Conservation on Biological Diversity
- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a legally blinding multilateral environment agreement.
- Three objectives of CBD
- Conservation of biodiversity
- Sustainable use of biodiversity
- Fair and equitable share of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
- CBD was an outcome of Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5th June 1992.
- CBD came into force on 29 December 1993.
- Secretariat: CBD secretariat, Montreal, Canada.
- under the aegis of United Environment Programme(UNEP)
- At present CBD has 194 parties and 168 signatories including India.
- Governing body: Conference of the parties (COP)
- first meetings have took place till 2012
- 2012 COP conference was held in India
- Subsidiary bodies –
- Subsidiary body for scientific Technical and Technological Advice(SBSTTA)
CBD AT national level –
- CBD provides sovereign rights over their biological resources.
- CBD recognizes the close and traditional dependence of indigenous and local communities on biological resources.
- CBD ensures that these communities share the benefits arising from the use of their traditional knowledge and conservation practices.
- CBD also aims to prevent the spread of ecologically harmful invasive species.
- United States has signed but didn’t ratify the convention
- Citing the demand technology transfer to developing countries.
Cartagena Protocol –
“Cartagena Protocol on bio safety to the Convention on Biological Diversity”
- Background –
- Protocol on bio safety is to establish rules and procedures for safe transfer, handling and use off LMOs, with specific focus on trans boundary movements.
- Cartagena is a city in Colombia where the Bio safety protocol was originally scheduled to adopt in February 1999.
- But the protocol was adopted later on 29 January 2000 in Montreal, Canada.
- Concepts –
- Living Modified Organisms (LMOs) –
Any living organism that modified combinations of genetic obtained through modern biotechnology.
LMOs are living genetically modified organisms.
- Components –
- Advance Informed Agreement procedure
- Countries exporting the LMOs should inform the importing countries the LMOs before exporting.
- Ensures that importing countries have the opportunities and capacity to assess the risks associated with LMOs before importing them.
- Bio safety clearing House(BCH) –
- To facilities the exchange of scientific, technical, environmental and legal information on LMOs
- To clear or ban the import of LMOs
- LMOs that are pharmaceuticals for humans are excluded from protocol, if they are covered by other international agreements.
Nagoya Protocol –
- It is supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
- The Nagoya Protocol will create greater legal certainly and transparency for both provides and users of genetic resources.
- Background –
- Genetic resources from plants, animals and microorganisms are increasingly valuable in the development enzymes, enhanced genes, or small molecules.
- Finding a practical way to share these benefits has been of particular concern to biodiversity-rich developing countries.
- Adoption –
- 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan
- Entered into force on 12 October 2014
- Objective: Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
- Functions –
- Establishing more predictable conditions for access to genetic resources.
- Helping to ensure benefit-sharing when genetic resources leave the country providing the genetic resources.
- Benefits –
- The protocol establishes a legally-blinding frame-work that helps researches access genetic re-sources for biotechnology research, development and other activities, in return for a fair of any benefits from their use.
- Indigenous and local communities may receive benefits through a legal framework that respects the value of traditional knowledge association with genetic resources.
- The Nagoya Protocol applies to –
- genetic resources that are covered by the CBD
- benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources
- traditional knowledge associated with genetic resources that are covered by the CBD
- benefits arising from the utilization of traditional knowledge
- The Protocol does not apply to –
- Human genetic material, or to resources that were acquired before the Protocol comes into effect.
- genetic resources covered by specialised access and benefit-sharing agreements such as
- Aichi Biodiversity Targets – Strategic goals
- Strategic Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society.
- Strategic Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use.
- Strategic Goal C: To improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity.
- Strategic Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services.
- Strategic Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building.
- Target 6: By 2022 al fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably.
- Target 7: By 2022 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
- Target 9: By 2022, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritised, priority species are controlled or eradicated.
- Target 10: By 2012, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change.
- Target 11: By 2020, at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water and 10% of coastal and marine areas are conserved.
