• The ur was a general assembly of the village 


  • The ur consisted of all the tax-paying residents of an ordinary village


  • The Alunganattar was the executive committee and the ruling group of the ur


  • The ur open to all male adults but was dominated by the older members


  • The sabha was apparently an exclusively Brahmin assembly of the brahmadeya villages


  • The sabha had more complex machinery, which functioned largely through its committees called the variyams


  • The sabha possessed proprietary rights over communal lands


  • It also controlled private lands of the villages 


  • It reclaimed forest and waste land


  • It aided in the assessment of the produce and land revenue




  • Election to the executive body and other committees of the ur and sabha appears to have been conducted by draw of lots from among those who were



The nagaram was an assembly of merchants and were found more commonly in the trading centers

They were feudatories of Chalukyas of Badami.  





Ø It was founded by Dantivarman/Dantidurga. He defeated the Chalukyan king



Ø His uncle Krishna I led the other conquests and defeated the Chalukyas of Badami, Gangas of Mysore etc.  

Ø Then there were Govinda II and Dhruva who ruled the dynasty.  



Ø He was again succeeded by Govinda III. He fought against North Indian Kings

and the Pala king ‘Dharmapala’ and Chakrayudha.  


Ø He was succeeded by his son ‘Amoghavarsha/Sarva. He patronized literature and arts.  

Ø After them came Indra III and Krishna III. Indra III defeats the Prathihara King



Ø The Rashtrakutas were of Kannada origin and Kannada language was their

mother tongue  


Ø Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty  


Ø He defeated the Gurjaras and captured Malwa  



Ø His successor Krishna I was also a great conqueror. He defeated the Gangas and the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. He built the magnificent rock-cut


monolithic Kailasa temple at Ellora  

Amoghavarsha I was a follower of Jainism. Jinasena was his chief preceptor  


Ø He was also a patron of letters and he himself wrote the famous Kannada work,



Ø He had also built the Rashtrakuta capital, the city of Malkhed or Manyakheda  



Ø The Rashtrakuta Empire was divided into several provinces called rashtras under the control of rashtrapatis  


Ø They were further divided into vishayas or districts governed by vishayapatis  


Ø The next subdivision was bhukti consisting of 50 to 70 villages under the

control of bhogapatis  


Ø The Hindu sects of Vaishnavism and Saivism flourished during the period of


Ø Almost one third of the population of the Deccan were Jains  


Ø There were some prosperous Buddhist settlements at places like Kanheri,

Sholapur and Dharwar  


Ø There was harmony among various religions  


Ø There was a college at Salatogi, situated in modern Bijapur district  


Ø An inscription gives details of this educational centre  


Ø It was run by the income from the endowments made by the rich as well as by

all the villagers on occasions of functions and festivals  


Ø The Rashtrakutas widely patronized the Sanskrit literature  



Ø There were many scholars in the Rashtrakuta court. Trivikrama wrote Nalachampu and the Kavirahasya was composed by Halayudha during the reign of Krishna III