad the nawab wanted to continue his arbitary rule with the help of Rajakars. Finally after military action, Rajakars were expelled & the instrument of accession signed. 

Pondicherry & Goa

The other French territories were Karaikal, Mahe,Yanam & Chandernagore.

Chandernagore had acceded to India on the basis of a plebiscite. In 1954 all the French possession in India were formally handed over to India though the legal transfer took place in 1962. Operation ‘Vijay’ was carried out for the liberation of Goa when satyagraha failed in 1961. It became a state in 1987.

 

Social Reformers & Their Work

Rajaram Mohun

Roy

Laid stress on the study of English & established the Hindu College in Calcutta alongwith David Hare.

Maharishi

Devendranath

Tagore

The grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore. He inspired a number of thinkers like Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar & Akshay Kumar Datta who became Brahmo Samaj members. He din’t perform his fathers antyeshti samskara as it involved idol worship.

Keshav Chandra

He was greatly inspired with the lives of John the Baptist, Jesus Christ & hence he

Sen

came in confrontation with Devendranath Tagore. Consequently the Brahmo Samaj was split into the Brahmo Samaj of India under him & Adi Brahmo Samaj under Devendranath. He opposed child marriage but married her own minor daughter to Maharaja of Cooch-Behar. Hence there was a further split into Neo Brahmo Samaj under him & Sadharan Brahmo Samaj

Ishwar Chandra

Vidyasagar

Became principal of Sanskrit college in Calcutta. Opened the Sanskrit college for non Brahmin students. He founded ‘Bethune School at Calcutta’ to encourage female education. 

Bankim Chandra

First graduate of Calcutta University which was estd in 1857 based on the lines of Macaulay Minute. He became a deputy collector. Wrote the famous Bande Matram (Anand Math) & published Banga Darshan magazine.

Ramakrishna

Paramhamsa 

Became a priest in the temple of Goddess Kali at Dakshineshwar. (1836-86)

Swami

Vivekanand

(1863-1902)

In 1893 he attened the Parliament of Religions at Chicago. In 1897 he established the Ramakrishna Mission. His disciple, Sister Nivedita even helped many revolutionaries from Bengal directly. 

Swami Dayananda

1824-83

Known in early life as Mul Shankar & born in Gujarat. Received his education at the feet of Swami Virajananda at Mathura. Founded Arya Samaj in 1875 based on a set of 28 principles (later 10). He estd the HQ of Arya Samaj at Lahore. Passed away on Diwali at Jodhpur following the mixing of glass powder in his drink. Through his Satyartha Prakasha he emphasized Vedas. He laid emphasis on the worship of a formless god & abandonment of idolatory. He emphasized on Ashrama system of education. He stressed on swadeshi, swadharma, swabhasha & swarajya. He considered Vedas as infallible.

Jyotibha Phule

In 1873 he founded Satya Shodhak Samaj. Gave testimony before Hunter Commission against Christian missionaries. Later given the title ‘Mahatma’.

Sayyid Ahmad

Khan

In 1875 founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh which later became Aligarh University. Opposed polygamy, purdah, abolition of the practice of easy divorce, reform in madrasa.

 

Freedom Fighters

Lokmanya Tilak

1856-1920

Introduced the celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi & Shivaji festivals. Paticipated in Home Rule Movement in 1916. Called by Britishers as ‘Biggest Traitor’ & ‘Father of Indian dissatisfaction’

Lala Lajpat Rai

Sher-e-Punjab. Was sent to Jail at Mandey on the charges of seditious activities.

Sri Aurobindo

Ghosh

His development of National education & editing of Bande Mataram (started by Bipin Chandra Pal) gave momentum to Bengal partition movement. Left Baroda to work in the National College in Calcutta. 

Chapekar Brothers

Chapekar Brothers – Damodar & Balakrishna. Killed two British officials Rand & Aryst. Celcbrated Shivaji & Ganesh Utsavs.

Savarkar Brothers

Ganesh Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar & Narayana Savarkar. V.D. Savarkar organized the New India Association in London. Organizing lectures at the India House founded by Shyamji Krishna Verma. He was linked to the assassination of Jackson at Aurangabad. Sentenced to imprisonment in the Andamans from 1911-24.

Shyamji Krishna

Verma

India House had become centre of V.D Savarkar, Sardar Singh Rana, Madam Bhikaji kama & Madan Lal Dhingra. 

Madam Kama

Represented India in the International Conference at Stutteguard in Germany.

Madan Lal

Dhingra

He short dead the assistant of the Secretary of State Curzon Wyllie. Gopal Krishna Gokhale clled it as a heinous act meant to spoil the name of India. 

