• Amogavarsha I, who was a Jain patronized many Jain scholars his teacher Jinasena composed Parsvabhudaya, a biography of Parsva in verses


  • Another scholar Gunabhadra wrote the Adipurana, the life stories of various Jain saints


  • Sakatayana wrote the grammer work called Amogavritti



  • The great mathematician of this period, Viracharya was the author

of Ganitasaram  


  • The Kannada literature saw its beginning during the period of the



  • Amogavarsha’s Kavirajamarga was the first poetic work in Kannada language


  • Pampa was the greatest of the Kannada poets. His famous work was



  • Ponna was another famous Kannada poet and he wrote Santipurana





The man of Letters ‘Jinasena’ who wrote ‘Adipurana’ lived under the patronage of Amoghavarsha.


There were Mahaviracharya who wrote ‘Ganitasara Samghraha.


Saktayan wrote ‘Amoghavritti’.


The Arab traveler Al Masudi came during the Rashrakuta period and was impressed by Indra III.


       The Chalukyas

  • The Rashtrakutas were overthrown by Tailapa or Taila who founded another dynasty called the Chalukya dynasty which had the capital at

Kalyani (Karnataka)  


  • There are many Chalukyan dynasties.















Chalukyas of Badami/Vatapi. They are known as early western Chalukyas.

Chalukyas of Vengi. They are known as Eastern Chalukyas.

The Chalukyas of Kalyani. They are known as ‘Western Chalukyas’.

 The Chalukyas of Gujarat.

  • The Chalukyas began with a base in northern Mysore at Vatapi or Badami and the adjacent Aihole, from where they moved northward and annexed the former kingdom of the Vakatakas
  • Pulakesin I (550-566) was the real fouder of the Chalukya dynasty of Badami. He made Badami or Vatapi as his capital. He adopted the title

Vallabheshvara and performed the ashvamedha  


  • He was succeeded by Kirtivarman I


  • With the expeditions of Pulakesin II, the Chalukyas became the

paramount power in the Deccan  


The army of Pulakesin II checked the forces of Harshavardhana on the banks of

the Narmada  


  • The Pallava King Narasimhavarman I (A.D. 630-668) occupied the Chalukya capital at Vatapi in about 642 A.D., when Pulakesin II was probably killed in fight against the Pallavas


  • One of the paintings in Ajanta represents Pulakesin II receiving the ambassador from Iran


  • Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim visited the kingdom of Pulakesin in about

641 A.D  


  • Vikramaditya I plundered the Pallava capital, Kanchi, thus avenging his father’s defeat and death at the hands of the Pallavas

       The other Dynasties

  • The Senas of Bengal were supposed to be the original inhabitants

of Dhakshinapatha.  


  • The last ruler of Pala dynasty called Madanapala was defeated by the founder of Sena dynasty called ‘Vijayasena’.
  • Ballalasena and Lakshmana Sena are notable kings in the Sena dynasty.



  • The Pratihara dynasty was founded by Nagabhatt II. They fought continuous

battles and got the glory under the king ‘Bhoja I/ Mihirabhoja.  


  • Mihirabhoja adopted the title ‘Adivaraha’ .




  • The Pratihara dynasty was called as ‘Gurjara Pratihara.

Rajputs were also very known family. They have emerged from the ‘Agnikula’.  







  • The 4 agnikula clans are Pratiharas, Chauhans, Solankis and Paramaras.



  • The Chandela dynasty was centered in the region of Bundelkhand. It was founded by Nanuka. Dhanga was the famous king.
  • The Pallava dynasty was very famous. The term Pallava meant ‘Creeper’ and is

a Sanskrit one for Tamil called ‘Tondai.  


  • Their capital was at ‘Kanchi’. Dandi was the court poet of Narasimha Varman II.



  • Vaishnavism and Shaivism became very popular during the Pallava period. Majority of the kings were Shaivites except Simhavishnu and Nandivarman

who were Vaishnavites.  


  • The Kailashnatha temples, the temples of Mahabalipuram are classic

examples of Pallava temples.  


                      The Arab conquest of Sind

  • The Khalifa of Baghdad wanted his governor Hajjaj to invade Sindh.






  • The ships carrying some valuable materials/gifts were travelling from Ceylon

to Baghdad. This ship was attacked by the pirates. This angered the Arabs.  


Mohammad Bin Qasim invaded Sindh in 712 AD and killed the Hindu king

‘Dahir’ in the ‘Battle of Rowar’.  


  • Islam was spreading in different parts of India.





The Turkish invasion (1000-1025 AD)


Ø A man called Mahmud of Ghazni attacked India. He wanted to plunder wealth




from India.

He attacked India 17 times. He defeated ‘Anandapal’ of Hindu Shahi dynasty

in the ‘Battle of Waihind’.  


  • He attacked different temples of India. He completely destroyed the

Somnathpur temple.  

  • He destroyed the temple of Thaneshwar and burnt the temple of Mathura.














 The poet Firdausi wrote the ‘SHAHNAMA’ (Book of Kings)

Alberuni was a person related to Mahmud and he wrote the ‘Tarikh-ulhind’. He took the wealth of India to Ghazni and wanted to make it one of the prosperous cities in the world.