HCS Exam – Haryana Civil Services Exam
HPSC Syllabus 2018 is available here. Individuals can check HPSC Haryana Civil Service Syllabus 2018 & HPSC AETO Exam Pattern 2018. Intenders need to see entire Syllabus for HPSC HCS and Exam dates. Go to official HPSC Exam Syllabus 2018 & Preparation Tips. View hpsc.gov.in ETO Prelims Syllabus and Haryana PSC Mains Paper Pattern for updated data.
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
(i) Preliminary Examination (for Screening only) 200 marks
(ii) Main Written Examination 600 marks
(iii) Personality Test/ Viva- Voce 75 marks
The Preliminary Examination shall comprise of two papers (Objective Type / Multiple Choices) and carry a
maximum of 200 marks as under:
Paper I General Studies 100
Paper II Civil Services Aptitude Test 100
i) Both the Question papers shall be of Objective type (multiple choices) questions.
ii) Both the Question papers shall be set bilingual i.e. English and in Hindi.
iii) Each paper shall be of two hours duration. Candidates are not permitted to use calculator for
answering objective type papers (test booklets). They should not, therefore, bring the same inside the
iv) For each wrong answer, one fourth (0.25) mark will be deducted.
v) The questions shall be answered by candidates on an Optical Marks Reader (OMR) sheet. Hence
there is no provision for re-checking / revaluation of OMR Sheets (Answer Sheets) as the same are
scanned / checked by the Computer.
vi) The total number of category-wise candidates to be admitted to the Main Examination shall be twelve
times (including bracketed candidates) the number of advertised vacancies to be filled. Only those
candidates who are declared by the Commission to have qualified in the Preliminary Examination will
be eligible for admission to the Main Examination provided they are otherwise eligible for admission
to the Main Examination.
vii) All the candidates who apply for Preliminary Examination will be admitted provisionally for
Preliminary Examination subject to fulfilment of all eligibility conditions. At this stage, no scrutiny
of their online application forms will be carried out by the Commission.
viii) The Preliminary Examination is meant to serve as a Screening only. The result will be prepared on
the basis of Total Marks obtained by the candidates in both the papers i.e. General Studies and Civil
Services Aptitude Test.
ix) The marks obtained in the Preliminary Examination by the candidates, who are declared qualified
for admission to the Main Examination, will not be counted for final selection because it is only for
short listing of category-wise candidates and no marks-sheet will be supplied to successful or
x) Candidates who qualify for the Main Examination will have to apply again on a separate
application form for Main Examination which will be supplied to them by the Commission
alongwith detailed instructions for Main Written Examination. 18
The Main Examination shall comprise of five papers & Viva-voce:
Paper I English (including English Essay) 100
Paper II Hindi (including Hindi Essay) in Devnagri script 100
Paper III General Studies 100
Paper IV & V Two subjects to be selected from a list of 150 x 2 = 300
23 subjects set out below.
Viva-voce (Interview/Personality Test) 75
List of Optional Subjects for Main (Written) Examination:
2. Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science
5. Civil Engineering
6. Commerce & Accountancy
8. Electrical Engineering
9. English Literature
11. Hindi Literature (in Devnagri script)
12. Indian History
15. Mechanical Engineering
17. Political Science & International Relations.
19. Public Administration.
20. Punjabi Literature
22. Sanskrit Literature
i) Candidates will not be allowed to offer the following combinations of subjects:
a) Political Science & International Relations and Public Administration;
b) Agriculture and Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science;
c) Hindi Literature, English Literature, Sanskrit Literature and Punjabi Literature;
d) Of the Engineering subjects viz. Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Mechanical
Engineering –not more than one subject.
(ii) The Main Examination shall comprise of written examination and viva-voce (interview/personality
test). The written examination shall be of five papers of conventional essay type in the subjects set out
from the given list as per the prescribed syllabus which shall be normally of graduation level. Each
paper shall be of three hours duration.
iii) The number of candidates to be called for interview shall be three times including bracketed
candidates if any the number of advertised vacancies.
iv) Ex-Servicemen candidates and dependents of Ex-Servicemen will also have to appear in all papers
including optional subjects.
v) The examination shall include compulsory and optional subjects and every candidate shall take all the
compulsory subjects and not more than two of the optional subjects. 19
vi) A Candidate shall specify in his application form the optional subjects he desires to take. No change
in the selection of optional subjects once made will be allowed. In case any candidate appears in a
subject other than the subjects actually opted by him, his answer-book in that subject will be cancelled.
(vii) Total number of candidates to be admitted to the Main Written examination shall be 12 times the
number of advertised vacancies, including bracketed candidates, if any. Similarly, the total number of
candidates to be called for personality test shall be three times, including bracketed candidates, if any,
of the advertised vacancies. Ex-Servicemen and dependents of the Ex-Servicemen shall also have to
appear in all the papers including optional subjects.
vii) No candidate shall be called for the personality / viva-voce test unless he attains atleast forty five
percent marks in the aggregate of all the written papers and a score of minimum (33%) marks each in
English and Hindi Language (compulsory papers). The final selection shall be based on the merit list
to be prepared on the basis of the total marks obtained by the candidates in the Main (Written)
Examination and Personality / Viva- Voce Test i.e. out of 675 marks and keeping in view the
preference of services exercised by the candidates. The candidates shall write their answers in Hindi or
English (except the language or literature papers). The papers of General Knowledge and optional
subjects unless otherwise directed, shall be answered either in Hindi language or English language but
no candidate shall be permitted to answer any one paper partly in Hindi and partly in English. The
candidates shall not be allowed the option to answer these papers in any other medium except Hindi
Language or literature papers shall be set bilingual i.e. in English and Hindi.
viii) Marks thus obtained by the candidates in the Main Examination (written part as well as viva-
voce/interview) would determine their final ranking. Candidates will be allotted to the various services
keeping in view their ranks in the examination and the preferences expressed by them for the various
services and posts.
Note:- If the total marks of Main Written Examination and Personality Test/ Viva-voce obtained by two or
more candidates are equal, the candidate securing higher marks in the compulsory papers of Main
Written examination shall be considered higher in merit. If the total marks of compulsory papers of
such candidates are still equal, then the candidate older in age will be considered higher in merit.
ix) Rechecking of answer-books of Main Written Examination on a written request from a candidate, can
be allowed on payment of fee of Rs. 100/- (in the shape of Indian Postal Orders) per paper within
thirty days from the declaration of the result (means date of dispatch of marks).
x) Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances they will be allowed the help
of a scribe to write answers for them. However, blind candidates will be allowed to write the
examination with the help of a scribe. The prior permission of the Commission is required for the
same. The eligibility conditions of a scribe, his/her conduct inside the examination hall and the manner
in which and extent to which he/she can help the blind candidate in writing the examination shall be
decided by the HPSC. For availing of the concession admissible to a blind candidate, the candidate
concerned shall produce a certificate in the prescribed Performa from a Medical Board constituted by
the State Government alongwith his application for the Main Examination. The same is applicable to
the blind candidates seeking a scribe in Preliminary Examination.
xi) Candidates are not permitted to bring and use calculator in examination hall for Main Examination.
xii) Candidates will not be provided with Bare Acts in the paper of Law nor will they be allowed to bring a
copy of any Bare Act for the use in examination hall.
xiii) Marks will not be allotted for mere superficial knowledge. Credit will be given for orderly, effective
and exact expression combined with due economy of words in all subjects of the examination. 20
Viva-voce (Interview / Personality Test)
1. The candidate will be interviewed by a Board who will have before them a record of his career. He will be
asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability
of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. The test is
intended to judge the mental calibre of a candidate. In broad terms, this is really an assessment of not only
his intellectual qualities but also social traits and his interest in current affairs. Some of the qualities to be
judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, balance of
judgment, variety and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral
2. The technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural, though directed and
purposive conversation which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate.
3. The interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialized or general knowledge of the candidates
which has been already tested through their written papers. Candidates are expected to have taken an
intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in the events which are
happening around them both within and outside their own State or country as well as in modern currents of
thought and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of well educated youth. 21
SYLLABI FOR THE PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
PAPER – I
Current events of national and international importance.
History of India and Indian National Movement.
Indian and World Geography.
Indian Culture, Indian Polity and Indian Economy.
General Mental Ability.
Haryana–Economy and people. Social, economic and cultural institutions and language of Haryana.
Questions on General Science will cover General appreciation and understanding of science including
matters of everyday observation and experience, as may be expected of a well educated person who has not made a
special study of any particular scientific discipline. In current events, knowledge of significant national and
international events will be tested. In History of India, emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject
in its social, economic and political aspects. Questions on the Indian National Movement will relate to the nature and
character of the nineteenth century resurgence, growth of nationalism and attainment of Independence. In Geography,
emphasis will be on Geography of India. Questions on the Geography of India will relate to physical, social and
economic Geography of the country, including the main features of Indian agricultural and natural resources.
Questions on Indian Polity and Economy will test knowledge on the country‘s political system and Constitution of
India, Panchayati Raj, social systems and economic developments in India. On general mental ability, the candidates
will be tested on reasoning and analytical abilities.
PAPER – II
CIVIL SERVICES APTITUDE TEST
Interpersonal skills including communication skills
Logical reasoning and analytical ability
Decision making and problem solving
General mental ability
Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, order of magnitude, etc. – Class X level), Data interpretation
(charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level)
SYLLABI FOR THE MAIN WRITTEN EXAMINATION
1. ENGLISH AND ENGLISH ESSAY
The aim of the paper is to test the candidate‘s ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to
express his ideas clearly and correctly in English.
The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows:
(i) Precise Writing
(ii) Comprehension of given passages
(iv) Usage and Vocabulary.
(v) General Grammar / Composition
Candidates will be required to write an essay on a specific topic. The choice of subjects will be given. They
will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion and to write
concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.
2. HINDI AND HINDI ESSAY
(in Devnagri script)
(i) Translation of an English passage into Hindi.
(ii) Letter / precise writing
(iii) Explanation of Hindi passage (pose and poetry) in the same language.
(iv) Composition (idioms, corrections etc.)
(v) Essay on a specific topic. The choice of subjects will be given.
3. GENERAL STUDIES
The nature and standard of questions in these papers will be such that a well-educated person will be able to
answer them without any specialized study. The questions will be such as to test a candidate‘s general awareness of a
variety of subject which will have relevance for a career in Civil Services.
(a) History of Modern India and Indian Culture
The ‗History of Modern India‘ will cover history of the country from about the middle of the nineteenth
century and would also include questions on important personalities who shaped the freedom movement and social
reforms. The part relating to ‗Indian Culture‘ will cover all aspects of Indian culture from the ancient to modern
(b) Geography of India
In this part, questions will be on the physical, economic and social geography of India.
(c) Indian Polity
This part will include questions on the Constitution of India, Political system and related matters.
(d) Current National issues and topics of social relevance 23
This part is intended to test the Candidate‘s awareness of current national issues and topics of social
relevance in the present-day India, such as the following: Demography and Human Resources & related issues.
Behavioural and social issues and social welfare problems, such as child labour, gender equality, adult literacy,
rehabilitation of the handicapped and other deprived segments of the society, drug abuse, public health etc. Law
enforcement issues, human rights, corruption in public life, communal harmony etc. Internal Security and related
issues. Environmental issues, ecological preservation, conservation of natural resources and national heritage. The
role of national institutions, their relevance and need for change.
(a) India and the World
This part is intended to test candidate‘s awareness of India‘s relationship with the world in various spheres,
such as the following:-
Foreign Affairs. External Security and related matters. Nuclear Policy. Indian abroad
(b) Indian Economy
In this part, questions will be on the planning and economic development in India, economic and trade
issues, foreign trade, the role and functions of I.M.F., World Bank, W.T.O. etc.
(c) International Affairs & Institutions.
This part will include a questions on important events in world affairs and on international institutions.
(d) Developments in the field of science and technology, communications and space.
In this part, questions will test the candidate‘s awareness of the developments in the field of science and
technology, communications and space and also basic ideas of computers.
(e) Statistical analysis, graphs and diagrams.
This part will include exercises to test the candidate‘s ability to draw common sense conclusions from
information persented in statistical, graphical or diagrammatical form and to point out deficiencies, limitations or
OPTIONAL SUBJECTS FOR MAIN WRITTEN EXAMINATION
Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and inter-cropping, and their importance in relation to food
production. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and
fodder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country. Extension, social forestry and
agro-forestry. Second generation problems of green revolution and approaches to solve these problems.
Diversification and value addition in agricultural crops. W.T.O. and its impact on Indian agriculture. Sustainable
Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural,
biological and chemical control of weeds. Zero tillage.
Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture
area. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of
reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Methods of irrigation and drainage. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage
of water-logged soils. Soil-water-plant relationship.
Types of soils in India. Soil as medium of plant growth and its composition. Mineral and organic
constituents of the soil and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Chemical, physical and microbiological
properties of soil. Soil colloids. Essential plant nutrients (macro and micro) and their functions. Deficiency symptoms
of plant nutrients. Mechanism of nutrient absorption. Problem soils –distribution and their reclamation. Principles
of soil fertility. Organic manures and bio-fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizers (straight, complex and mixed). Integrated 24
nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in
soils. Fixation of P and K in soil and scope for their efficient use.
Principles of economics as applied to agriculture. Farm management–scope, importance, characteristics.
Farm planning and budgeting. Types and systems of farming and factors effecting them. Farm mechanization. Social
Philosophy, objectives, scope and principles of extension. Early extension efforts in India. Methods of
communication. Evaluation of extension programmes. CD programmes. On farm testing and frontline demonstration.
Cell division. Nucleic acids–structure and function. Gene and chromosome. Laws of heredity, their
significance in plant breeding. Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Qualitative and
Modes of reproduction. Selfing and crossing techniques. Application of principles of plant breeding to the
improvement of major field crops. Methods of breeding of self and cross pollinated crops and vegetatively
propagated crops. Plant introduction. Pureline selection and mass selection. Handling of hybrid populations–bulk,
pedigree, backcross and single seed descent method. Hybrid vigour and its exploitation. Heterosis breeding. Male
sterility and self incompatibility. Composites, synthetics and multiline varieties . Top cross and polycross. Apomixis.