Chandra Shekhar

Azad

Involved in the assassination of Saunders (officer who ordered the Lathi Charge in which Lala Lajpat was killed), alongwith Bhagat Singh & Rajguru. He had chalked out a plan to blow up the train in which the Viceroy Lord Irwin was traveling. He was killed in a police encounter  at Alfred Park in Allahabad.

Harkishen Talwar

Shot the Governor of Punjab but the latter escaped with injuries only Later Harkishen was hanged. 

Bhagat Singh

In association with Chhabil Das & Yashpal he had founded the Punjab Naujavan Bharat Sabha. 

Rani Gaidinliu 

Lead the Nagas in the revolt. Yadunaga was the other leader.

Subhas Chandra

Bose

Passed the Civils in 1920 but preferred to serve the nationalist cause. He was elected the Mayor of Calcutta in 1923 but soon arrested & sent to Mandalay. Elected President at the Haripura session of Congress in 1938. He left for Kabul along with his friend Bhagat Ram. From there he went to Germany & met Hitler.

He was first addressed as Netaji in Germany. 

Udham Singh

Whilst living in England in 1940, Singh shot dead Sir Michael O’Dwyer, former Governor General of the Punjab.

 

Major Armed Uprising

Wahabi

Movement

Shah Abdul Aziz & Saiyed Ahmad Raebarelvi. Objective was to reform the Muslim society & convert ‘Dur-ul-Harb’ (Non-Islamic community) into ‘Dar-ul-Islam’.

Origianlly the movement was started in Arabia by Muhammad Ibn-Aba-e-Wahid. 

Its main centre was Patna, Sittana (NW province).

Kuka

Movement 

Bhai Ram Singh (Disciple of Bhai Balak Singh). It is also called Namdhari Mission. Bhai Ram Singh asked his followers to worship cow & run langars, wear white clothes & not use any foreign commodity or service. Bhai Ram Singh was deported to Burma.

Santhal

Rebellion

1855-56

Siddhu, Khanhu, Chand & Bhareo (four sons of Chulu Santhal of Raj Mahal district). Under the Permanent Settlement of 1793 the lands of Santhal passed to Zamidars & later to European Indigo planters. 10,000 santhals were killed in this rebellion. After this the area was put under the direct control of the Governor General & was named Santhal Paragana. 

Vasudeo Balwant Phadke was born in Maharashtra. He left the army & became a revolutionary. Later deported to Aden & died in 1883. He may be justly called the father of militant nationalism in India. 

Kisan

Movements

Launched by Lala Lajpat Rai & Ajit Singh. The passing of the 1906 Punjab Land

Revenue Act & heavy increase in water tax caused panic. The poem of Banke Dayal, ‘Pagri Sambhal O Jatta’ became famous. Lala & Ajit Singh were sentenced to 6 months prison. Later the DSP of Layalpur Clough was assassinated. Ajit Singh escaped to France while Bhai Parmanand’s house search yielded a book on bomb making.

Moplah

Rebellion

Khilafat movement in Malabar incited communal feelings in Muslim peasants directed towards Hindu land holders. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newspapers/Magazines/Weeklies

Harijan Bandhu, Harijan Sevak

Mahatma Gandhi

Samvad Kaumudi, Mirat-al-Akhbar

Raja Ram Mohun Roy

Tattvabodhini Patrika

Maharishi Devendranath Tagore

Indian Mirror

Maharishi Devendranath Tagore

Banga Darshan

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay

Maratha (English) & Kesari (Marathi)

Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak 

The Punjabi, ‘The Pupil’ (English)

Lala Lajpat Rai

New India  

Bipin Chandra Pal

Bande Matram

Bipin Chandra Pal (Editing by Aurobindo Ghosh)

Yugantar

Barindra Kumar Ghose & Bhupendra Dutta (Anushilan Samiti)

Talwar

Verendranath Chattopadhyay

New India

Annie Besant (Demanding Home Rule)

Common Will

Annie Besant (Demanding Home Rule)

Indian Sociologist (London)

Shyamji Krishnaverma

Bandi Jivan

Sachindranath Sanyal

Al-Hilal

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (during Khilafat)

The Comrade 

Mohammad Ali  (during Khilafat movement)

Nation

G.K. Gokhale

Karmyogi

Aurobindo Ghosh

Prabudha Bharat, Udbodhava

Vivekananda

Darpan

Bal Shastri Jambekar

Socialist

S.A. Dange.

Congress Sessions

1885

W.C. Bannerjee

Bombay

1886

Dadabhai Naroji

Calcutta

1887

Badruddin Tyabji

Madras

1888

George Yule

Allahabad

1889

William Weederburn

Bombay

1905

G.K. Gokhale

Banaras – Issues like welcoming the prince of wales led to feud

1906

Dadabhai Naoroji

Calcutta – Approval of issues of swadesi & national education. Dadabhai Naoroji was chosen as compromise president. He declared swaraj as the objective.

