1.The Marathas were Scindia (Gwalior), Holkar (Indore), Gaekwar (Baroda), Bhonsle (Nagpur).
2.Sawai Jai Singh of Amer (Jaipur) had Euclid’s ‘Elements of Geometry) & several works on Trigonometry were translated into Sanskrit. Banda Bairagi was baptised as Banda Singh Bahadur by Guru Gobind Singh.
3.Alfonso d’ Albuquerque came to India as the Portuguese governor & later captured Goa.
4.By a Farman issued in 1717 by Farrukh Siyar the East India company gained many concessions. The first British factory was established in 1651 in Hughli under permission from Shah Shuja, Subedar of Bengal & son of mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
5.Clive introducted the system of dual administration in Bengal under which the company acquired real power while the responsibility of administration – Nizamat as well as Diwani was exercised through Indians. This system was finally terminated by Warren Hastings.
6.Under subsidiary alliance a British resident & army was to be kept at the princely state & a portion of the territory/annual amount was to be given for maintenance. In return the states got British protection.
7.Devasting famine of Bengal in 1770 & 1837 (8 lakhs died). Later there was serious famine in 1896-97 & 1899-1901.
8.The sequence of states which were annexed by doctrine of lapse were Satara (1848), Sambalpur of Orissa, Jaitpur in Bundelkhand (both in 1849), Baghat (1850)Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853), Nagpur (1854). Awadh was annexed on the grounds of misrule.
9.First direct translation of a Sanskrit work into English was completed by Charles Wilkins. The book that was translated was the Bhagavad-Gita. The pindaris were a group of irregular horsemen attached to the Maratha army who used to serve without pay but were allowed to plunder. The British suppressed them.
- The Britishers stopped the pension of Peshwa Baji Rao II’s adopted son Nana Sahib, the nawab of Carnatic & the Raja of Tanjore.
- The army officers in Bengal were paid two times extra allowance in comparison to their counterparts in Madras. Lord Clive stopped this & consequently the British Army Officers rose in revolt which came to be known as the White Revolt.
- In 1853 Charles Wood became the Chairman of the board of control. Consequently by the Charter Act of 1853, Indians were allowed entry into the Civil Services. The minimum age was raised to 23 & its centre was England & Enlish was made the medium. The dispatch recommended the establishment of one university each in Calcutta, Bombay & Madras on the model of London University.
- Cornwallis was the first Governor General to establish a regular police force on the British pattern in India. Warren Hastings established a fauzdari & Diwani Adalats. The Diwani adalats were presided over by the District collectors whereas Indian Judges assisted by Muftis & Qazis decided cases in Faujdari adalats.
Appeals from these adalats could be made to Sadar Diwani adalat & Sadar Nizamal adalat at Calcutta.
Warren Hastings also established a madrasa in Calcutta to encourage study of Muslim laws.
- The Sadar Diwani & Sadar Nizamat adalats operated on the basis of Indian laws.
- Lord Cornwallis divested the collector of all judicial powers, thereby putting an end to his role as both the collector of revenue & the district magistrate. He created a new post called District judge for the purpose. During his period the system of Zamidari was introduced. The Mahalwari & Ryotwari systems were also devised to maximize revenue collections.
- Gradation of criminal courts were – district, circuit, provincial circuit & the highest Sadar Nizamat Adalat. The Governor General enjoyed power of pardon. In case of civil law the gradation was Munsifs, court of registrars, district courts, provincial courts (Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad & Patna), Sadar Diwani Adalat & the highest King in Council.
- Lord William Bentick established separate Sadar Nizamat Adalat & Sadar Diwan Adalat were set up at Allahabad for convenience of N W Indian population.
- The Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856. In 1891 though the enactment of the age of consent act the minimum marriageable age for a girl was raised to 12 years. In 1930 though the Sharda Act the minimum age was raised to 14 years. After independence the limit was raised to 15 years (1948) & 18 years (1978).
- Railways were introduced during Dalhousie’s period. Dalhousie also passed Religious Disabilities Act. Till 1850 a convert to other religion used to be disinherited from the ancestral property, but now even after adopting Christianity his claims on property remained intact. Lord Caning (1856-62) was the last governor general of the east India company.
- In 1852 Inam commission was established. Its objective was to take over the lands on which revenue was not being paid.
- Lord Ellenborough discontinued the practice of giving gifts to Bahadur Shah & stuck his name off the coins. Dalhousie asked him to vacate Delhi & shift to Qutab area. Canning announced that the emperor should renounce the title & his status be reduced to that of a prince.
- The mode of carrying the revolt of 1857 was chappatis & red lotus. Initally planned on 31st May but on
29th March Magal Pandey revolted. Bakht Khan was the actual leader at Delhi, Begum Hazrat Mahal at
Lucknow (declared her minor son Bijris Kadar the nawab & rose in revolt), Nana Saheb, Tantya Tope, Azimullah khan at Kanpur, Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur (Bihar),Ahmadullah at Rohilkhand, Ranga Bapuji
Gupte in Maharashtra, Sonaji Pant & Ranga Rao Page of Kolhapur, Radhakrishna Dandsena at Ganjam.