Clonal selections. Tissue culture. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Breeding for disease resistance. Role
of mutation and polyploidy in plant breeding. Seed production and certification.
Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration.
Photosynthesis–modern concepts and factors affecting the process. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. C
CAM mechanisms. Photoperiodism and vernalization. Auxins, hormones and other plant regulators and importance
in agriculture. Dormancy.
Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits plants, vegetable crops and flower plants; their package
of practices with scientific basis. Post harvest handling and marketing problems of fruits, flowers and vegetables.
Preservation of important fruits and vegetable products. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.
Diseases and pests of fields, vegetables and fruit crops of India and measures to control them. Causes and
classification of plant diseases. Principles of plant disease control. Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated
pest and disease management. Storage pests of cereals and pulses, and their management.
2. ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE
1. Animal Nutrition
Energy sources, energy metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs.
Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy. Sources of protein metabolism and synthesis, protein quantity and quality
in relation to requirements. Energy protein ratios in ration. Sources, functions and requirements of minerals in
animal diet. Inter relationship of the basic mineral nutrients including trace elements. Vitamins, hormones and
growth stimulating substances. Their sources, functions, requirements and inter relationship with minerals.
Advances in Ruminant Nutrition (Dairy Cattle) – Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to milk
production and its composition. Nutrient requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and buffaloes.
Limitations of various feeding systems.
Advance in Non-Ruminant Nutrition (Poultry) – Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to poultry,
meat and egg production. Nutrients requirements and feed formulation and broilers at different ages.
Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition–A critical review and evaluation of feeding experiments,
digestibility and balance studies. Feeding standards and measures of feed energy. Nutrition requirements for growth,
maintenance and production. Balanced rations.
2. Animal Physiology 25
Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves measures of growth, factors affecting growth,
conformation, body composition, meat quality.
Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and
female reproduction organs, their components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.
Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaption, environmental factors and regulatory
mechanism involved in animal behaviour, methods of controlling climatic stress.
Components of semen, composition of spermatozoae, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen,
factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality preservation. Detection
of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception.
3. Livestock Production and Management
Comparision of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as a
specialised farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm and factors for success of a dairy entrepreneur.
Capital and land requirement, organisation of the dairy farm. Procurement of goods, opportunities in dairy farming,
factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production, pricing policy.
Personnel management. Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.
4. Genetics and Animal Breeding
Mitosis and Meiosis. Mendelian inheritance. Deviations to Mendelian genetics. Expression of genes.
Linkage and crossing over. Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters. Blood groups and
polymorphism. Chromosome abberations. Gene and its structure. DNA as a genetic material. Genetic code and
protein synthesis. Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and
Population genetics as applied to animal breeding. Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits. Hardy Weinberg Law.
Population Vs. individual. Gene and genotypic frequency. Forces changing gene frequency. Random drift and small
population. Theory of path coefficient. Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of
inbreeding. Effective population size. Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic
deviation. Partitioning of variation. Genotype × environment correlation and genotype × environment interaction.
Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision
of estimates. Aids to selection and their relative merits. Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection.
Progeny testing. Methods of selection. Construction of selection indices and their uses. Comparative evaluation of
genetic gains through various selection methods. Indirect selection and Correlated response. Inbreeding, upgrading,
cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds. Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production. Selection for general and
specific combining ability.
1. Health and Hygiene
Structure of cell, organells and inclusions. Cell division. Cell types. Tissues and their classification.
Embryonic and adult tissues. Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals.
Gametogenesis, fertilization, germ layers, foetal membranes and placentation; types of placenta in domestic
Physiology of blood and its circulation–blood constituents; properties and functions; coagulation of blood;
haemorrhagic disorders; anticoagulants; blood groups; circulation; physiology of heart. Respiration–mechanism of
respiration; transport and exchange of gases; neural control of respiration. Exeretion–structure and function of
kidney; formation of urine. Endocrine glands–functional disorders; their symptoms and diagnosis; synthesis of
hormones; mechanism and control of secretion.
General knowledge of pharmacology and therapeutics drugs. Celluar level pharmacodynamics and pharma-
cokinetice. Modem concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autocoide. Antimicrobials and principles of
chemotherapy in microbial injections. Use of hormones in therapeutics. Chemotherapy of parasitic infections. 26
Veterinary hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation. Assessment of pollution of water, air and
soil. Importance of climate in animal health. Effect of environment on animal function and performance. Housing
requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler birds.
Stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.
2. Animal Diseases
Pathogenesis, symptoms, post mortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infection diseases of cattle, pigs and
poultry, horses, sheep and goats. Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production of cattle, pig and poultry.
Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds. Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific condition like impaction,
bloat, diarrhoea, indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning. Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
Principles and methods of immunisation of animals against specific diseases–hard immunity, disease free zones–
‗zero‘ disease concept– chemoprophylaxis. Immunity and immunoregulation in animals – role of cytokines in
protection of animals from diseases as well as role of immune response in allergic and auto immune diseases.
Diagnosis and treatment of immunological of disorders and diseases of animals. Anaesthesia–local, regional and
general. Pre-anesthetic medication.
3. Veterinary Public Health
Zoonoses–classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic
diseases, occupational zoonotic diseases.
Epidemiology–principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the
study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections.
Veterinary Jurisprudence–rules and regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal
diseases. State and control rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases, S.P.C.A., veterolegal
cases, certificates. Duties and role of veterinarian in slaughter house to provide meat that is product under ideal
hygienic conditions. By-products from a slaughter houses and their economic utilization.
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology
Milk Technology–Organization of rural milk procurement collection and transport of raw milk. Quality,
testing and grading raw milk. Quality storage grades of whole milk. Skimmed milk and cream. Processing,
packaging, storing, distributing, marketing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks :
pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured
milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation
of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk
Milk Products Technology–Selection of raw materials, assembling, production, processing, storing,
distributing and marketing of milk products.
5. Meat Hygiene
Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations. Battoir
requirements and designs. Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts. Grading of carcass meat
cuts. Duties and functions of veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different methods adopted to educate
farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems of constraints in
transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development. 27
Part – I
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology
Main features that characterize microbes. Bacteria : Structure and modes of nutrition and reproduction. Role
of bacteria in agriculture, forestry, industry and medicine. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry and
medicine.Nature, structure of TMV and bacteriophage. Classification of plant diseases on the basis of causal
organisms and symptoms. Modes of infection and dissemination. Symptoms, causal organisms and control of late-
blight of potato, black-stem rust of wheat, red-rot of sugarcane, citrus canker and Bhindi Mosaic Virus.
Algae : Economic importance of alage. Vegetative and reproductive features of Nostoc, Volvox, Ulothrix
and Batrachospermum. Fungi : Economic importance of fungi. Vegetative and reproductive features of
Phytophthora, Penicillium, Agaricus, Puccinia and Collectorichum. General account of Lichens.
Main morphological features (excluding developmental details) of Marchantia and Funaria.
Morphological features (excluding developmental details) of Selaginella and Pteris. Heterospory, seed habit
and its significance in Selaginells.
Characteristic features of sporophytes and gametophytes of Cycas and Pinus.
Concept and significance of various floristic regions of India. Endemism and endemic plants of India.
Concept and basis of species, genera and families. Bentham and Hooker‘s classification–its basis, merits and
demerits. Diagnostic floral features of Compositae, Cruciferae, Graminae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae and Solanaceae.
Anatomical features of monocot and dicot roots and shoots. Secondary growth in roots and shoots.
Anomalous secondary growth in Boerhaavia and Dracaena.
Structure and morphology of anther, pollen and embryo sac (polygonum type). Structure of mature monocot
and dicot embryo and seed.
10. Economic Botany
Morphological and economic utility of the edible parts of wheat, rice, maize, sugar-cane, groundnut, gram,
beans, potato, tomato, onion, banana, apple, fig and mango. Morphological nature and economic utility of
coriandrum, turmeric, ginger, cardamom & cinchona. Medicinal utility of opium, Atropa, Azadirachta, Rauwolfia and
Part – II
Basic differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Physical and chemical structure of higher plant
chromosomes. Mendelism and principles of segregation and independent assortment. Gene interactions–
complementary, supplimentary, inhibitory, epistasis. Sex linked genes and their inheritance pattern. Sex
determination in lower and higher plants. Male sterility – concept, gene-control and use. Extra chromosomal
inheritance. Mutations–Concept, types (spontaneous and induced, macro and micro–mutations) and their role in
evolution and crop improvement. Polyploidy–concept, types (Allo-, auto-, eu- and aneuploidy) and role in plant
evolution. Mechanism of DNA transcription and RNA translation. Gene regulation as revealed by Lac-operon
Modern concept about gene structure and function. 28
2. Plant Breeding and Biostatistics
Methods of breeding–introduction, selection, hybridization and backcrossing. Heterosis and use in crop
breeding. Malesterility. Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Transgenic crops. Brief idea about mean, mode median,
standard deviation, standard error and correlations (bivariate only). Coefficient of variation (CV). Test of significance
(t, chi square)
3. Physiology and Biochemistry
Ascent of sap. Transpiration. Role of light in carbon fixation and photosynthesis. Carbon fixation in C
CAM plants. Photorespiration. Mechanism and significance of respiration (aerobic and anaerobic). Nitrogen fixation
and its genetic control. Role of micro-nutrients in plant nutrition. Role of growth regulators (auxins, gibberellins,
cytokinins) in plant development, differentiation and development. Physiology of dormancy and seed germination.
Photoperiodism and vernalization.
4. Plant Ecology
Environment and its factors (biotic, climatic, edaphic and physiographic) which influence plant growth and
development. Ecosystem– Structure and function. A brief account of food chain, ecological pyramids, energy flow,
pollution, acid-rain, global-warming. Biodiversity–concept, definition, depletion and conservation. Endangered and
the threatened plants, extinction and biosphere reserves.
5. Applied Botany
Cell, organ and tissue culture– procedure and utility. Protoplast–isolation and culture (a brief account).
Recombinant DNA technology– methods to produce DNA and its utility in plants. In-vitro gene transfer–
agrobacterium mediated gene transfer , direct gene transfer by electroporation, microinjection and biolistic methods
(brief accounts only). Utility of transgenic plants in agriculture, horticulture and forestery.
1. Atomic Structure : Heisenberg‘s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent).
Particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers. Shapes of s,p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical bonding: Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic
compounds, covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments.
Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular or bital theory (LCAO method);
bonding in homonuclear molecules; H
. Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond
order, bond strength and bond length.
3. Solid State: Bragg‘s law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radius ratio rules, Structures of
NaCl, ZnS, CsCI,. Imperfections in crystals, Schottky and Frenkel defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.
4. The Gaseous State: Equation of state for real gases, Maxwell‘s distribution of speeds.
5. Thermodynamics and Statistical Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics systems, states and processes,
work, heat and internal energy first law of thermodynamics, work done in isothermal and adiabatic expanson and
enthalpy changes in various processes.Hess‘s Law. Second law of Thermodynamics; Entropy of perfect gas in terms
of volume, temperature and pressure. Nernst Heat theorem, Third law of Thermodynamics-its purpose, Plank‘s
formulation, Statement of Lewis and Randall. Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition
function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions.
6. Clausius-Clapeyron equation, partial molar quantities, chemical potential and Gibbs–Duham equation,
variation of chemical potential with temperature and pressure.
7. Electrode potential, Standard hydrogen electrode, Electoro–chemical series and its application in
determining E.M.F. of cell and feasibility of a reaction, Nernst Equation. 29
8. Chemical Kinetics: Concentration dependence of rate of reaction –law of mass action and rate law
expression ; order of reaction, integrated rate equations for first order reactions; effect of temperature on rate
constant. Elementary idea about collisions and transition state theories and their comparison.
9. Photochemistry: Absorption of light; laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, decay of excited state by
different routes; Fluorescence and phosphorescene.
10. Surface Phenomena and Catalysis: Adsorption from and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption
isotherms–Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area by B.E.T.
11. Coordination Chemistry : IUPAC nomenclature, Isomerism and sterio-chemistry of complexes with
coordination numbers four and six. Crystal field Theory, Factors effecting Crystal field splitting, John Teller effect .
12. Chemistry of d block elements: Transition metals including Lanthanides – General characteristic
properties oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, colour etc. Lanthanide contractions, its cause and consequences.
1.. (a) Reaction mechanisms : Kinetic versus Thermodynamic control, Hammond‘s Postulate, Method of
determining reaction mechanism – isotope effect, solvent effect, catalysis and steric effect, Potential energy diagram
transition state and Intermediates.
(b) Reactive intermediates : Structure and stability of carbocations, carbanians, carbenes and free radicals.
2. Substitution reactions : Nucleophilic substitution first order and second order (SNI and SN2) reactions,
stereo-chemistry of these reactions and their comparison. Mechanism of Rearrangements: Pinacol–pinacolone,
Beckmann, Claisen, Cope and fries rearrangement.
3. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions: Aldol condesation. Claisen condensation, Perkin, Knoevenagel,
Wittig. Canizzaro and bonzoin condensations, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
4. Polymeric Systems: (a) Physical chemistry of polymers :- number and weight average molecular weights of
polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, osmotic presure, viscosity. (b)Preparation and
properties of polymers: Organic polymers–polythylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene,
synthetic and natural rubber.
5. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation: (a) Rotational spectra–diatomic
molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants. (b) Vibrational spectra–diatomic molecule; linear triatomic
molecules. (c) Electronic spectra :– Singlet and triplet states, n* and * transitions; application to conjugated
double bonds and conjugated carbonyls– Woodward–Fieser rules. (d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : chemical shift
and coupling constants; Application of H NMR to simple organic molecules.
5. CIVIL ENGINEERING
1. Engineering Mechanics
Units and dimensions. SI Units. Vectors. Concept of force. Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent,
Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane. Moment of force. Free body diagram. Conditions of equilibrium.
Principle of virtual work. Equivalent force system. First and Second Moment of area. Mass moment of inertia.
Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings. Kinematics and Kinetics. Motion under uniform and non-
uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of partice : Momentum and energy principles, collision of
elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.
2. Strength of Materials
Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending
moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength. Strain
Energy in direct stress, bending and shear. 30
Deflection of beams: Mecaulay‘s method, Mohr‘s Moment area method. Conjugate beam method, unit load
method. Torsion of shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler‘s, Rankine‘s and Secant formulae. Principal stresses
and strains in two dimensions, Mohr‘s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure, thin and thick cylinders.
3. Structural Analysis
Castiglianio‘s theorems I and II, Unit load method, method of consistent deformation applied to beams and
pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution, indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for shear force and bending moment at a section of a
beam criteria for maximum shear force and bending moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads.
Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses. Arches : Three hinged; rib shortening and temperature
effects, influence lines in arches.
Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.
Plastic Analysis of beams and frames : Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method,
Mechanism method. Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and
Principal Axes, calculation of bending stresses.
4. Design of Structures
Structural steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections.
Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, rivetted and welded plate girders, stancheons
with battens and lacings.
Design of concrete and masonry structures. Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress
and Limit State method of design – Recommendations of I.S. codes, design of one way and two way slabs, simple
and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without
eccentricity, Isolated and combined footings. Cantilever and Counterfort type retaining walls.
Prestressed Concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for
flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.
5. Fluid Mechanics
Fluid properties and their role fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.
Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow; Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational
and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, methods of drawing flownet, flow separation,
free and forced votices. Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum
equations from control volume equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler‘s equation of motion, application to fluid
flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, orifice meters and Venturi meters.
Dimensional Analysis and Similitudes; Buckingham‘s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory.
Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between parallel, plates, flow through tube.
Boundry layer: Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough
Turbulent flow through pipes; Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe
friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.
6. Open channel flow
Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific
force, critical depth, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic jump and its applications surges and waves,
gradually varied flow, classification surface profiles, control section.
7. Geo-technical Engineering
Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil,
structure and clay mineralogy. Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darey‘s
Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits. Seepage 31
pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi‘s theory one dimensional consolidation,
consolidation test. Compaction of soil, field control of composition, Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore
pressure coefficients. Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests. Earth pressure at rest, active
and passive pressures, Rankine‘s theory, Coulomb‘s theory, Coulomb‘s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining
wall. Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure. Immediate and
consolidation settlement. Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of
slices, stability number. Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests. Essential features of
foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation, stress distribution in soils,
Boussinessq‘s theory, Newmarks‘ chart, pressure bulb, contact pressure, applicability of different bearing capacity
theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests, allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable
steelement. Proportioning of footing, isolated and combined footings, rafts footing , Pile foundation, types of piles,
pile capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups, pile load test, settlement of piles, lateral capacity.
Ground improvement techniques–preloading, sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil stabilisation.
1. Construction technology
Physical properties of construction materials : Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, cement and Surkhi Mortars;
Lime Concrete and Cement Concrete. Properties of freshly mixed and hardened concrete, Flooring Tiles, use of ferro-
cement, fibre-reinforced and polymer concrete, high strength concrete and light weight concrete. Timber; Properties
and uses; defects in timber, seasoning and preservation of timber. Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing materials,
termite profiting, Materials for Low cost housing.
Construction: Building components and their functions; brick masonry; bonds; jointing; stone masonry.
Design of brick masonry walls as per I.S. codes, factors of safety, plastering, pointing. Types of floors and roofs.
2. Constructions Equipment
Factors affecting the selection of equipment, study, capital and maintenance cost. Concreting equipments:
Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, concrete pump. Earth-work equipments: Power shovel, hoe,
bulldozer, dumper, trailors and tractors, rollers, sheep foot roller.
3. Construction Planning and Management
Construction activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, newwork analysis;
CPM and PERT analysis, Float Time, crashing of activities, contraction of network for cost optimization, cost
analysis, floats, slack time, numbering of network, probability of completing the project.
Common methods of distance and angle measurements, compass traversing, plane table survey, levelling.
travelling, traverse survey, triangulation survey, balancing of traverse, contouring, topographical map. Technometry.
Circular and transition curves.
5. Transporation Engineering
Railways : Permanent way, sleepers, rail fasternings, ballast, points and crossings, design of turn outs,
stations and yards, signals and interlocking, levelcrossing. Construction and maintenance of permanent ways ;
Superelevation, creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort.
Highway Engineering: Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments. Geometrical design: Cross
section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads; low cost roads flexible
pavements, rigid pavements. Design of pavements and their construction. Drainage of roads : Surface and sub-surface
drainage. Traffic Engineering: Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity. Channelised
and unchannalised intersections, rotary design elements markings, signs, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys.
6. Hydrology 32
Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, despression storage, infiltration, overland flow,
hydrograph. Ground water flow: Specific yield, storage coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined
aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube walls, pumping and
recuperation tests ground water potential.
7. Irrigation Engineering
Water requirements of crops : consumptive-use, quality of water for irrigation, duty and delta, irrigation
methods and their efficiencies. Canals : Distribution systems for cannal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, most
efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load
transport. Water logging: causes and control, drainage system design, salinity. Canal structures : Khosla‘s theory,
energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders. Spillways : Spilway types, crest gates, energy dissipation.
River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.
9. Environment Engineering
Water Supply : Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water,
impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases,
standards for potable water. Intake of water: Pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment; principles of
coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; Slow- rapid- pressure filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste,
odour and salinity. Analysis of distribution systems.
Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, store sewerage–separate and combined system, flow
through sewers, design of sewers. Sewage characterisation: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and
TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land. Sewage treatment: Working principles, units,
chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of
6. COMMERCE & ACCOUNTANCY
Part-I : Accounting and Finance
1. Financing Accounting
Accounting as a financial information system. Impact of behavioural sciences. Advanced problems of
company accounts. Amalgamations, absorption and reconstruction of companies. Valuation of shares and goodwill.
2. Cost Accounting
Nature and functions of cost accounting. Job costing. Process costing. Marginal costing. Techniques of
segregating semivariable costs into fixed and variable costs. Cost-volume–profit relationship. Aid to decision making
including pricing decisions, shutdown etc. Techniques of cost control and cost reduction. Budgetary control, flexible
budgets. Standard costing and variance analysis. Responsibility accounting, investment, profit and cost centres.
Definitions. Basis of charge. Incomes which do not form part of total income. Simple problems of
computation of income under various heads, i.e. salaries, income from house property, profits and gains from
business of profession, capital gains, income of other persons included in assessee‘s total income. Aggregation of
income and set off/carry forward of loss. Deductions to be made in computing total income.
Meaning and objects of auditing. Internal check and internal audit. Audit of cash transactions, expenses,
incomes, purchases, sales. Valuation and verification of assets with special reference to fixed assets, stocks and debts. 33
Verification of liabilities. Audit of limited companies. Appointment, removal, powers, duties and liabilities of a
company auditor. Auditor‘s report and qualifications therein. Board outlines of company audit with reference to share
capital transactions and statutory report. Audit of Govt. Companies under sec. 619 of the Companies Act. Cost audit
under sec. 233 (B) of the Companies Act. Special points in the audit of different organisations like clubs, hospitals,
colleges, charitable societies.
5. Business Finance and Financial Institutions
Finance function. Nature, scope and objectives of financial management. Risk and return relationship.
Financial analysis as a diagnostic tool. Management of working capital and its components. Forecasting working
capital needs, inventory, debtors, cash and credit management. Investment decisions. Nature and scope of capital
budgeting. Various types of decisions including make or buy and lease or buy. Techniques of appraisal and their
application. Analysis of non-financial aspects. Rate of return on investments. Required rate of return. Its
measurement. Cost of Capital. Weighted average cost. Different weights. Concept of valuation of firm‘s fixed
income, securities and common stocks. Dividends and retention policy–residual. Actual practices. Capital structure,
leverages, significance of leverages, theories of capital structure. Planning the capital structure of a company. EBIT–
EPS Analysis Cashflow ability to service debt, capital structure ratios, other methods. Raising finance (short term
and long terms). Bank finance (norms and conditions). Money markets. The purposes of money markets. Money
markets in India. Organisation and working of capital markets in India. Organisation structure and role of financial
institutions in India. Banks and investing institutions. National and international financial institutions. Supervision
and regulation of banks. Monetary and credit policy of Reserve Bank of India. Provisions of the Negotiable
Instruments Act, 1881 relating to crossings and endorsements with particular reference to statutory protection to the
paying and collection bankers. Salient provision of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 with regard to chartering,
supervision and regulation of banks.
Part-II : Organisation Theory and Industrial Relations
1. Organisation Theory
Nature and concept of organisation. Organisation goals. Primary and secondary goals, single and multiple
goals, ends means chain-displacement, succession, expension and multiplication of goals. Formal organisation – type,
structure, line and staff . Informal organisation–functions and limitations. Evolution of organisation theory :
Classical, neoclassical and system approach. Organisation behaviour as a dynamic system. Technical, social and
power system. Interrelations and interactions. Perception. Status system. Theoretical and emprical foundation of
theories and models of motivation. Moral and productivity. Leadership. Theories and styles. Management of conflicts
in organisations. Limits or rationality. Organisational change, adaptation, growth and development. Professional
management Vs. family management. Organisation control and effectiveness.
2. Industrial Relations
Nature and scope of industrial relations the socio economic setup, need for positive approach. Industrial
labour in India and its commitment–stages of commitments. Migratory nature–merits and shortcomings. Theories of
Unionism. Trade Union movements in India–origin, growth and structure. Attitude an approach of management in
India–recognisation. Problems before Indian Trade Union movement. Sources of industrial disputes –Strikes and
lockouts. Compulsory adjudication and collective bargaining–approaches. Workers participation in management–
philosophy, rationale. Present day state of affairs and future prospects. Prevention and settlement of industrial
disputes in India. Industrial relations in public enterprises. Absenteeism and labour turnover in Indian industries–
causes. Relative wages and wage differentials. Wage policy in India. The Bonus issue. International Labour
Organisation and India. Role of personal department in the organisation.
1. Micro economic Analysis.
Concept of equilibrium. Law of demand. Marshallian utility and indifference curve analysis and their
comparisons. Concept of consumer surplus. Elasticity of demand. Income elasticity. Theory of production .
Production function and technological progress. Law of Returns to Scale. Law of variable proportions. Isocost and
Isoquants. Theory of cost. Concept of opportunity cost. Cost curves. Perfect competition. Price determination.
Equilibrium of firm and industry in market period. Supply curves. Monopoly. Equilibrium of the monopolist.
Comparison of perfect competition and monopoly. Price discrimination. Equilibrium in discriminating monopoly and
effects of price discrimination. Monopolistic competition. Demand curves. Firm and group equilibrium.
Determination of equilibrium level. Comparison with pure competition and monopoly. Theory of marginal
productivity. Theories of wage determination. Modern theory of rent. Theories of interest, classical, neo-classical
and liquidity preference. Gross and net profit.
Ricardian, Marshallian. Types of Markets and price determination. Alternate theories of distribution.
2. Nature, types and functions of money. Measurement of price level changes. Monetary standards. High
powered money and quantity theory of money, its variants and critiques thereof. Demand for and supply of money.
The money multiplier. Theory of money (Fishers, Cambridge and Keynes version). Theories of determination of
interest rate. Interest and prices. Theories of inflation and control of inflation.
3. Full employment and Say‘s Law. Underemployment equilibrium. Keynes‘s theory of employment (and
income) determination. Critiques of Keynesian theory. Applicability of Keynesian approach to developing countries.
Wage and employment – classical and Keyne‘s views.
4. Functions of Central Bank, Process of credit creation, Credit control – types and effects, Structure of
money markets and capital markets in developing countries like India.
5. Public finance and its role in market economy in stabilisation, supply, stability, allocative, efficiency,
distribution and development. Sources of revenue. Forms of taxes and subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits
to taxation, loans. Crowding–out effects. Limits to borrowings. Types of budget deficits. Public expenditure and its
6. International Economics :
(i) Old and new theories of international trade. (a) Comparative advantage, terms of trade and offer curve.
(b) ―Trade as an engine of growth‖ and theories of under development in an open economy.
(ii) Forms of protection.
(iii) Balance of payments, composition, disequilibria, types, remedies for adverse balance of payments, fixed
versus floating rates.
(iv) IMF and the World Bank ; W.T.O.
7. Growth and Development :
(i) Theories of growth : Classical and neo-classical theories. The Harrod model. Economic development
under surplus labour, Wage-goods as a constraint on growth. Relative importance of physical and human capitals in
growth. Innovations and development. Productivity, its growth and source of changes thereof. Factors determining
savings to income ratio and the capital-outut ratio.
(ii) Main features of growth : Changes in sectoral compositions of income. Changes in occupational
distribution. Changes in income distribution. Changes in consumption levels and patterns. Changes in savings and
investment and in patterns of investments. Case for and against industrialization. Significance of agriculture in
(iii) Relation between state planning and growth. Changing roles of market and plans in growth. Economic
policy and growth.
(iv) Role of foreign capital and technology in growth. The significance of multi-nationals.
(v) Welfare indicators and measures of growth. Human development indices. The basic needs approach.
1. Indian Economics in Past : Independence Era – Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and Rao. National and
percapita Income, patterns, trends, aggregate and sectoral. Composition and change therein.
2. Employment : Nature and types of unemployment in developing countries. Factors determining
employment in short and long periods. Role of capital, wages-goods, wage-rate and technology. Measures of
unemployment. Relation between income poverty and employment and issues of distribution and social justice.
Agricultural development in India since 1951. Agriculture institutional set-up of land system, size of agricultural
holdings and efficiency. Green revolution and technological changes. Agricultural price and terms of trade. Role of
public distribution and farm subsidies on agricultural prices. Employment and poverty in agriculture. Employment
schemes. Growth experience. Land reforms. Regional disparities in agricultural growth. Role of Agriculture in
3. Industry : Industrial development in India since 1951 and industrial policy. Industrial system of India.
Trends in composition and growth. Role of public and private sectors. Role of small and cottage industries. Indian
Industrial strategy. Capital versus consumer goods. Wage-goods versus luxuries. Capital intensive versus labour.
