THE SLAVE DYNASTY

 

  • After the death of Ghori, the general Qutb-ud-din Aibak was in Lahore. Ghori

had given him the Vice regal powers in India.  

 

  • There was a series struggle for the throne. It was between the Ghori’s generals who were all slaves.
  • They were Nasiruddin Qabachha, Tajuddin Yildiz and Qutb-ud-din Aibak.

 

 

  • So Qutb-ud-din Aibak took the control of India and established his empire in

India.  

 

  • In 1206, the foundation of the empire was laid and started the Delhi

Sultanate. It was the first ruling dynasty of the sultanate.  

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  • They were also called as Yamini and Ilbari Turk dynasty. Sometimes called as

the ‘Mameluqs’/Mameluq dynasty.  

 

  • Mameluq means “Slaves born of free parents”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            THE DIFFERENT DYNASTIES OF              DELHI SULTANATE

The ILBRI                               1206-1290

The KHALJIS                         1290-1320

The TUGHLAQS —                   1320- 1413

The SAYYIDS                       1414- 1451

The LODIS                             1451- 1526

                         

All the kings in the dynasty are not slaves. Aibak, Iltutmish and Balban were slaves during their early life.

 

 

        Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206-10)

  • Turk of the Aibak tribe means “Lord of the moon” in Turkish.

 

 

 

 

 

  • Lahore and later Delhi were his capitals. His main intention was to control the

empire from different forces.  

 

  • There was no time for fresh conquests. He initiated the work of Qutb Minar. Ø One day while playing ‘CHAUGAN’, he fell from the horse and died.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • He had a title called ‘LAK-BAKSH’. It was because of his kind and generous attitude and behavior.
  • The foundation of Qutb Minar was laid and named after the Sufi saint ‘Qutb-

ud-din Bhaktiyar Kaki.  

 

  • He was succeeded by his incapable son ‘Aram Shah’. He was later succeeded by

Iltutmish.  

 

Iltutmish (1210-1236)

 

 

  • His real name was Shamsuddin Iltutmish. When Aibak died, he was the

governor of Badaun.  

 

  • Delhi was his capital. He had to continuously fight with Tajuddin Yildiz and

Nasiruddin Qabachha to keep the empire under control.  

 

He also saved the Sultanate from the Mongol Invasion.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • He received the ‘Deed of Investiture’ from the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad. His

status of Sultan was recognized officially.  

 

  • It was during his period, a powerful group of ruling nobles called ‘Turkanii-Chwahalgai or Chalisa (The group of forty) formed.
  • The whole of his empire was divided into big and small lands called ‘IQTAS’. It

was also given as salary to the officers.  

 

  • Iltutmish introduced the two coins of the Sultanate called ‘Silver Tanka’ and copper Jittal.
  • He wanted his daughter, Razia to be the next ruler as he was not confident

about his other sons.  

 

  • After his death, some Turkish nobles made his son ‘Ruknuddin Firoz’ as the

emperor. He was later dethroned by Razia.  

 

SULTANA RAZIA (1206-1240) 

  • She is the first and last Muslim ruler of medieval India.

 

  • She had asked the people to depose her if she could not fulfill the expectations

of the people.  

 

  • She began to avoid purdah and started to wear Male attire and started presenting herself as a king like one. She used to travel on the back of an elephant whenever she wanted to meet the public.

The nobles slowly started to go against her. Her actions in many field angered

the nobles.  

 

  • She could rule only for three and a half years.

 

 

  • She raised and promoted an Abyssinian man called ‘Lallaluddin Yakut’ as the master of stables.
  • Kabir Khan of Lahore revolted against her and she herself marched to

crush him.  

 

  • In another case, the governor of Bhatinda also revolted. She was defeated in this and was married by ‘Altonia’.
  • The nobles were very angry with such moves and decided to put

‘Bahram Shah’, the son of Iltutmish on the throne of Delhi.  

 

  • On the way back to Delhi, Razia’s forces were defeated by the Bahram’s army.

The army left her and was later murdered by the robbers.  

