• The king was the head of the administration




  • It was hereditary monarchy


  • The rule of primogeniture generally prevailedThe king gave verbal orders



  • Officers like Olainayamak (Chief Secretary) and Vidaiyadhikari (despatch clerk)were prominent


  • The army consisted of infantry, cavalry and elephants which formed the three limbs of the great army


  • The Velaikkarars were the most dependable troops in the royal service


  • They were the bodyguards of the monarch, who defended him with their lives

and were ready to immolate themselves on the king’s funeral  


  • The whole empire was divided into mandalams or provinces


  • The villages were mainly of three types


  • The first type constituted of an intercaste population where the land was held by all classes of people and paid taxes to the king in the form of land revenue. (Popular one)


  • The second was the Brahmadeya or agrahara villages which was granted to the

Brahmins and was entirely inhabited by them  


  • They were exempted from tax and were prosperous


  • The third type of village was the Devadana, which were villages granted to god


  • The revenues from these villages were donated to a temple


  • The Devadana type of villages gained more popularity as the temples became