Intensive techniques. Import substituting versus export promotions. Sickness and high-cost Industrial policies and
their effects. Recent moves for liberalisation and their effects of Indian industry.
4. Money and Banking : The monetary institutions of India. Instruments of credit control. Factors
determining demand for and supply of money. Sources of reserve money. Money multipliers. Techniques of money
supply regulation under open economy. Functioning of money market in India. Budget deficits and money supply.
5. Index numbers of price level : Course of price level in post–Independence period. Sources and causes of
inflation. Role of monetary and supply factors in price level determination. Policies towards control of inflation. Role
of monetary and supply factors in price level determination. Policies towards control of inflation. Effects of inflation
under open economy.
6. Trade balance of payments and exchange : Foreign trade of India. Composition and direction. Shifts in
trade policy from import substitution to export promotion. Balance of payment problem and policies to cure it. Impact
of liberalisation on pattern of trade. India’s external borrowings and the debt problem. Exchange rate of the rupee,
devaluations, depreciations and their effects on balance of payments. Rupee in an open economy. Integration of
Indian economy with world economy. India and the WTO.
7. Public Finance and Fiscal policy : Characteristics and trends in India’s public finance. Tax structure in
India – drawbacks and remedies. Effect of taxation. Taxable capacity. Role of taxes (direct and indirect) and
subsidies. Fiscal and monetary deficits. Public expenditures and their significance. Public finance and inflation.
Public debt – its role and burden. Limiting government’s debt. Recent fiscal policies and their effects. Sources of
income and heads of expenditure of the centre and state govts. Center-State financial relations. Latest Finance
Commission Report. Deficit financing in Protection of consumer interests in India–meaning, significance and
8. Economic Planning in India : Trends in savings and investment. Trends in saving income and capital.
Output ratios. Growth versus distribution. Transition from central planning to indicative planning. Relation between
market and plan. Strategies for growth, social justice and plans. Planning and increasing the growth rate. Features and
strategies of economic planning in India. A critical review of our planned development since 1951. Outlines of the
current Five Year Plan. India‘s population problem and policy to control it.
8. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
1. Electrical Circuits–Theory and Applications
Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods; nodal analysis, mesh analysis;
basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state
analysis, resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port
networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis.
Filter-theory : design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation.
2. Signals & Systems 36
Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals& systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse
response; time domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Laplace
transform, Z-transform, Transfer function.
3. E.M. Theory
Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of
plane waves. Transmission lines : Distributed parameter circuits, travelling and standing waves, impedance matching,
4. Analog Electronics
Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signals) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode
circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Amplifiers ; single and multistage,
differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. Oscillators ;
criterion for oscillation. Power supplies.
5. Digital Electronics
Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL,
MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits; latches
and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and
DACs. Semiconductor memories.
6. Energy Conversion
Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines ;
characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers : Principles of operation
and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers, 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines;
characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Special machines: Stepper motors, brushless dc motors,
permanent magnet motors, single-phase motors; FHP.
7. Power Electronic and Electric Drives
Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics
and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters; fully-controlled and half-
controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts; of speed control of dc motor drives.
8. Analog Communication
Signal to noise ratio. Amplitude modulation; DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase
and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrows and FM; generation & detection of FM and PM.
Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers. Signal to noise ratio calculation for
AM and FM receivers.
1. Control Systems
Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop system; principles
and applications of feed-back. LT1 systems; time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability; Routh Hurwitz
criterion, root-loci, Nyquist’s criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lag compensators. Proportional . State-variable
representations and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.
2. Electrical Engineering Materials
Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials ; conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and
extrinsic semi-conductor, p-n junction, solar cells, superconductivity; Dielectric behaviour of materials, polarization
phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials; behaviour and application.
3. Microprocessor and Microcomputers
8-bit microprocessor; architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, peripheral controllers. 37
4. Measurement and Instrumentation
Error analysis, measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance,
capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments; multimeter, CRO, digital
voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers ; thermocouple, thermistor,
LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data-
5. Power Systems; Analysis and Control
Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power
transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; volatage control and
power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical
faults. Concepts of system stability; swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of
HVDC transmission. Active power control. Frequency control. Economic dispatch.
6. Power System Protectiion
Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers
Computer aided protection; introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays.
7. Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties
with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy; Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion
systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy: Thermal conversion photo-voltaic conversion. Wave-
energy. Importance of Energy Management: Energy audit; energy economics; discount rate, payback period, internal
rate of return, life cycle costing.
11. ENGLISH LITERATURE
The Syllabus consists of two parts designed to test a first hand and critical reading of texts prescribed from
the following periods in English Literature; Part I : 1600-1900 and Part II : 1900-1990.
Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of
the following topics and movements: Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and the Mock-epic. The Romantic Movement;
The Rise of the Novel; The Victorian Age.
1. William Shakespeare : King Lear and The Tempest.
2. John Donne. The following poems:
– Death be not proud.
– The Good Morrow.
– On his Mistress going to bed.
3. John Milton : Paradise Lost I
4. Alexander Pope. The Rape of the Lock.
5. William Wordsworth. The following poems:
– Ode on Intimations of Immortality.
– Tintern abbey.
– Three years she grew in Sun and Shower 38
– She dwelt among the untrodden ways.
– Resolution and Independence.
– The World is too much with us.
– Upon Westminster Bridge.
6. Alfred Tennyson : In Memoriam
1. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.
2. Henry Fielding. Tom Jones.
3. Charles Dickens. Hard Times.
4. George Eliot. The Mill on the Floss.
5. Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d‘Urbervilles.
Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of
the following topics and movements.
Modernism; The stream–of–consciousness Novel; Indian Writing in English; Marxist.
1. William Butler yeats. The following poems:
– Easter 1916.
– The Second Coming.
– A Prayer for my daughter.
– Sailing to Byzantium.
– The Tower Among School Children.
– Leda and the Swan.
– The Second Coming.
2. T.S. Eliot. The following poems :
– The Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock.
– Journey of the Magi.
3. W.H. Auden. The following poems:
– Musee des Beaux Arts
– In Memory of W.B. Yeats.
– Lay your sleeping head, my love
– The Unknown Citizen.
– The Shielf of Achilles
– September 1, 1939.
4. Philip Larkin. The following poems:
(All these poems are available in the anthology Ten twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R.
Parthasarthy, published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi).
1. D.H. Lawrence. Sons and Lovers. 39
2. E.M. Forster. A Passage to India.
3. Virginia Woolf. Mrs. Dalloway.
4. Raja Rao. Kanthapura.
10 . GEOGRAPHY
1. Physical Geography
(i) Geomorphology : Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts. Earth movements. Endogenic and exogenic
forces. Physical condition of earth‘s interior. Geosynclines. Continental drift. Isostasy. Plate tectonics. Mountain
building. Volcanicity. Earthquakes. Concepts of geomorphic cycles. Weathering and erosion. Cycle of erosion.
Landforms associated with fluvial, arid, glacial, coastal and karst.
(ii) Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world. Insolation and heat budget of the earth.
Planetary and local winds. Monsoons and jet streams. Air masses and fronts. Temperate and tropical cyclones. Types
and distribution of precipitaton. Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’s classification of world climate. Hydrological cycle. .
(iii) Oceanography: Relief of ocean floors. Temperature and salinity of the oceans. Nature, classification and
world distribution of ocean deposits. Ocean currents and tides. Marine resources–biotic, mineral and energy
resources. Coral reefs and atolls.
(iv) Biogeography: Gensis of soils. Classification and distribution of soils. Soil profile. Soil erosion and
conservation. Problems of deforestation and conservation measures. Social forestry, agro-forestry. Environmental
degradation and conservation. Ecosystems and their management. Global warming. Reduction in bio-diversity and
depletion of forests.
2. Human Geography
(i) Economic Geography: World agriculture–typology of agricultural regions. Agricultural inputs and
productivity. Food and nutritions problems. Famine–causes, effects and remedies. Green revolution – its nature and
consequences for the third world countries. Second generation problems of green revolution and approaches to solve
these problems. Diversification in agriculture. W.T.O. and its impact on Indian agriculture. Factors affecting
agricultural location. A critical appraisal of Von Thunen‘s theory of agricultural location. Major sectors of economic
activity (primary, secondary and tertiary). A detailed discussion of their nature and basic principles. Transporation as
a factor in the choice and location of economic activities. Ullman‘s model of spatial interaction. Factors affecting
industrial location (with special reference to precurement and distribution costs). A critical appreciation of Weber‘s
theory of industrial location. Trends in location and distribution of the following industries : iron and steel, cotton
textiles, automobiles, petorlium refineries, aluminium. Major industrial regions of the world.
(ii) Population and settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population. Causes and
consequences of migration. World population problems. Types and patterns of rural settlements. Hierachy of urban
settlements. Concept of primate city and rank-size rule. Functional classificatioin of towns. Sphere of urban
influence. Rural-urban fringe. Satellite towns. Problems of urbanisation. Spatial organisation of settlements with an
introduction to the Charistaller‘s central place theory.
1. Geography of India
(i) Physical Setting: Structure and relief. Mechanism of Indian monsoons. Tropical cyclones and their
consequences and western disturbances. Floods and droughts. Climatic regions. Natural vegetation, soil types and
(ii) Resources: Fishries. Surface and groud water. Production and future prospects of energy resources.
Energy crisis. Minerals (iron ore, manganese, mica) . Biotic resources, their distribution, utilisation and conservation.
(iii) Agriculture: Infrastructure–irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power. Institutional factors–land holdings, land
tenure and land reforms. Agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability. Agro-and
social-forestry. Green revolution and its socio-economic and eclogical implications. Significance of dry farming. 40
Livestock resources and white revolution. A detailed study of the distribution and production of wheat, rice,
sugarcane, cotton and tea. Regional imbalance in levels of agricultural development.
(iv) Industry and transport : Evolution of industries. Locational factors of cotton textiles, sugar, jute, iron
and steel, fertiliser, paper and automobile industries. Industrial complexes and industrial regionlisation. New
industrial policy. Multinationals and liberalisation. Road, railway, inland waterway, airway networks and their
complementary roles in regional development. Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade. Trade
balance. Free trade and export promotion zones. Developments in communication technology and its impact on
economy and society.
(v) Cultural Setting: Major tribes and their problems. Growth, distribution and density of population.
Demographic attributes–sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, fertility and mortality
and longevity. Migratioin (inter-regional, intra-regional and international,rural–urban migration) and associated
problems, population problems and policies.
(vi) Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements. Urban development. Morphology of
Indian cities. Functional classification of Indian cities, conurbations and metropolitan regions. Urban sprawl, slums
and associated problems. Town planning. Problems of urbanisation.
(vii) Regional Planning : Five Year Plans. Integrated rural development programmes. Panchayati Raj and
decentralised planning. Command area development. Watershed management. Planning for backward area, desert,
drought-prone, hill tribal area development.
(viii) Contemporary Issues: Environmental hazards–landslides, earthquakes, epidemics. Issues related to
environmental pollution. Population explosion and food security. Environmental degradation. Problems of agrarian
and industrial unrest. Regional disparities in economic development. Concept of sustainable growth and
development. International boundary of India and related issues. Disputes on sharing of water resources. India and
geopolitics of Indian Ocean.
11. HINDI LITERATURE (IN DEVNAGRI SCRIPT)
1. History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi.
1. Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
2. Development of Braj and Awadhi as Literary languages during medieval period.
3. Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusro, Sant Sahitya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
4. Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during the 19th Century
5. Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
6. Development of Hindi as a national Language during freedom movement.
7. The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
8. Scientific and Technical development of Hindi Language.
9. Prominent dialects of Hindi and their interrelationship.
10. Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Structure of Standard Hindi.
11. Grammatical structure of standard Hindi.
2. History of Hindi Literature
I. The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature.
II. Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.
A . Adikal–Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya. Prominent poets–Vidyapati, Hemchandra, Chandravardai,
B . Bhaktikal–Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.
Prominent Poets–Kabir, Jayasi, Tulsi & Sur. 41
C . Ritikal– Ritibaddhkavya & Riti Mukta Kavya. Prominent Poets–Keshav, Padmakar, Bihari Ghananand.
D . Adhunik Kal–
i) Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal and its contribution.
ii) Prominent writers–Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
iii) Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Prayogvad, Navgeet and
Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.
Prominent Poets–Maithili Sharan Gupt, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh,
III. Katha Sahitya
A. Upanyas and Realism
B. The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
C. Prominent Novelists–Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
D. The origin and development of Hindi short story.
E. Prominent Short Story Writers–Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh and Krishna Sobti.
IV. Drama and Theatre
A. The origin and Development of Hindi Drama
B. Prominent Dramatists–Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan
C. The Development of Hindi Theatre.
A. The origin and development of Hindi Criticism: Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi,
Manovishleshanvadi and Nai Alochana.
B. Prominent critics–Ramchandra Shukla, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma and Nagendra.
VI. The other forms of Hindi prose–Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran Yatra-vrittant.
First hand reading of the following texts to test the critical ability of the candidates :-
1. Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed. Shyam Sundar Das
(First hundred Sakhis)
2. Surdas : Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (first hundred Padas)
3. Tulsidas : Ramcharit Manas (Sundar Kand), Kavitawali (Uttarkand)
4. Jayasi : Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sindhi Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
5. Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
6. Mathili Sharan : Bharat Bharati.
7. Prasad : Kamayani (Chinta and Shraddha Sarg)
8. Nirala : Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja and Kukurmutta)
9. Dinkar : Kurukshetra
10. Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
11. Muktibodh : Brahm Rakhashas
12. Nagarjun : Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.
13. Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha
14. Mohan Rakesh : Ashad Ka Ek Din
15. Ramchandra : Chintamani (Part-I) (Kavita Kya Hai, Shraddha
Shukla Aur Bhakti) 42
16. Dr. Satyendra : Nibandh Nilaya–Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi,
Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
17. Premchand : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai.
18. Prasad : Skandgupta
19. Yashpal : Divya
20. Phaniswar Nath : Maila Anchal
21. Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
22. Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)
12 INDIAN HISTORY
History of India (Down to AD 750)
1. The Indus Civilisation : Origin and extent . Characteristic features. Major cities. Trade and contacts.
Causes of decline. Survival and continuity.