- Target 12: By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented.
- Target 13: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed domestic animals and of relatives is maintained.
- Target 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stock have been enhanced, through conservation.
- Target 16: By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.
- Target 18: By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities and their customary use.
IUCN Category V Protected areas
- Biosphere Reserves is an area set aside for the conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the relationship between man and the environment.
- Biosphere reserves is proposed by its residents, ratified by a national committee, and designated by UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere program.
- Biosphere reserves protect larger areas of natural habitat, and often include one or more national parks/or preserves, along buffers zones that are open to limited economic activities.
- Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life.
- To contributes to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation.
- To foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable
- To provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local and global issues of conservation and development.
Zones of Biosphere Reserve –
- Core Zones –
- Strictly protected ecosystem
- Managed for minimum human interference, to serve as a baseline for the biological region
- Research, education and training activities are carefully controlled
- Traditional activities such as timber production, hunting, fishing and grazing are not permitted
- Buffer Zone –
- Managed for research, education and training activities and manipulative methods and techniques are permitted
- Limited traditional activities including timber production, hunting fishing and grazing are permitted
- Transition Zone –
- Also called as Area of Cooperation
- The large outer area of reserve where people live and work, using the natural resources of the area in a sustainable manner
- Local communities, management agencies, scientists, NGOs cultural groups and other stakeholders can work together.
MAB Programme –
- The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under the Man & Biosphere (MAB) programme by UNESCO in 1971.
- World Network of biosphere reserves of the MAB Programme fosters the harmonious integration of people and nature for sustainable development
- To date, 651 biosphere reserves in 120 countries, including 15 trans boundary sites, have been included in the World Network of biosphere reserves
- They are internationally recognized, nominated by National Governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located
- The secretarial of the MAB Programme is located with UNESCO Headquarters Paris.
- Biosphere Reserves serve in some ways as living laboratories for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and biodiversity
Biosphere Reserves in India –
- There are 18 biosphere reserves in India.
- Nine of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves
- First biosphere reserves in India to be notified was Nilgiri biosphere reserve
Modes of Conservation
- In-situ Conservation –
- Onsite conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species.
- It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat.
- In-situ conservation is being done by declaring an area as protected area.
- In-situ locations –
- Protected areas
- National parks
- Biosphere reserves
- Sacred forests
- It is also applied to conservation of agricultural biodiversity in agro forestry by farmers.
- Ex-situ conservation –
- Ex-situ also conservation is the preservation of components biodiversity in agro forestry by farmers.
- This involves conservation of genetic resources, as well as wild and cultivated or species.
- It requires a wide range of techniques and facilities
- Ex-situ locations –
- seed banks
- Captive breeding locations
- Animal translocations
- Tissue culture banks
- Botanical gardens
- Zoological gardens
- A biodiversity hotspot is a bio-geographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.
- The concept of hot spots was developed by Norman Myers in 1988 to designate priority areas for in situ conservation.
Criterion for hotspots –
- Endemism: The area should support more than 1500 endemic species of vascular plants.
- Habitat loss: It must have lost over 70% of the original habitat.
Hotspots in India –
India is represented with 4 biodiversity hotspots
- Western ghats –
- The Western Ghats are a chain of hills that run along the western edge of peninsular India over the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- These regions have moist deciduous forest and rain forest.
- There are over 6000 vascular plants belonging to over 2500 genera in these hotspots, of which over 3000 are endemic.
- Nearly 77% of the amphibians and 62% of the reptile species found here are found nowhere else.
- Much of the world’s species such as black pepper and cardamom have their origins in the Western ghats.
- The highest concentration of species in the Western Ghats is believed to be the Agasthyamalai iHiHhiHhhhhhHills in the extreme south.
- Eastern Himalayas –
- The eastern Himalayas is the region encompassing Bhutan, North Eastern India, and Southern, central, and eastern Nepal.