  • Bahram Shah was succeeded by ‘Alauddin Masud Shah’. And next, the line was

occupied by the powerful ‘Balban’.  

 

BALBAN (1266-86)

 

 

 

  • With his kingship, the rulers of the Iltutmish family ended. 

 

  • Balban was a leading Turkish noble and married his daughter to the Sultan. Sultan gave him the titles like ‘Ilaib-i-mamlakat’ (Regent) and

Ulugh Khan (Premier Khan).  

 

  • Consolidation and Expansion were his core principles. His entire focus was

given to consolidation and saving the empire from different threats.  

 

  • The size of the army was increased and more incentives were given to the army. Regular military drills were organized. He actively controlled and resisted the Mongol invasion

The Iqtas were given in lieu of salaries.   

 

 

  • He separated the Military department (Diwan-i-Arz) from the Finance

department (Diwan-i-Wizarat).  

 

  • He was the first Sultan to discuss about the views of Kingship.

 

 

  • He derived his Kingship from the ‘Sassanid Persia’.

 

 

  • He brought the concept of ‘Shadow of God’ (Zil-i-illahi). He believed that he ruled on the basis of Divine Sanction and was not answerable to any of them.
  • His court was modeled on Iranian model and inspired the ‘Sassanid model’.

 

 

  • Balban before becoming the king was an active member of Forty.

 

 

  • He had a tough time against the governor of Bengal called ‘Tughril’. Even after two failed attempts, Balban had to reach there and settle the accounts. It was

a big strain for him during his old age.  

 

  • His heir, Muhammad was killed against the Mongols and this incident

made Balban very weak.  

 

  • He was succeeded by his grandson Kaiqubad who was very pleasure seeking man. The administration became very weak. Jalaluddin Firoz Khalji killed him

 

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and took over. With this the Ilbari dynasty ended.  

       THE KHILJI DYNASTY (1290-1320)

  • They came through a big revolution, sometimes called the ‘Khilji’ revolution. 

 

  • Jalaluddin Khliji’s (1290-96) entry was a big revolution and ended the

Ilbari Dynasty.  

 

  • He wanted to keep intact his kingdom and even followed a conciliatory policy with the Mongols.
  • He married one of his daughters to the Mongol leader Uligh Khan.

 

 

  • During his time, there was a campaign against the Yadava Kingdom in the

Deccan. Devagiri, the capital of the Yadavas was invaded by Ali Gurshap.  

  • Ali Gurshap is no one else but ‘Sultan Alauddin Khilji. After the invasion, Ali Gurshap invited the Sultan to ‘Kara’ to receive the booty and other wealth

as present.  

 

  • When the Sultan came, he was brutally murdered by Ali Gurshap.

 

 

  • There Ali Gurshap proclaimed himself the Sultan and took the name ‘Alauddin

Khilji’.  

 

ALAUDDIN KHILJI (1296-1316) 

 

  • Ali Gurshap became the Sultan and he reached back to Delhi and killed the family of Jalaluddin Khilji. The son of the former Sultan, Arkali Khan was also

eliminated.  

 

  • He made it sure he removed all the Jalali nobles and Balbani nobles are out from the empire.
  • He wanted the ‘Consolidation’ and ‘Expansion’ to go together.

 

 

  • Anhilwad was attacked and the King Kama with his daughter ran away.

Alauddin married the chief queen ‘Kamala Devi’ with full honour.  

  • During the raid and attack of the Cambay region, the commander of Alauddin called ‘Nusrat Khan’ got a slave who later on became the military general.

He was Malik Kafur (Hazardinari).  

 

  • He even became the Malik Naib of Alauddin.

 

 

  • He captures Chittoor and named it ‘Khizraabad’ after his son ‘Khizr Khan’.

 

 

  • Between 1307-1312, Malik Kafur attacked the Deccan territories and fought with the Kakatiyas, Hoysalas, Pandyas etc. The Pandyas refused to accept the

Sultanate.  

 

  • Mongols attacked during the time of Alauddin. The border areas were now

guarded well.  

 

  • He followed some steps to keep his empire strong and free from internal

rebellions.