Chengalpet (under Annagiri & Krishna) near Madras was also a major centre.
- Loyalist included Holkar of Indore, ruler of Gwalior, rulers of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Nizam of Hyderabad, Gulab Singh of Kashmir, Sikh rulers of Patiala, Nawab of Bhopal, rulers of Tehri & Tikagarh. Big landlords, moneylenders & traders also supported the rule of the company. The English educated classes also remained indifferent. Queen of Bahadur Shah, Rani Jeenat Mahal & her two sons joined hands with the enemy.
- Bahadur Shah was sent to Asylum in Rangoon where he died in 1862.
- The white soldiers revolted because of their discontent due to shifting of their divisions from the East India Company to the command of British Crown. Due to this Canning had to remove nearly 10,000 soldiers. This was called the ‘Revolt of the whites’.
- Following the revolt the army was reorganized. No European was recruited in the local forces. Crucial branches of army like artillery exclusive for British. Except for some loyal regiments the Bengal army was disbanded.
- In 1876 the British Parliament passed an Act known as the ‘Royal Titles Act’ by which the Queen Victoria assumed the title of the ‘Empress of India’. The practice of Royal Darbar (1877) during Lytton was introduced to instill loyalty among the Indian princes. Again Royal Durbar at Delhi during Curzon’s period in 1903 to commemorate the coronation of Edward VII.
- After 1857, due to the Press Registration Act of 1867, liberty of press which had been given by Metcalf (1835) was finished. The Vernacular Press Act of Lord Lytton of 1878 which empowered the district magistrates to call upon the publisher to enter into a bond undertaking not to publish anything likely to excite feelings of dissatisfaction. English papers were exempted from it. No appeal could be made. Amrita Bazar Patrika started publishing in English instead of Bengali. Indian Arms Act passed by Lytton in 1878 barred Indians from possessing weapons unless considered loyal subjects by Britishers.
- Through an act in 1860 the age limit fro Civils was reduced from 23 to 22 & it was further reduced to 21 in 1866 & probation in England extended for a period of 2 years from 1 year before. In 1864 Satyendra Nath Tagore was the first Indian to clear. In 1869, Sri Surendranath Banerjea, Sri Bihari Lal Gupta & R.C Dutt succeded. In 1877 the maximum age was further reduced from 21 to 19. Lytton proposed a plan for Statutory Civil Services in 1879 which was not to have the same status as covenanted services. However an amendment provided that a maximum of 1/6th of its member should be Indians.
- The Hunter Commission (1882) was officially known as the Indian Education Commission, appointed to review the state of education since Wood’s dispatch & headed by William Wilson Hunter.
- Ilbert Bill (1883) of Ripon (1880-84) was meant for allowing Indian judges to try Europeans. Lord Ripon repealed the Vernacular Press Act in 1882.
- Chief Pre Congress organizations were Land Holders Society (1837), British India Society (1843), British
Indian Association (1851) in Bengal, Native Association (1852) in Madras & Bombay Association (1852) in Bombay. In 1866 Dadabhai Naroji (Grand Old Man of India & president of Congress twice) set up the East India Association in London.
- The Pune Public Conference (Ganesha Vasudev Joshi, S.H. Sathe, Chiplunkar & MG Ranade) was established in 1870. In Calcutta the Indian league (Editors of ABP- Sisir Kumar Ghosh, Shambhuchand
Mukherjee, Kali Mohan Das & J.C. Dutt) was established in 1875
- The ‘Indian Association’ was set up in 1876. Its leaders were Anand Mohan Bose & Surendranath
Banerjea. The Mahajan Sabha (P. Rangayya Naidu, V. Raghavachari & Anandcharlu) was estd in Madras in
- In 1885 Hume spoke of his own party as Indian National Union which later came to be known as Indian national Congress (during Dufferin’s tenure). The actual purpose was to strengthen British rule & act like a safety valve. Under the leadership of William Digby, the congress opened a branch in England in 1888 & started a magazine called ‘India’.
- Aurobindo Ghosh (1872-1950) returned to India after 14 years stay in England in January 1893. Annie Besant arrived in India the same year & Mahatma Gandhi went to S.A in connection with the trial of a merchant, Abdulla Seth. Tilak was arrested for seditious writing in his paper “Kesari” & sentenced for six years (1908-14) imprisonment. He asked Jinnah to defend him.
- In 1904 the Administrative Secrecy Act was passed which considered breach on official secrets as a criminal offence. The same year the Indian Universities Act was passed which increased the government control on the universities.
- In the partition of Bengal, Chittagong, Rajshahi & Dacca were merged with Assam to form new province.
Dacca was proposed to be its capital. The remaining part included West Bengal, Bihar & Orissa. Finally Curzon announced the partition of Bengal on October 16, 2005. This was observed as ‘black day’.