2. The Vedic Age : Vedic literature. Differences and similarities between Indus Civilisation and Vedic
culture. Political, social and economic patterns. Major religious ideas and rituals.
3. The Pre-Maurya Period : Religious movements (Jainism, Buddhism and other sects). Social and
economic conditions. Republics and growth of Magadha imperialism.
4. The Maurya Empire : Alexander‘s invasion and its effects. Source, rise, extent and fall of Maurya
empire. Administration. Social and economic conditions. Ashoka’s policy and reforms. Art.
5. The Post-Maurya Period (200 B.C. –300 A.D.) : Rule of Indo-Greeks. The Sakas and the Kushanas.
Principal dynasties in Northern and Southern India. Economy of society. Sanskrit, Prakrit and Tamil. Religion (rise of
Mahayana and theistic cults). Art (Gandhara, Mathura and other schools). Contacts with Central Asia.
6. The Gupta Age : Rise and fall of the Gupta Empire. The Vakatakas. Administration, society, economy,
literature, art and religion. Contacts with South East Asia. General review of education and learning.
7. Post-Gupta Period (B.C. 500–750A.D.) : Pushyabhutis. The Muakharis. The later Guptas.
Harshvardhana and his times. Chalukyas of Badami. The Pallavas. Society, administration and art. The Arab
conquest. Rise of Cholas and their administration.
Medieval India (750 A.D. to 1765 A.D.)
India : (750 A.D. to 1200 A.D.)
1. Political and social conditions. The Rajputs–their policy and social structure. Land structure and its
impacts on society. Growth of feudalism in north India. Turkish invasion.
2. Trade and commerce.
3. Maritime Activities : Contacts with the Arabs, Mutual, cultural impacts.
4. Rashtrakutas, their role in history – Contribution to art and culture. The Chola Empire. Local Self-
Government, features of the Indian village system. Society, economy, art and learning in the South.
5. Indian Society on the eve of Mahmud of Ghazni’s campaigns.
India : 1200 AD –1765 AD
6. Foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in Northern India. Causes and circumstances. Its impact on the Indian
society. Economic experience of Allauddin Khilji.
7. Khilji imperialism – significance and implications, administrative and economic regulations and their
impact on state and the people.
8. New Orientation of state policies and administrative principles under Muhammed bin Tughluq.
Religious policy and public works of Firoz Shah. Scheme of Muhamed Tughluq.Administration of Firoz Shah.
9. Disintegration of the Delhi Sultanate – causes and its effects on the Indian polity and society. Nature
and character of State, political ideas and institutions. Agrarian structure and relations, trade and commerce,
condition of artisans and peasants. 43
10. Influence of Islam on Indian Culture. Muslim mystic movements. Nature and significance of Bhakti
saints. Cultural interaction between Hindus and Muslims.
11. The Vijaynagar Empire : Its origin and growth. Contributioin to art, literature and culture. Social and
economic conditions. System of administration. Break-up of the Vijaynagar Empire. The Bahmani Kingdom.
12. Sources of History : Important chronicles, inscriptions and travellers‘ accounts.
13. Establishment of Mughal Empire in northern India. Political and social conditions in Hindustan on the
eve of Babur’s invasion. Babur and Humayun. Establishment of the Portuguese control in the Indian ocean, its
political and economic consequences.
14. Sur Administration–political, revenue and military administration.
15. Expansion of the Mughal Empire under Akbar, political unification, new concept of monarchy under
Akbar, Akbar’s religio-political outlook. Relations with the non Muslims. Akbar conquest. Rajput policy. Religios
16. Growth of regional languages and literature during the medieval period. Development of art and
17. Political ideas and institutions : Nature of the Mughal state, Mughal administration, land revenue
administrations (the Mansabdari and the Jagirdari systems, the landed structure and the role of the Zamindars,
agrarian relations), the military organisations. Deccan and NW Frontier policy of Mughals. Social, cultural and
economic conditions during the Mughal period.
18. Aurangzeb’s religious policy. Expansion of the Mughal Empire in Decan. Revolts against Aurangzeb–
character and consequences. Aurangzeb and break up of Mughal empire.
19. Growth of urban centres. Industrial economy–urban and rural. Foreign trade and commerce. The
Mughals and the European trading companies.
20. Socio–religious relations of Hindu–Muslim during 16 to 18th centuries and growth of composite
21. Rise of Shivaji, his conflict with the Mughals. Administration of Shivaji. Expansion of the Maratha
power under the Peshwas (1707–1761). Maratha political structure under the First Three Peshwas. Chauth and
Sardeshmukhi. Third Battle of Panipat, causes and effect. Emergence of the Maratha confederacy, its structure and
22. Disintegration of the Mughal Empire. Emergence of the new Regional States.
Modern India and Freedom Struggle (1757 AD–1947 AD)
1. Coming of European powers. Historical forces and factors which led to the British conquest of India.
British occupation of Bengal. Growth of British power during Warren Hastings, Wellesley, William Bentick,
Dalhousi with special reference to Bengal, Marathas, Sind, Punjab and Oudh. Resistence of Indian powers and
causes of their failure. Civil rebillions and Revolt of 1857.
2. Evolution of British paramountcy over princely states.
3. Administrative structure and policies – revenue, judicial, social and educational and their linkages with
British colonial interests.
4. British economic policies and their impact. Commercialisation of agriculture. Rural indebtedness.
Growth of agriculture labour. Destruction of handicraft industries. Drain of wealth. Growth of modern industry and
rise of a capitalist class. Activities of the Christian Missions.
5. Socio-religious movements. Social, religious, political and economic ideas of the reformers and their
vision of future. Nature and limitation of 19th Century ―Renaissance‖. Caste movements in general with special
reference to South India and Maharashtra. Tribal revolts, specially in Central and Eastern India. Peasant revolts with
special reference to indigo revolt, deccan riots and Mapplia uprising.
7. Rise and growth of Indian National Movement. Social basis of Indian nationalism. Foundation of INC.
Programmes of the early nationalists (moderates) and extremist. Militant revolutionary groups. Rise and growth of
communalism. Emergence of Gandhiji in Indian politics and his techniques of mass mobilisation. Khilafat
Movement. Non-Cooperation. Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement. Trade union and peasant movements. 44
State (s) people movements. The Congress socialists and communists. British official response to National
Movement.Constitutional developments during British period (Acts of 1909, 1919, 1935). Indian National Army.
Navy Mutiny of 1946. Muslim League. The Partition of India . India‘s Independence.
I Constitutional Law of India
1. Nature of the Indian Constitution. The distinctive features of its federal character.
2. Fundamental Rights. Directive Principles and their relationship with Fundamental Rights. Fundamental
3. Right to Equality.
4. Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression.
5. Right to Life and Personal Liberty.
6. Religious, Cultural and Educational Rights.
7. Constitutional position of the President and relationship with the Council of Ministers.
8. Governor and his powers.
9. Supreme Court and High Courts. Their powers and jurisdiction.
10. Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions. Their powers and functions.
11. Principles of Nature Justice.
12. Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the State.
13. Delegated legislation. Its constitutionality, judicial and legislative controls.
14. Administrative and financial relations between the Union and the States.
15. Trade, commerce and intercourse in India.
16. Emergency provisions.
17. Constitutional safeguards to civil servants.
18. Parliamentary privileges and immunities.
19. Amendment of the Constitution.
II. International Law
1. Nature of International Law.
2. Sources: Treaty, Customs, General Principles of Law recognised by civilized nations, subsidiaries
means for the determination of Law, Resolutions of International organs and regulation of International
organs and regulations of Specialized Agencies.
3. Relationship between International Law and Municipal Law.
4. State Recognition and State Succession.
5. Territory of States; modes of acquisition.
6. Sea. Inland waters. Territorial Sea. Contiguous Zone. Continental Shelf. Exclusive. Economic Zone
and ocean beyond national Jurisdiction.
7. Air-space and aerial navigation.
8. Outer-space. Exploration and use of outer space.
9. Individuals, Nationality, Statelessness; Human Rights and procedures available for their enforcement.
10. Jurisdiction of States; bases of jurisdiction.
11. Extradition and Asylum.
12. Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts.
13. Treaties ; Formation, application and termination.
14. State Responsibility,
15. United Nations : its principal organs, powers and functions. 45
16. Peaceful settlement of disputes.
17. Lawful recourse to force ; aggression, selfdefence. intervention.
18. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons.
I Law of Crimes
1. Concept of crime : actus reus, mens rea, mens rea in statutory offences, punishments mandatory sentences preparation and
2. Indian Penal Code
a) Application of the Code
b) General exceptions.
c) Joint and constructing liability.
e) Criminal conspiracy.
f) Offences against the State.
g) Offences against public tranquility.
h) Offences by or relating to public servants.
i) Offences against humany body.
j) Offences against porperty.
k) Offences relating to Marriage : Cruelty.
II. Law of Torts.
1. Nature of tortious liability.
2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability.
3. Statutory liability.
4. Vicarious liability.
5. Joint Tort–fessors.
8. Occupier‘s liability and liability in respect of structures.
12. False Imprisonment and Malicious Prosecution.
III Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law.
1. Formation of contract. (Indian Contract Act, 1872)
2. Factors vitiating consent.
3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
4. Performance of contracts.
5. Dissolution of contractual obligations, frustration.
7. Remedies for breach of contract.
8. Sale of goods and hire purchase (Sales of Goods Act, 1930).
10. Formation and dissolution of Partnership (Indian Partnership Act,1932)
11. Negotiable Instruments.
12. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
IV Law of Evidence and Indian Evidence Act.
Note : Neither Bare Act will be provided nor the candidates are allowed to bring a copy of any Bare Act in the
Examination Hall. 46
Part – I
1. Linear Algebra
Vector space, Linear dependance and independance, Sub spaces, Bases, Dimensions, Finite dimensional
Matrics, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Matrix of linear transformation, Row and
column reduction, Echelon form, Equivalence, Congruence and Similarity, Reduction to Canonical form, Rank,
Orthogonal, symmertrical, Skew Symmetrical, Unitary, Hermitian Skew-Hermitian forms–their given values.
Orthogonal and Unitary reduction of quardratic and Hermition forms, Positive definite quadratic forms, Simultaneous
reduction, Sylvester‘s law of inertia.
Real numbers, Limits, Continuity, Differentiability, Mean-value Theorems, Taylor‘s theorem with
remainders, Indeterminate forms, Maxima and Minima, Asymptotes, Functions of several variables, Continuity,
Differentiability, Partial derivatives,Maxima and Minima, Lagrange‘s method of Multipliers, Jacobian, Riemann‘s
definition of Definite integrals; Indefinite integrals, infinite and improper integral, Double and triple integrals
(techniques only). Repeated integrals, Beta and Gamma functions. Areas, Surface and Volumes, Centre of Gravity.
Cartesian and Polar coordinates in two and three dimension, Second degree equations in two and three
dimensions, Reduction to Cannonical forms, Straight lines, Plane, Sphere, Cone, Cylinder, Paraboloid, Ellipsoid,
Hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties. Shortest distance between two skew lines, Curves in space,
Curvature and torsion. Serret-Frenet‘s formulae.
4. Ordinary Differential Equations
Formation of differential equations, Order and Degree, Equations of first order and first degree, Integrating
factor, Equations of first order but not of first degree, lairaut‘s equation, singular solution. Higher order linear
equations with constant coefficients. Complementary function and particular integral. General solution. Euler-Cauchy
Second order linear equations with variable coefficients. Determination of complete solution when one
solution is known. Method of variation of parameters.
Equilibrium of a system of particles, work and potential energy. Friction, Common Catenary, Principle of
Virtual work, Stability of Equilibrium, Equilibrium of forces in three dimensions. ‗Lemi‘s theorem‘.
Degree of freedom and constraints, Rectilinear motion, Simple Harmonic motion. Motion in a plane,
Projectiles. Constrained Motion, Work and energy, Conservation of energy, Motion under Impulsive forces, Kepler‘s
laws, Orbits under Central forces, Motion of varying mass, Motion under resistance.
Pressure of heavy fluids. Equilibrium of fluids under given system of forces, Centre of pressure, Thrust on
curved surfaces, Equilibrium of floating bodies. Stability of equilibrium. Metacentre, Pressure of gases, problems
relating to atmosphere.
1. Vector Analysis
Scalar and vector fields, triple products. Differentiation of Vector function of a scalar variable, Gradient,
Divergence and Curl in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates and their physical interpretation. Higher 47
order derivatives. Vector Identities and Vector Equations, Application to Geometry, Gauss and Stoke‘s Theorems,
2. Real Analysis
Real number system, Ordered sets. Bounds, Ordered Field, Real number systems as an Ordered Field with
least Upper Bound, Cauchy Sequence, Completeness. Completion Continuous Functions, Uniform Continuity.
Properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann Integral, Improper integrals. Differentiation of
functions of several variables, Maxima and Minima, Absolute and conditional Convergence of series of real and
Complex terms, Rearrangement of series, Uniform convergence, Infinite Products. Continuity, differentiability and
integrability for series, Multiple integrals. Infinite and alternating series.
3. Numerical Analysis
Numerical Methods : Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection,
Regula-falsi and Newton-Raphsons methods. Solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and
Gauss-Jordan (direct) methods. Gauss Seidel (iterative) method.
Interpolation : Nedwton‘s (forward and backword) and Lagrange‘s method.
Concepts of particles, Lamina, Rigid Body, Displacement, Force, Mass, Weight, Motion, Velocity, Speed,
Acceleration. Parallelogram of forces. Parallelogram of velocity, acceleration, resultant, equilibrium of coplanar
forces. Moments, Couple, Friction, Centre of mass, Gravity. Laws of motion. Motion under conservative forces.