- There are an estimated 10,000 species of plants in the Himalayas, of which one-third are endemic
- The Eastern Himalayas hotspot has nearly 163 globally threatened species
- The only endemic genus in the hotspot is the Namadapha flying squirrel which is critically endangered.
- Major threatened species include –
- One-horned Rhinoceros
- Wild Asian Water buffalo
- Relict Dragonfly
- Himalayan Newt, the only salamander species found within Indian limits.
- Major threatened endemic bird species include –
- Himalayan quail
- Cheer pheasant
- Western tragopan
- Himalayan vulture
- White-bellied heron
- Himalayas are home to 300 species of mammals, a dozen of which are endemic.
- Indo-Burma region
- Indo-Burma region encompasses several countries from Eastern Bangladesh to Malaysia.
- It includes
- North-Eastern India south of Brahmaputra river
- Myanmar, the southern part of China’s Yamuna province, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand.
- This region is home to several primate species such as monkeys, languor and gibbons with populations numbering only in the hundreds.
- Many of the species, especially some freshwater turtle species, are endemic
- Almost 1,300 bird species exist in this region including the threatened whit-earned night-heron, the grey-crowned crocias, and the orange-necked partridge.
- It is estimated that there are about 13,500 plant species in this hotspot, with over half of them endemic. Ginger, for example, is native to this region.
- Sundaland –
Sundaland is a region in South-East Asia that covers the western part of the Indo-Malayan archipelago
- It includes Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, India and Indonesia.
- India is represented by the Nicobar Islands
- United Nations declared the islands a World Biosphere Reserve in 2013.
- The islands have a rich terrestrial and marine ecosystem that includes mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds.
- The marine biodiversity includes several species such as whales, dolphins, dugong, turtles, crocodiles, fishes, prawns, lobsters, corals and sea shells.
- Threats – over exploitation of marine resources and forests.
Critical Wildlife Habitats
Critical Wildlife Habitats are the areas of national parks and sanctuaries kept as inviolate for the purposes of wildlife conservation.
- It has been envisaged in Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers Act 2006.
- But the same act duly recognizes the traditional rights of the forest dwellers.
- Critical Wildlife Habitats are designated by central government through MoEF
Before a critical wildlife area is notified, scientific evidence has to be provided to establish that people’s presence would adversely in impact the wildlife in area.
- Prior consent of the concerned gram sabha is required to create the critical wildlife habitats.
- Consent of the Gram Sabha must be obtained before any relocation of the forest dwellers is carried out.
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora(1975)
- CITIES ensures that international trade of wild animals and plants does not threatened their survival.
- Also known as Washington convention
- CITIES was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of IUCN.
- CITIES entered into force on 1 July 1975.
- CITIES is an international agreement to which States adhere voluntarily.
- The CITIES Secretariat is administered by UNEP and is located at Geneva, Switzerland.
Trade in Wildlife –
- International wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billions of dollars.
- The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them.
- Wildlife products include –
- Food products
- Exotic leather goods.
- wooden musical instruments
- tourist curious
- High levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species for trade has led to decrease and even extinction of certain species.
- Trade in wild animals and plants crosses borders between countries, hence, the effort to regulate it requires international cooperation.
- CITIES protects more than 35,00 species of animals and plants, whether they are traded as live specimens, fur coats or dried herbs.
- CITIES controls only the international movement of the species.
CITEIS works by subjecting international trade in specimen of selected species to certain controls.
- The species covered by CITIES are listed in three Appendices, according to the degree of protection they need.
- Appendices –
- Appendix I
Includes species threatened with extinction
Trade in specimens of these species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances.
- Appendix II –
Includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction.
But includes species in which trade must be controlled in order to avoid utilization incompatible with their survival.
- Appendix III –
- Includes species that are protected in at one country, which has asked other CITIES Parties for assistance in controlling the trade.
- If a species is in danger of extinction then the treaty will impose a ban on the commercial trade of the listed species.