- In the 1915 session of the Muslim league Mahatma Gandhi, Sarojni Naidu & Madan Mohan Malviya took part which was presided by M.A. Jinnah. The Congress accepted the demand of separate electorates.
- Gandhiji wrote in Hind Swaraj, ‘Passive resistance (Satyagraha) is an all sided sword’. He wanted the satyagrahi to observe perfect chastity, adopt poverty, follow truth & cultivate fearlessness.
- Under the Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 only 1 percent & under the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919, two & a half percent, & under Govt of India act 1935, 13 percent population became eligible voters. Elections to provincial legislatures were held in 1937 & the congress virtually swept the polls. The Muslim league could register victory only in 81 seats out of 482 Muslim seats. Viceroy Linlithgow assured Congress of his cooperation. The congress formed government in 7 states. In two states in Sindh & Assam ministries were formed by congress support. In Punjab the Unionist Party & the Muslim League formed the coalition government & in Bengal the coalition ministry of Krishak Praja Party & the Muslim League came to power. In 1937, after the elections Mohammad Ali Jinnah Proposed to form a coalition ministry in the United Provinces (as they were in minority) but the congress refused. At this juncture Jinnah proposed his ‘twonation theory’. The Muslim league celebrated 12 December 1939, the day on which the Congress Ministries resigned from office as the ‘Deliverance Day’. However communal stock flared up in 1940 when the Muslim League accepting the two nation theory in its annual session at Lahore demanded Pakistan creation. The Jamait-ul-Ulema-e-Hind, Khudai Khidmatgar opposed the demand.
- In 1939 without consulting the people of India, the British government involved the people in war. Hence the congress ministries resigned.
- The Hindu Mahasabha was established in 1915 on the occasion of the Kumbh Mela at Hardwar by Madan Mohan Malaviya. V.D Savarkar, Lala Lajpat Rai participated in it.
- On 26th November 1949, Dr. Rajendra Prasad as the president of the constituent assembly formally signed the constitution, even while expressing his dissent on 20 points. It was primarily written in English & no educational qualification was set for any posts enshrined in it. India was then divided into 562 princely states (accounting for 48 % area & 20 % population) other than British India.
- During 1941-45, no sessions of Congress were held due to arrest of all eminent leaders
- Manabendra Nath Roy (March 21, 1887̂January 25, 1954) was an Indian Communist leader. Roy was born as Narendranath Bhattacharya. He had a leading role in revolutionary movements in India, Mexico, the Middle East, the Soviet Union, Indonesia and China. Like Marx he was both and activist and a phisopher; in fact Lenin called him “the Oriental Marx”. Roy tried to organize an armed insurrection in India in 1915; founded the Communist Party of Mexico (1919) and the emigre Communist Party of India in Tashkent (1920); rose to occupy the highest offices of the Communist International and led the Commintern’s delegation to China (1927). At the same time he authored such Marxist classics as India in Transition (1922), The Future of Indian Politics (1926) and Revolution and Counter-revolution in China (1930); and founded the organ of the emigre Communist Party of India, The Vanguard (and later The Masses) and edited it for seven years (1922-28).
The Govt. of India Act
Gave assurance that there would be no more territorial possessions. Titles were bestowed on many princes & the right of adoption was accepted. No
interference in religious matters.
The Indian Council
Provided that there was no difference between the central & provincial subjects. The number of additional members in the council was fixed between four to eight. The Act also provided the Madras & Bombay governments the right to make laws.
The number of members in the Imperial Legislative Council was raised to 69 out of which 37 were to be govt nominees & 32 non-govt. The non-govt nominees comprised 5 members nominated by the governor general & 27 elected members (13 represented Maharajas, 6 land lords, 6 muslims & 2 Chambers of Commerce in Bengal & Bombay).
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms 1919.
Setup a bifurcated legislature consisting of two houses ie the Council of States & the Central Legislative Assembly, in place of former Imperial Coucil consisting of only one house. Some of the functions of the Secretary of State were taken from him & given to the high commissioner for Inida who was to be appointed & paid by the government of India. For the first time the King’s Council was established. The ambit of communal electorates was exapned to give representation to the Sikhs, Anglo Indians, Europeans & Christians alongwith the Muslims. The representation of Indians was increased in both the central as well as provincial legislatures.
Govt of India Act
Contained 451 articles. It was to have two chambers, the council of state & the federal assembly. The Indian council was abolished. Expanded communal representation. Decided to establish a federation of India consisting of Governor’s provinces & princely states. It was compulsory for the governor’s provinces to accede to the proposed federation, whereas in the case of princely states, it was voluntary. All constituent parts of the federation were to have full internal autonomy. To implement the act it was proposed to establish a federal executive & a federal legislature. Under the act, dyarchy in the provinces earlier established by the act of 1919 was replaced by Provincial Autonomy. The distinction between reserved subjects & transferred subjects was abolished. Burma was separated from India. The governor was not bound to accept the advice of council of ministers.