Motion under gravity. Projectile, Escape velocity; Motion of artificial satellites.
Sample space, Events, Algebra of events, Probability–Classical, Statistical and Axiomatic Approaches.
Conditional Probability and Baye‘s Theorem Random Variables and Probability. Distributions–Discrete and
Continuous. Mathematical Expectations. Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions.
6. Statistical Methods
Collection, Classification, tabulation and presentation of data. Measures of central value. Measures of
dispersion. Skewness, moments and Kurtosis. Correlation and regressiion.
15. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
1. Theory of machines
Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms. Cams, Gears and gear trains. Flywheels, Governors,
Balancing of rigid rotors. Linear vibration analysis of mechanical system, (single degree and two degrees of
freedom). Critical speeds and whirling of shafts. Automatics controls. Belt and chains drives.
2. Mechanics of Solids
Stress and strain in two dimensions. Principal stresses and strains. Mohr‘s circle, linear elastic materials.
Stress-strain relations, uniaxial loading, thermal stresses. Beams : Bending moment and shear force diagrams,
bending stresses and deflection of beams. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses. Thick and thin
walled pressure vessels. Struts and columns. Strain energy concepts and theories of failure.
3. Engineering materials
Basic concepts on structure of solids. Crystalline materials. Defects in crystalline materials. Alloys and
binary phase diagrams. Properties of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, ceramics and
composite materials, common applications of various materials. Corrosion. Powder Metallurgy.
4. Manufacturing Science 48
Merchant‘s force analysis. Taylor‘s tool life equation, machinability and machining economics. Rigid, small
and flexible automation. NC, CNC. Recent machining methods–EDM, ECM and ultrasonics. Applications of lasers
and plasmas. Jigs, fixtures, tools and gauges. inspection of length, position, profile and surface finish.
5. Manufacturing Management
Production planning and Control, Forecasting–Moving average, exponential smoothing, operations
scheduling; assembly line balancing, Product development, Break-even analysis, Capacity planning, PERT and CPM.
Control operations; Inventory control–ABC analysis. Basic EOQ model, Materials requirement planning, Job
Design, Job standards. Work measurement. Quality Management–Quality analysis and control statistical quality
Value Engineering : Value analysis, for coat/value, Just in Time (JIT) technique, Enterprises Resources
Planning (ERP). Total quality management . Project management.
Basic concept, Open and closed systems, Applications of Thermodyanamic Laws. Gas equatiions,
Clapeyron equation. Availability, Irreversibility.
2. C.I. Engines, Fuels and Combustion
Spark Ignition and compression Ignition engines, Four stroke engine and Two-stroke engines, Mechanical,
thermal and volumetric efficiency, Heat balance sheet, combustion process in S.I. and C.I. engine, Choice of engine
fuels, Octane and Cetane ratings, Alternate fuels. Carburration and Fuel injection. Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels,
stoichometric air requirements and excess air factor, higher and lower calorific values.
3. Heat Transfer, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
One dimensional heat conduction. Heat transfer from extended surfaces, Heat transfer by forced and free
convection, Heat exchangers. Fundamentals of diffusive and convective mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat exchange
between black and non-black surfaces, Network Analysis, Heat pump refrigeration cycles and systems, Condensers,
evaporators and expansion devices and controls. Properties and choice of refrigerant, Refrigeration systems and
components psychrometrics, cooling load calculations, solar refrigeration.
4. Turbo-Machines and Power Plants
Theory and design of axial flow turbines and compressors. Flow through turbo-machine blade, cascades,
centrifugal compressors. Dimensional analysis and modelling, selection of site for steam, hydro, nuclear and stand-by
power plants, selection, base and peak load power plants. Modern High pressure, High duty boilers, station and plant
heat rates, operation and maintenance of various power plants, preventive maintenance, economics of power
Conservation Laws, collisions, impact parameter, scattering cross-section, centre of mass . Rutherford
Scattering. Motion of a rocket under constant force field Rotating frames of reference. Coriolis force, motion of rigid
bodies. Angular momentum. Torque and procession of a top. Central forces, Motion under inverse square law,
Kepler‘s Laws, motion of satellites (including geostationary). Galilean Relativeity, Special Theory of Relativity,
Mischelson-Morley Experiement, Lorentz transformation-addition theorem of velocities. Variation of mass with 49
velocity. Mass-Energy equivalence. Fluid dynamics, streamlines, turbulance, Barnoulli‘s Equation with simple
2. Thermal Physics
Laws of thermodynamics, entropy, Carnot‘s cycle, isothermal and adiabatic changes. Thermodynamic
Potentials Maxwell‘s relations. The Clausius–Clapeyren equation reversible cell. Joule-Kalvin effect etc. Kinetic
theory of gases. Maxwell‘s distribution law of velocities. Equipartition of energy, Specific heats of gases, mean free
path. Brownian motion, black body radiation. Specific heat of solids-Einstean & Dabye theories. Wein‘s law,
Planck‘s law solar constant.
3. Waves and Oscillations
Oscillations. Simple harmonic motion. Stationary and travelling waves. Damped harmonic motion. Forced
oscillation and Resonance. Wave equation. Harmonic solutions. Plane and spherical waves. Superposition of waves,
Phase and group velocities. Beats. Hygen‘s principle Interference. Diffraction Fresnel and Fraunhofer. Diffraction by
single slits. Resolving power of grating and optical instruments. Rayleigh Criterion. Laser sources (Ruby).
Holography, theory and and applications.
1. Electricity & Magnetism
Coulomb‘s Law, electric field. Gauss‘s Law, Electric Potential Poission and Laplace equations for a
homogeneous dielectric uncharged conducting sphere in a uniform field. Point charge and infinite conducting plane.
Magnetic shell, Magnetic induction and field strength. Blot-Savart law and applications, electromagnetic induction.
Faraday‘s and Lenz‘s laws, Self and mutual inductances. Alternating currents. L.C.R. circuits series and parallel
resonance circuits, quality factor. Kirchoff‘s laws with application. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Poynting vector. Magnetic fields in matter–dia, para, ferro antioferro and ferri magnetism (qualitative approach only).
2. Modern Physics
Raman effect. Photo-electric effect. Compton effect. Debrogilee waves. Wave particle quality and
uncertainty principle. Schrodinger wave equation with application to (i) particle in a box. (ii) Bohr‘s theory of H-
atom, calculation of e/m ratia and charge on e
. Principle radioactivity. Alpha, beta and gamma radiations.
Elementary theory of the alpha decay. Nuclear binding energy. Nuclear fission and fusion. Elementary reactor
physics. Elementary particles and their classification. Strong and weak electromagnetic interactins. Particle
accelerators; cyclotron. Elementary ideas of superconductivity.
Band theory of Solids–Conductors, insulators and semiconductors; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, P-
N junction. Zenner diodes reverse and forward biased P-N junction, use of diodes and transistors for rectification,
amplification and oscilliation, Logic Gate (AND, OR, NOT).
17. POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. General characteristics of Western political thought.Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke,
Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bentham, J.S. Mill, T.H. Green, Hegel, Marx, Lenin , Mao-se Tung.
2. Nature and scope of political science. Significance of political theory. Elite and theories of Elite. Growth
of political science as a discipline. Traditional vs. contemporary approaches. Behaviouralism and post behavioural
developments. System theory and other recent approaches to political analysis. Marxist approach to political analysis.
Power, authority and legitimacy. Different dimension of power. Theories of power in society.
3. The emergence and nature of the modern state. Sovereignty. Monistic and pluralistic analysis of sovereignty.
Dominant perspectives of modern state : alternate perspectives. Political culture and political socialization. Political
participation and political communication. Modernisation and political development. Alienation and theory of
Alienation. National building and national integration. Social conflict and revolution. 50
4. Political obligation. Resistance and revolution. The concepts of freedom, liberty, equality, rights, property,
justice, Human rights and gender issues. Theories of distributive justice. Notions of common good. Consumer
protection with special reference to India.
5. Democracy and political participation. Dominant theories of democracy. Political process and social change.
Theories of social change–revolutionary change. Concepts of development, socialist, liberal, Gandhian and others.
Critics of development modal, the debate on welfare state. Development and environment–the contemporary debates.
6. Liberalism, evolutionary socialism (democratic and fabian). Marxian socialism, Fascism.
Government and politics with special Reference to India
1. Approaches to the study of comparative politics. Study of Western and non-western perspectives.
2. Political institutions. The legislature, executive and judiciary. Parties and pressure groups. Theories of
party system (Lenin, Michels and Duverger). Electoral system. Bureaucracy–Weber‘s view and modern critiques of
3. Indian Political System : (a) The Roots, colonialism and nationalism in India. A general study of
modern Indian social and political thought of Raja Rammohan Roy, Dadabhai Nauroji, Gokhale, Tilak, Sri
Aurobindo, Iqbal, Jinnah, Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy, Nehru, Vinobha Bhave and Jai Parkash Narain.
(b) The structure – Basic features of Indian Constitution, Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles,
Union Government, Parliament, Cabinet, Supreme Court and Judicial Review, Indian Federalism, Centre-state
relations, State Government, Role of the Governor, Panchayati Raj institutions.
(c) The Functioning–class and caste in Indian politics. Politics of regionalism, linguism and communalism.
Problem of secularization of the policy and national integration. Political elites, the changing composition. Political
parties and political participation. Pressure groups. Public opinion. Voting behaviour and electoral process. Ethnicity.
Planning and developmental administration. Socio-economic changes and its impact on Indian democracy.
1. Nature and concepts of international politics. Functioning of the sovereignation state system; cold war
and neo-cold war–its origin, end and impact on global politics. Power. National interest. Balance of power. Power
2. Theories of international politics : The realist theory, System theory, Critical theories etc.
3. Foreign policy determinants and choices. National interest. Ideology. Elements of national power
(including nature of domestic social-political institution). Imperialism. Balance of power. Allegiances.
Isolationalism. Nationalistic universalism (Pax Britiannica, Pax Americana, Pax Sovietica), The Middle Kingdom
complex of China, Non-alignment.
4. Non-alignment movement. Its meaning and basis. Its role in international relations. De-colonization
and expansion of the international community. Neo-colonialism and facialism, their impact on international relations.
5. International economic order : Aid, trade and economic development. The struggle for the new
international economic order. Sovereignty over natural resources. The crisis in energy resources. Global politics of
environment. Role of IMF, World Bank, WTO, ADB and North South Dialogue.
6. Origin and development of international organisations. The United Nations and specialized agencies
and their role in international relations.
7. Role of Regional organisations : OAS, OAU, the Arab League, the ASEAN. EU, APEC, SAARC,
8. Arms race, disarmament and arms control. Conventional and nuclear arms. Proxy wars and problem of
terrorism. The Arms trade, its impact on Third world and its role in international relations. The uses and mis-uses of
nuclear energy. The impact of nuclear weapons on international relations. The Partial Test ban Treaty. The Nuclear
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) and CTBT.
9. Theory and practice of diplomacy. External intervention : Ideological, political and economic. Cultural
imperialism. Covert intervention by the major power. 51
10. The problems and prospects of the Indian Ocean being made a peace-zone and emerging cooperation
under IOR–ARC and the conflict situation in West Asia.
11. The post-war foreign policies of the major powers viz., United States, Soviet Union, China.
India and the World
1. Determinants and making of India‘s foreign policy.
2. India‘s policy of non-alignment and its contribution through NAM.
3. India‘s relations with major powers : USA, USSR, Russia, Japan, EU.
4. India and its neighbours : China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lank and Nepal.
5. Conflict and cooperation in South and Southeast Asia : Major conflicts, SAARC, ASEAN, ARF, IOR-ARC.
6. India‘s foreign economic policy, globalization and changing world order; India and people of Indian origin.
7. India‘s concerns for nuclear proliferation and peace. PTBT,NPT, PNE, CTBT, UN Peace-Keeping and
8. Changing global environment and assessment of India‘s foreign policy.
Part-I : Foundations of Psychology
1. Scope and Methods of Psychology
Relation of psychology with sociology and anthropology. Methods of psychology-observation, interview,
questionnaires, experimental methods, test methods, scales, case study. Methodological problems of psychology.
General design of psychological research. Designs in experimental psychology.
2. Biological basis of Psychology : Nerves and synapes, transmission of neural impulses, synaptic
transmission. Organisation of the nervous system. Division of nervous system – spinal cord, the brain. Hierarchical
structure of the brain–central core, limbic system. Endocrine system in context of human behaviour. Central
peripheral nervous system. Genetic influence on behaviour–genetic laws of inheritance, the structure and functions of
chromosomes. Reflex action. Localisation of functions in human cortex. Characteristics of sleep and arousal. Stages
of sleep. Neural mechanism in sleep.
Meaning, kinds and determinants of attention and vigilance. Perception of form, colour, depth, distance,
motion. Theories of colour, vision and hearing. Geometrical illusions (types and theories). Theories of perception.
Perceptual organisation. Person perception. Perceptual defence. Transactional approach to perception. Perception and
personality. Figural after-effect. Perceptual styles, perceptical abnormalities.
Types of learning. Learning theories. Operant and Classical conditioning. Instrumental conditioning type
(appetitive and aversive conditioning). Cognitive learning. Transfer of learning. Perceptual learning. Learning and
motivation. Laws of learning. Factors influencing learning. Discrimination learning. Probability learning.
5. Emotions and Stress
Characteristics of emotional behaviour. Expressions of emotions (emotional reactions). Physiological
correlates of emotions. Role of nervous system and endocrine glands in emotions. Theories of emotions : James
Lange, Cannon Bard and Schachter. Stress – Stressors (causes of stress)–conflict, change, lack of control,
unpredictibility. Coping with stress.
6. Memory 52
Nature of Memory. Methods of reproduction . Factors influencing memory. Stages of memory (encoding
storage and retrieval). Theories of memory. Short-term memory. Longterm memory. Measurement of memory.
Forgetting reminscence. Theories of forgetting. Causes of forgetting.
Nature and elements of thinking. Images and thinking. Language and thinking. Concept formatiion. Creative
thinking. Deductive and Inductive reasioning. Problem solving–Nature and scientific methods of problem solving.