1907

Rashbihari Bose

Surat – split

1912

R.N. Madholkar

Bankipur. Shortest session as the efforts to make Aga Khan preside over proved futile.

1916

Ambika Charan

Mazumdar

Lucknow. 

1920

 

Calcuttta. Approval of Non cooperation Movement

1921

 

Ahmedabad – intensify Non Copperation Movement.

1924

Mahatma Gandhi

Belgaun

1928

Motilal Nehru

Calcutta. Adopted the Nehru Report – Constitution.

1929

Jawahar Nehru

Lahore. The resolution demanding complete independence was passed on the banks of river Ravi.

1930

 

No session but Independence Day Pledge adopted on 26th January

1938

S.C. Bose

Haripura.

1939

S.C. Bose

Tripuri. Formed ‘Forward Bloc’. 

Famous Sayings

I wish for a peaceful term of India. I cannot forget that in the sky of India , serene as it is, a small cloud may arise ………..threaten to burst & overwhelm.

Lord Canning 

‘a battle of blacks against the whites’ (on 1857 revolt)

J.W. Kaye

The war which began for religion ended up as a war for independence

Surendranath Sen

‘India has lost her most eminent son’ (on death of Keshav Chandr Sen)

Max Mueller

‘If somebody wants to understand India he should study Vivekananda’

Rabindranath Tagore 

So long as millions live in hunger & ignorance I hold every man a traitor

Swami Vivekananda

The objective of founding the congress was to save British ruler from danger

Lala Lajpat Rai

It is my firm belief that the congress….I should help it in its peaceful demise

Lord Curzon

I am very happy that the congress is continuously going downhill

Lord Elgin

Out life & religion are useless without the attainment of Swaraj

Lokmanya Tilak

The long night is going to end now…..most powerful goddess has arisen

Vivekananda

When in hundred years lip agitataion & paper agitation failed, in these six months right work has succeeded (on Bengal Partition Movement)

Lala Lajpat Rai

A charter of slavery (on govt of India act 1935)

Jawahar Nehru

Thoroughly rotten, fundamentally bad & totally unacceptable (Act 1935)

Mohammad Jinnah

The choice today is accepting the statement of June 3 or commiting suicide (on

Mountbatten plan of India’s partition)

Govind Vallabh Pant

We would not have had one Pakistan but several (On partition plan acceptance)

Sardar Vallabh Patel

 

Conspiracy Cases/ Revolutionary Act

Nasik Conspiracy Case

Anant Kanhare & Ganesh Savarkar short dead collector Jackson of Nasik with the revolver sent by V.D. Savarkar

Muzaffarpur Shooting

1908. Khudi Ram & Prafulla Chaki tried to bomb Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur but instead his wife & daughter died.  Khudiram a minor was hanged & Prafulla Chaki shot himself dead.

Delhi Conspiracy Case

When Lord Hardinge was passing through a procession celebrating the shifting of Capital to Delhi a bomb was thrown on him. 13 people were arrested. Master Amir Chand, Awadh Bihari, Bal Mukund & Basant Kumar 

Biswas were hanged whereas Ram Bihari Bose succeded in fleeing to Japan.

Gadar Movement 1915

Baba Sohan Singh Bakhna (president) Lala Hardayal (secretary) and Pandit Kashiram (treasurer) at San Franscisco. A paper by the name of Gadar was also brought out by this party. Raja Mahendra Pratap even set up a government in exile for India’s independence at Kabul.

Lahore Conspiracy Case

1915

A raid was conducted quash the activities of Gadar revolutionaries. Bhai Parmanand was arrested. Vishnu Ganesh Pingle & Kartar Singh Sarabha were also arrested. Baba Sohan Singh Bakhna were transported for life. 

Kakori Conspiracy Case

1925

Ram Prasad Bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan Singh & Ashfaqullah Khan (first Muslim) were hanged. Sachindranath Saynal was sentenced to life imprisonment. Chandra Sekhar Azad was also involved but he escaped. 

Meerut Conspiracy 1929

Thirty-one Communist leaders arrested for sedition: Trial lasted 4 years

Chittagong Armoury Raid

1930-32

Under the leadership of Suryasen on government armouries at Chittagong,

Mymen Singh & Barisal. Ambika Chakraborti, Loknath Bal & Ganesh

Ghose were prominent leaders involved. Among the girls, Kalpana Dutt, Preetilata Waddekar were in the forefront. A fight took place in Jalalabad hills where a number of revolutionaries were killed.