8. Intelligence and Aptitude
Nature of intelligence. Theories of intelligence. Measurement of intelligence. Measurement of creativity.
Constancy of I.Q. Aptitude. Measurement of aptitudes. The concept of social intelligence. Types of intelligence and
Concept of need, drive, arousal and incentive. Characteristics of motivated behviour. Classification of
motives. Extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation. Theories to motivation: psycho-analytic theory, drive theory, need
hierarchy theory, vector valence theory. Concept of level of aspiration. Measurement of motivation. The apathetic
and the alienated individual. Incentives.
The concept and nature of personality. Development of self, culture and personality. Trait and type
approaches. Determinants of personality. Theories of personality: Freud, Allport, Murray, Cettell. The Indian
approach to personality–the concept of gunas. Measurement of personality: Subjective techniques, objective
techniques and projective techniques.
11. Attitudes and Values
Definition of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes. Characteristics formation and development of social
attitude. Theories of attitudes. Balance and cognitive dissonance theory. Attitude measurement. Theories of attitude
change. Values. Types of values. Motivational properties of values. Measurement of values.
12. Development of Human Behaviour and Socialization
Effect of heredity, environment and cultural factors on behaviour. Nature, agencies and factors of
socialization. Meaning, characteristics and formation of social norms. Meaning and determinants of social roles.
Meaning and types of social status.
13. Statistics in Psychology
Frequency distribution. Graphical representation of data. Histogram and polygon. Uses of mean, median,
mode. Measures of central tendency variability. Standard deviation. Correlation and its use in psychology. Percentile
and percentile ranks. Method for ungrouped data.
Part-II : Issues and Applications of Psychology
1. Individual Differences
Psychological Tests and General Mental ability (intelligence). Types of psychological tests. Characteristics
of a good psychological tests (s). Limitation of psychological tests. General mental ability (intelligence)–nature and
theories of intelligence : Spearman, Thurston, Guilford, Jensen and Piaget. Heritability of intelligence.
2. Classification of Psychological Disorders
Classifying psychological disorders. Emperical approachs to classification : DSM system of classification.
Recuring issues in classification.
3. Abnormal behaviour 53
Psychological disorders. Concept of normalcy and abnormalcy. Causes of abnormal behaviour–biological,
psychological and socio–cultural. Structural aspect of Freudian theory and defence mechanism.Neurosis–symptoms,
aetiology and treatment. Phobic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder, conversion disorder,
disossiative disorder. Psychosomatic disorders–hypertension and peptic ulcers. Psychotic disorders – symptoms,
aetiology and treatment. Functional Psychosis–depressive disorders, manic depressive psychosis, schizophrenia. Drug
abuse – alchohal, narcotics, stimulants (amphetamines), hallucinogens (LSD), marijuana (hashish). Methods of
assessing abnormal behaviour.
4. Therapeutic Approaches (Treatment of Abnormalcy).
Psychoanalysis. Behaviour therapy. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapy. Group therapy.
Chemotherpy–Anti-psychotic drugs, Anti-anxiety drugs. Anti-depressent drugs. ECT.
5. Application of Psychology to Organisational and Industrial settings.
Personnel selection. Training. Work motivation. Job satisfaction. Worker‘s participation in management.
Nature, types and functions of group. Crowd, mob and audience. The concept of small group. Properties of
groups. Theories of group behaviour. Measurement of group behaviour. Interpersonal relations. Leadership–Nature,
types, qualities, functions. Theories of leadership (Trait theory, complex strait theory, interactional theory).
7. Social Change
Nature and characteristics of social change. Factors and theories of social change. Psychological basis of
change. Steps in the change process. Resistance to change. Factors contributing to resistance. Planning for change.
The concept of change-proneness. Meaning of social perception. Nature and importance of stereo-types. Nature,
factors and theories of propaganda.
8. Psychology and the Problem of Social Integration
The problem of ethnic prejudice. Nature of prejudice. Manifestations of prejudice. Development of
prejudice. Measurement of prejudice. Amelioration of prejudice. Prejudice and personality. Steps to achieve social
9. Problems of Contemporary Society
Alcoholism and drug addiction. The socially deviant juvenile delinquency. Crime rehabiliation of the
deviant. The problems of the aged.Success and failure of marriage. Divorce, separation. Parental fixation. Sibling
rivalary. Special needs children (mentally retarded, blind, orthopaedically and hearing handicapped etc.).
Approaches in dealing with them. Their physical, social, psychological and educational problems.
19. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Part-I Administrative Theory
I. Basic Premises : Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration. Private and Public
Administration. Its role in developed and developing societies. Ecology of administration – social, economic,
cultural, political and legal. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline. Public Administration as an art and a
science. New Public Administration.
II. Theoriess of Organisation : Classical theory of Organisations (Henri Fayol, Luther Gulic and Others).
The Human Relations Theory of Organisations (Elton Mayo and his dolleagues). Behavioural approach. Systems
approach. Organizational effectiveness.
III. Principles of Organization : Hierarchy. Unity of command. Authority and responsibility. Coordination.
Span of control/supervision. Span control of coordination. Supervision and control. Centralization and
decentralization. Delegation. Communication public relations – meaning, methods and significance. 54
IV. Administrative Behaviour : Decision making with special reference to the contribution of Herbert
Simon. Theories of leadership. Communication. Morale. Motivation.
V. Structure of Organisations : Chief Executive. Types of Chief Executives and their functions. Line, staff
and auxiliary agencies. Forms of administrative organisation. Departments, corporations, companies, boards and
commissions. Independent regulatory commissions. Headquarters and field relationship.
VI. Personal Administration : Bureaucracy and civil services. Position classification. Recruitment. Training.
Career development. Performance appraisal. Promotion. Pay and service conditions. Retirement benefits. Discipline.
Employer-employee relations. Integrity in administration. Generalists and specialists. Neutrality and anonymity.
Public Service Commission. Morale. Joint consulative machinery (white councils).
VII. Financial Administration : Concept of budget. Principle of budget making. Preparation, passing and
execution of budget. Performance budgeting. Legislative control. Accounts and audit. Significance of audit.
Parliamentary control over public finance.
VIII. Accountability and Control : The concepts of accountability and control. Legislative, executive and
judicial control over administration. Parliamentary and government control over public corporation. Citizen and
IX. Administrative Reforms : O & M. Work study. Work measurement. Administrative reforms. Processes
X. Administrative Law : Importance of administrative law. Delegated legislation – meaning, types,
advantages, limitations and safeguards. Administrative tribunals.
XI. Comparative and Development Administration : Meaning, nature and scope of comparative public
administration. The concept, scope and significance of development administration. Political, economic and socio-
cultural context of development administration. The concept of administrative development.
XII. Public Policy : Relevance of policy making in public administration. The processes of policy
formulation and implementation.
Part-II Indian Administration
I. Evolution of Indian Administration : Kautilya, Mughal period and British period. Features of Indian
administration, its role in the context of democratic system and socio economic development.
II. Environmental Setting : Constitution. Parliamentary democracy. Federalism. Planning. Socialism.
III. Political Executive at the Union Level : President. Prime Minister. Council of Ministers. Cabinet
IV. Structure of Central Administration : Secretariat, Cabinet Secretariat, Ministries and Departments.
Board and Commissions. Field organisations.
V. Centre-State Relations : Legislative. Administrative. Planning and financial.
VI. Public Services : All India Services. Central Services. State Services. Local Civil Services. Union and
State Public Service Commission. Recruitment, training, promotion, discipline, morale of civil services.
VII. Machinery for Planning : Plan formulation at the national level. National Development Council.
Planning Commission. Planning machinery at the state and district levels. State planning board. Preparation of Five
Year Plans. Centre State relations regarding planning.
VIII. Public Undertakings : Forms, management, control and problems.
IX. Control of Public Expenditure : Preparation of Indian budget and its enactment. Parliamentary control
over public finance in India. Role of the Finance Ministry. Role of Comptroller and Auditor General over financial
administration. Composition and function of Public Accounts Committee and Estimates Committees at the centre. 55
X. State Administration : Governor. Chief Minister. Council of Ministers. Secretariat. Chief Secretary.
XI. District Administration : Salient features of district administration. Role and position of Deputy
Commissioner and Superintendent of Police in district administration. Role of Deputy Commissioner in development
functions. Role of Divisional Commissioner. District Rural Development Agency. Special Development
Programmes. Role of District Collector in land and revenue matters. Role of District Magistrate in law and order.
XII. Local Administration : Meaning and significance. Evolution of local government in India since 1882.
Muncipalities – composition, functions, finances, personnel, general working of municipal bodies with special
reference to Haryana. State Government‘s control over muncipal bodies. Autonomy of local bodies. Problems of
municipalities. State department and directorate of muncipal bodies, its organisation and functions. Role of the
Ministry of urban development as well as the central council of local self-government in regard to municipalities.
Municipal Corporation – composition, functions and finances. Town and metropolitan planning in India. 74th
Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992. Rural Local Government – Zila Parishad, Panchayat Samiti, Panchayat. Their
composition, functions, finance, personnel. State Government‘s control over their working. Role of political parties in
Panchayati Raj. 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992. Problems of rural-urban relationship.
XIII. Administration for Welfare : Meaning, objective and concept of welfare state. Social welfare
administration in India. Welfare state and the constitution of India. The directive principles of the state policy.
Administration for the welfare of weaker sections like scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women. Welfare
programmes for them.
XIV. Issue Areas in Indian Administration : Relationship between political and permanent executives.
Generalists and specialists in administration. Integrity in administration. People‘s participation in administration.
Redressal of citizen‘s grievances. Lok Pal and Lok Ayuktas. Administrative reforms in India. Accountability of
Indian administration to the parliament and judiciary . Problems and causes for the backwardness of agricultural
development. Programme of centre and state government for agricultural development.
20. PUNJABI LITERATURE
1. Origin of Punjabi language: Different stages of development and recent development in Punjabi language.
Characteristics of Punjabi phonology and the study of its tones. Classification of vowels and consonants.
2. Punjabi morphology: The number-gender system (animate and inanimate), prefixes, affixes and different
categories of post positions; Punjabi word formation; Tatsam, Tad Bhav forms; sentence structure, the
notion of subject and object in Punjabi; noun and verb phrases. .
3. Language and dialect: The notions of dialect and idiolect; major dialects of Punjabi (Pothohari, Majhi,
Doabi, Malwai, Paudhi) ; the validity of speech variation on the basis of social stratification, the distinctive
features of various dialects with special reference to tones, language and script; origin and development of
Gurmukhi; suitability of Gurmukhi for Punjabi.
4. Classical background: Nath Jogi Sahit.
Medieval literature: Gurmat, Sufi, Kissa and Var : janamsakhis.
5. Modern trends : Mystic, romantic, progressivc and neomystic (Vir Singh, Puran Singh, Mohan Singh,
Amrita Pritam, Bawa Balwant, Pritam Singh Safeer, J. S. Neki). Experimentalist (Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia,
Ravinder Ravi, Ajaib Kamal). Aesthetes (Harbhajan Singh, Tara Singh). Neo-progressive (Pash, Jagtar,
6. Folk literature : Folk songs, folk tales, riddles, proverbs.
Epic : (Vir Singh, Avtar Singh Azad, Mohan Singh) 56
Lyric : (Gurus, sufis and Modern Lyricists–Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Shiv Kumar, Harbhajan Singh).
7. Drama : (I.C. Nanda, Harcharan Singh, Balwant Gargi, S.S. Sekhon, Alamjit and A.S. Aulakh).
Novel : (Vir Singh, Nanak Singh, Jaswant Singh Kanwal, Sukhbir, Gurdial Singh, Dalip Kaur Tiwana,
Swarn Chandan, Ram Saroop Ankhi).
Short Story : (Sujan Singh, K.S. Duggal, K. S. Virk, Prem Parkash, Waryam Sandhu)
8. Socio-cultural literary influences: Sanskrit, Persian and Western.
Essay : (Puran Singh, Teja Singh, Gurbaksh Singh, N.S.Kapoor).
Literary Criticism : (S.S. Sekhon, Attar Singh, Kishan Singh, Harbhajan Singh, S.S. Noor, Najam Hussain
This part will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate‘s
1 Sheikh Farid : The complete Bani included in the Adi Granth.
2. Guru Nanak : Japu Ji Baramah, Asa di Var.
3. Builieh Shah : Kafian
4. Waris Shah : Heer
5. Shah Mohammnd : Jangnama (Jang Singhan te Firangian)
Dhani Ram Chatrik (Poet) : Chandan Vari, Sufi Khnna, Nawan Jahan.
6. Nanak Singh (Novelist) : Chitta Lahu, Pavittar Papi, Ek Mian Do Talwaran.
7. Gurbaksh Singh (Essayist) : Zindagi di Ras, Nawan Shivala, Merian Abhul Yadaan.
Balraj Sahni (Travelogue) : Mera Roosi Safarnama, Mera Pakistani Safarnama.
8. Balwant Gargi (Dramatist) : Loha Kutt, Dhuni-di-Agg , Sultan Razia.
Sant Singh Sekhon (Critic) : Sahityarth, Parsidh Punjabi Kavi, Punjabi Kav Shiromani.
Part- I General Sociology
1. Sociology as a Discipline
Sociology as a science and as an interpretative discipline. Impact of industrial and French Revolution on the
emergence of sociology. Sociology and its relationship with history, economics, political science, psychology and
2. Scientific Study of Social Phenomena
Problem of objectivity and value neutrality. Issue of measurement in social science. Elements of scientific
method–concepts, theory and fact, hypothesis. Research designs–descriptive, exploratory and experimental.
3. Techniques of Data Collection and Analysis
Significance of social research. Participant, Non participant and quasi-participant. Methods and techniques
of data collection (observation, interview, questionnaire and schedule, survey and case study). Sampling–size,
reliability and validity. Types and sources of data (primary and secondary). Tabulation, classifications and analysis
of data. Scaling techniques–social distance and Likert scale. Statistical methods in social research–measure of central
tendency (mean, median, mode), measure of dispersion (mean deviation, standard deviation). 57
4. Pioneering Contributions to Sociology
(a) Karl Marx : Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation and class struggle. (b) Emile
Durkheim : Division of labour, social fact, religion and society. (c) Max Weber : Social action, ideal types, authority,
bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. (d) Tolcott Parsons : Social system, pattern variables. (e)
Robert K. Merton ; Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
5. Marriage and Family
Types and forms of marriage. Family-structure and function. Personality and socialization. Social control.
Family lineage, descent and property. Changing structure of family. Marriage and sex roles in modern society.
Divorce and its implications. Gender issues. Role conflicts.
6. Social stratification
Concepts–hierachy, inequality and stratification. Theories of stratificatin–Marx, Davis and Moore Critique.
Forms and functions. Different conceptions of class. Class-in-itself and class-for-itself. Caste and class. Caste as a
7. Social Mobility
Types of mobility–open and closed models. Intra-and inter-generational mobility. Vertical and horizontal
mobility. Social mobility and social change.
8. Economic System
Sociological dimensions of economic life. The impact of economic processes on the larger society. Features
of pre-industrial and industrial economic system. Industrialization and social change. Social determinants of
economic development. Globalization and Liberalization.
9. Political System
The nature of power–personal power, community power, power of the elite, class power, organisational
power, power of the un-organised masses. Authority and legitimacy. Pressure groups and political parties. Voting
behaviour. Modes of political participation–democratic and authoritarian forms.
10. Educational System
Education and Culture. Equality of educational opportunity. Social aspects of mass education. Problems of
universalisation of primary education. Role of community and state intervention in education. Educating as an
instrument of social change.
Origins of religious beliefs in pre-modern societies. The sacred and the profane. Social functions and
dysfunctions of religion. Monistic and pluralistic religion. Organised and unorganised religions. Sect and cults.
Magic, religon and science.
12. Social Movements
Concept of social movement. Genesis of social movements. Ideology and social movement. Social
movement and social change. Types of social movements.
13. Social Change and Development
Continuity and change as fact and as value. Theories of social change–Marx, Persons and Sorokin. Directed
social change. Social policy and social development.
Part-II Study of Indian Society
1. Historical Moorings of the Indian Society and Indian Social Structure.
Traditional Hindu social organisation. Socio-cultural dynamics through the ages. Impact of Buddhism,
Islam, and the West. Factors in continuity and change. Unity and diversity. 58
2. Caste System
Origin of the caste system. Cultural and structural views about caste. Mobility in caste system. Caste among
Muslims and Christians. Change and persistence of caste in modern India. Issues of equality and social justice. Views
of Gandhi and Ambedkar on caste. Caste and Indian polity. Emergence of Dalit consciousness.
3. Marriage, Family and Kinship
Meaning of marriage. Types of marriage. Rules of mates selection. Stability of marriage. Patterns of
marriage among Hindus, Muslims. Ways of acquiring mates among the tribes. Marriage among different ethnic
groups, its changing trends and its future. Family –its structural and functional aspects–changing forms. Types of
family (nuclear, extended and joint family). Family problems. Disintegration of family, its causes, future of family.
Impact of legislation and socio-economic change on marriage and family. Generation gap. Inheritance, succession
and descent of kinship. Regional variations in kinship systems, North and South Indian kinship patterns.
4. Class and Agrarian Class Structure
Indian Social class structure. Emergence of middle class. Peasant society and agrarian systems. Land tenure
systems–historical perspectives. Social consequences of land reforms and green revolution. Feudalism and semi-
feudalism debates. Emerging agrarian class structure. Agrarian unrest.
5. Industry and Society
Path of industrialisation and occupational diversification. Trade union and human relations. Market
economy and its social consequences. Economic reforms–liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation.
6. Political Processes
Working of the democratic political system in a traditional society. Political parties and their social bases.
Social structural origins of political elites and their orientations. Regionalism, pluralism and national unity.
Decentralisation of power. Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalikas. 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amedments. Women and
Directive Principles of State Policy and primary education. Educational inequality and change. Education
and social mobility. The role of community and state intervention in education. Universalisation of primary
education. Total literacy campaign. Educational problems of disadvantaged groups.
8. Religion and Society
Size, growth and regional distribution of different religious groups. Educational levels of different groups.
Problems of religious minorities. Communal tensions. Secularism. Religious fundamentalism. Conversions.
9. Tribal Societies
Distinctive features of tribal communities and their geographical spread. Problems of tribal communities–
land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, health and nutrition, education. Tribal development efforts after independence.
Tribal policy–isolation, assimilation and integration, issues of tribal indentity.
10. Population Dynamics
Population size, growth, composition and distribution. Components of population growth (birth rate, death
rate and migration). Determinants and consequences of population growth. Issues of age at marriage, sex ratio, infant
mortality rate. Population policy and family welfare programmes.
11. Dimensions of Development
Strategy and ideology of planning, poverty, indebtedness and bounded labour. Strategies of rural
development–poverty alleviation programmes. Problems involved in urban growth–basic infrastructure, environment,
housing, slums, and unemployment. Programmes for urban development. 59
12. Social Change
Endogenous and exogenous sources of change and resistance to change. Processes of change–sanskritisation
and modernisation. Factors (agents) of social change – demographic, environmental, technological, economical, mass
media and communication, educational, cultural, religious, legislative. Processes of social change in India –
Sanskritizatiion, urbanization, westernization, secularization, industrialization, modernization. Problems of change
and modernisation. Structural contradictions and breakdowns. Development and social change. Theories of social
change– linear, cyclic fluctuation, conflict. Formal strategies of social change – social planning and legislation.
Informal strategies of social change – social movements in India.
13. Social Movements
Reform movements–Brahm Samaj, Arya Samaj and Satya Sadhak Samaj. Peasant movements–Kisan
Sabha, Telengana and Naxalbari. Backward castes movement. Self-respect movement. Backward castes mobilisatin
in North India.
14. Women and Society
Demographic profile of women. Special problems–dowry, atrocities, discrimination, gender inequality,
marital adjustment, famility tension and violence. Welfare programmes for women and their impact. Child welfare
15. Social Problems
Prostitution, AIDS, alcoholism, drug addiction, corruption, dowry, youth unrest, regionalism, casteism,
poverty, unemployment, bonded labour, discrimination and atrocities on S.C./S.T. and women. Legal measures to
eradicates to social problems.
22. SANSKRIT LITERATURE
1. Main characteristics of Vedic Sanskrit language. Prominent feature of classical Sanskrit language.
Contribution of Sanskrit to linguistic studies.
2. Significant features of grammar, with particular stress on Sanjna, Sandhi, Karaka, Samasa, Kartri and Karma
vacyas (voice usages)
3. General knowledge of : (a) Literary history of Sanskrit (b) Principal trends of literary criticism (c)
Ramayana (d) Mahabharata (e) The origin and development of literary geners of Mahakavya, Rupaka
(drama), Katha, Akhyayika, Champu, Khandakavya, Muktaka Kavya.
4. Essential of Indian Culture with stress on: (a) Purusarthas (b) Samaskaras (c) Varnasrama vyavastha (d) Arts
and fine arts (e) Technical sciences
5. Trends of Indian Philosophy: (a) Mimansa (b) Vedanta (c) Nyaya (d) Vaisesika (e) Sankhya (f) Yoga (g)
Bauddha (h) Jaina (i) Charvaka
6. Short Essay in Sanskrit (at least 250 words)
7. Unseen passage with the questions (to be answered in Sanskrit).
8. Translation from Hindi to Sanskrit
1. General study of the following works: (a) Isavasyopanisad (b) Bhagavadgita (c) Sundarakanda of Valmiki‘s
Ramayana (d) Arthasastra of Kautilya (e) Raghuvamsam–Kalidasa (f) Kumarasambhavam–Kalidas (g)
Kadambari–Banabhatta (h) Dasakumaracaritam–Dandin (i) Sivarajyodayam–S.B. Varnekar (j)
Svapanavasavadattam–Bhasa (k) Abhijnana Sakuntalam–Kalidasa (l) Mrcchakatikam – Sudraka (m)
Mudrsaraksasa–Visakhadatta (n) Uttararamacharitam–Bhavbhuti (o) Ratnavali–Sriharshavardhana
2. Write short notes in Sanskrit on the following : (a) Meghadutam–Kalidasa (b) Nitisatakam–Bhartrhari (c)
Panchtantra–Vishnusharma (d)Rajatarangini–Kalhana (e) Harsacharitam–Banabhatta (f) Gitagovindam–
3. Evidence of first hand reading of the following selected texts (questions are to be answered in Sanskrit): (a)
Isavasyopanisad–verses–1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 15 and 18. (b) Bhagavatgita-II chapter, verses 13 to 25 (c)
Sundarakandam of Valmiki–Canto 15, Verses 1 to 30 (Geeta Press Edition) (d) Raghuvamsam–Canto I,
Verses 1 to 10 (e) Kumarasambhavam–Canto I, Verses 1 to 10 (f) Meghadutam–verses 1to 10 (g)
Nitisatakam–Verses 1 to 10 (Edited by D.D. Kosambi, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Publication) (h)
Kadambari–Sukanasopadesa (only) (i) Svapnavasavadattam Act VI (j) Abhijnansakuntalam Act IV verses
15 to 30 (M.R. Kale Edition) (k) Uttararamacharitam Act I verses 31 to 47 (M.R. Kale Edition)
1. A general survey, classification and relationship of the various phyla and their subdivision upto class.
2. Protozon : Study of the structure and life history of Paramaccium, Monocyotis, malarial parasite,
Trypanosoma. Locomotion, nutrition and reproduction in Protozoa.
3. Porifera : Canal system, skeleton and reproduction.
4. Coelentrata : Structure and life history of Obelia and Aurelia, Polymorphism in Hydrozoa, coral
5. Helminths : Structure and life history of Fasciola, Taenia and Ascaris. Parasitic adaptation. Helminths
in relation to man.
6. Annelida : Earthworm and leech. Coelom and metamerism, modes of life in polychactes.
7. Artropoda : Cockroach, larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea, respiration in arthoropods, social life
and metamorphosis in insects. Importance of Peripatus.
8. Mollusca : Pila, oyster culture and pearl formation.
9. Echinodermata-General organisation, affinities of Echinodermata.
1. General organisation and characters, outline classification and inter-relationship of protochordata with
2. Neoteny and retrogressive metamorphosis.
1. A general study of comparative account of the various systems of vertebrates.
2. Locomotion, migration and respiration in fishes; affinities of Dipnoi.
3. Origin of Amphibia; anatomical peculiarities and affinities of urodela and Apoda. 61
4. Origin of Repitles; adaptive radiation in reptitles; fossil reptile; poisonous and non-poisonous snakes of
India; poison apparatus of snakes.
5. Origin of birds; aerial adaptation and migration of birds.
6. Origin of mammals; dentition and skin derivatives in mammals; distribution, structural peculiarities and
phylogenetic relations of Prototheria and Metatheria.
1. Environment : Abiotic factors and their role. Biotic factors–intra and interspecific relations.
2. Animal : Organisation at population and community levels, ecological successions.
3. Ecosystem : Concept, components, fundamental operation, energy flow, biogeo-chemical, cycles, food
chain and trophic levels.
4. Adaptation in fresh water, marine and terrestrial habitats.
5. Pollution in air, water and soil.
6. Wild life in India and its conservation.
1. General survey of various types of animals behaviour.
2. Role of hormones and phermones in behaviour.
Methods of sampling, frequency distribution and measures of central tendency, standard deviation, standard
error and standard deviance, correlation and regression and Chisquare and t-test.
7. Economic Zoology
1. Parasitism, commensalism and host parasite relationship.
2. Parasitic protozoans, helminthis and insects of man and domestic animals.
3. Insect pests of wheat, paddy and sugarcane and stored products.
4. Beneficial insects.
5. Pisciculture and induced breeding (carps only).
1. Cell Biology
Structure and function of cell and cytoplasmic constituents. Structure of nucleus. Plasma membrane
mitochondria, golgibodies, endo-plasmic reticulum and ribosomes. Cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Watson-
Crick models of DNA. Replication of DNA. Genetic code. Protein synthesis. Cell differentiation.
Mendelian laws of inheritance. Recombination linkage and linkage maps. Multiple allels. Mutation (natural
and induced). Mutation and evolution. Chromosomal abberations : structural rearrangements, aneuploidy and
polyploidy. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genes and
3. Evolution and Systematics
Origin of life. History of evolutionary through Lamarck and his works, Darwin and his works, sources and
nature of organic variation. Natural selection. Hardy-Weinberg Law. Cryptic and warning colouration mimicry.
Isolating mechanisms and their role. Concept of species and subspecies, principles of classificatioin. Zoological
nomenclature. Fossils, outline of geological eras, phylogeny of horse, origin and evolution man, principles and
theories of continental distribution of animals.
Structure of carbohydrates, lipids, aminoacids, proteins, and nucleic acids, glycolysis and krebs cycle,
oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and release ATP, oxidation of fatty acids,
structure and functions of cholesterol, steroid hormones. Types of enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action,
immunoglobulin and immunity. Hormons, their classification, biosynthesis and functions. 62
Physiology with special reference to mammals. Composition of blood, blood groups in man, coagulation,
oxygen and carbondioxide transport, haemoglobin, breathing and its regulation. Nephron and urine formation, acid
base balance and osmoregulation. Mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse along axon and across synapes,
neurotransmitters. Types of muscles, ultrastructures and mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscle. Role of
salivary gland, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion, absorption of digested food, nutrition and balanced
diet of man. Mechanism of action of steriod and peptide hormones, role of hypothalamus, pituitary thyroid,
parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, testis ovary and pineal organs and their inter-relationships. Physiology of reproduction
Gametogenesis, fertilization, types of eggs, cleavage, development upto gastrulation in frog and chick. Fate
maps of frog and chick, meta-morphosis in frog. Formation and fate of extra embryonic membranes in chick.
Formation of amnion allantois and types of placenta in mammals, function of placenta in mammals; Organisers.
Regeneration . Organogenesis of central nervous system, sense organs, heart and kidney of vertebrate embryos.